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Full-Text Articles in European History

'To The Dishonor Of God': Religious Roots For Puritan Morality Laws During The Interregnum, Carter D. Craig Jan 2018

'To The Dishonor Of God': Religious Roots For Puritan Morality Laws During The Interregnum, Carter D. Craig

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

During the decade of the 1650s, England had no King or Queen. Instead, an increasingly monarchical parliamentary system of government reigned. This government was controlled by Puritans, a hardline sect of Protestant Christianity. Although they were a religious minority and their laws relating to morality were unpopular, the Puritans pursued these policies with religious zeal linking seemingly innocuous activities, such as cock-fighting or a may-pole celebration with the supposed evils of Catholicism. Legal documents such as “March 1654: An Ordinance for prohibiting Cock-matches” and “June 1657: An Act for the better observation of the Lord’s Day” ban activities based ...


Jacek Kuron: An Activist Of Solidarity's Future, Brandon C. Meredith Jan 2018

Jacek Kuron: An Activist Of Solidarity's Future, Brandon C. Meredith

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

“Jacek Kuron: An Activist of Solidarity’s Future” In 1980, Solidarity became the first independent trade union in communist Poland. As an opposition movement in the 1980s, Solidarity promoted the rights of Polish citizens through working with the Polish Party-State. The work of Jacek Kuron laid the foundation for Solidarity through opposition movements in the 1960s and 1970s. Jacek Kuron started his activist career in graduate school where he released an “Open Letter to the Party” in 1964. In the letter Kuron accused party officials that they are not following a true communist agenda. Kuron’s activism later led to ...


Schießbefehl And The Issues Of Retroactivity Within The East German Border Guard Trials, Keegan Mcmurry Jan 2018

Schießbefehl And The Issues Of Retroactivity Within The East German Border Guard Trials, Keegan Mcmurry

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

From 1961 to 1989, 327 people attempting to cross the border from East Germany to West Germany were killed while making the crossing. With the opening of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and German reunification a year later, German courts began to address whether the border guards, their officers, or political leadership of the former East Germany should be tried for these deaths. If East Germany no longer existed, could West German laws be applied to these cases? This project examines this issue by examining trials that were conducted in the 1990s and the legal sources that examine this ...


God And Revolution:Religion And Power From Pre-Revolutionary France To The Napoleonic Empire, Alexa Weight Jan 2017

God And Revolution:Religion And Power From Pre-Revolutionary France To The Napoleonic Empire, Alexa Weight

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

In 1789, the advent of the French Revolution led to the shift in political power as the Catholic Church and French Monarchy ruled Pre-Revolutionary, or Ancien Regime France was replaced by a new, revolutionary government. The fall of Catholicism as the official religion of France, however, did not stop religion as an central component for political power. The creation of new religious groups and thought produced a secularized revolutionary religion, theCult of the Supreme Being,” Which increased political power by using liturgical rites and festivals to gain popularity with the French public. With Napoleon’s rise to power in ...


The White Rose’S Resistance To Nazism: The Influence Of Friedrich Nietzsche, Katilyn R. Kirkman Jan 2017

The White Rose’S Resistance To Nazism: The Influence Of Friedrich Nietzsche, Katilyn R. Kirkman

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

The White Rose was a non-violent resistance organization founded by students in Munich during the Second World War. Many scholars argue that religion influenced the group the most, but an analysis of their leaflets and correspondences highlights the influence that Friedrich Nietzsche had on the organization. Members of the White Rose, particularly Hans and Sophie Scholl, solidified their commitment to opposing Nazism by reading and discussing Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche’s ideas shaped the foundational beliefs of the White Rose, including their belief that Germans could no longer ignore the crimes of the Nazi State. From 1942 to 1943, the White ...


The Nuremberg Laws: Creating The Road To The T-4 Program, Jennifer Hight Jun 2016

The Nuremberg Laws: Creating The Road To The T-4 Program, Jennifer Hight

Honors Senior Theses/Projects

On September 15, 1935 the Nazi party announced a new series of laws codes that legally cemented the principles of Nazi ideology: The Nuremberg Laws. Written by Bernhard Loesener and Wilhelm Stuckart, the Nuremberg Laws were composed of many parts and this paper will focus on two specific sub-articles. One, the “Reich Citizenship Law” revoked the status of Jews as legal citizens and created the framework the Nazis would use to persecute by defining what it meant to be German or Jewish; later the laws were expanded by the Nazis to label minorities as non-German citizens. The “Laws of the ...


The Assertion Of English Royal Authority In The American Colonies: Sir Edmund Andros And The Domino Of New England, Benjamin Lesh May 2016

The Assertion Of English Royal Authority In The American Colonies: Sir Edmund Andros And The Domino Of New England, Benjamin Lesh

Academic Excellence Showcase Proceedings

No abstract provided.


The Nuremberg Laws And The Foundation Of Nazi Scientific Experimentation 1941-45, Jennifer Hight May 2016

The Nuremberg Laws And The Foundation Of Nazi Scientific Experimentation 1941-45, Jennifer Hight

Academic Excellence Showcase Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Giving Voice To Silent Destruction, Michelle A. Smail Jan 2016

Giving Voice To Silent Destruction, Michelle A. Smail

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

German author W. G. Sebald (1944-2001) studied how historical methodology contributed to this alienation of various groups, particularly World War II Germans, and the consequences of that alienation so that he could develop and use historical countermeasures in his own writing. Sebald’s unique approach advocated for a genre of history that moved beyond narratives of nations, eras, victims, and perpetrators to promote constructive discussions with an awareness of their relevance to the present. Sebald’s refusal to ignore any part of the past resulted in his life-long study of what he called a conspiracy of silence in Germany, regarding ...


The Violent Revolution: Nationalism And The 1989 Romanian Revolution, Allan Chet Emmons Jan 2016

The Violent Revolution: Nationalism And The 1989 Romanian Revolution, Allan Chet Emmons

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

This paper attempts to find connections between Romanian leader Nicolae Ceausescu’s brand of Nationalism and the violent government reaction to protesters in 1989. It examines how the territories of Bessarabia and Transylvania led Romania to hold negative opinions of the other members of the Warsaw Pact and the Hungarian minority within Romania. In addition, it examines the distrust that cropped up between Romania and the other members of the Warsaw Pact following the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia. A mixture of distrust of minorities and the other members of the Warsaw Pact led to the violent government reaction to the ...


The Nuremberg Laws: Creating The Road To The T-4 Program, Jennifer V. Hight Jan 2016

The Nuremberg Laws: Creating The Road To The T-4 Program, Jennifer V. Hight

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

On September 15, 1935 the Nazi party announced a new series of laws codes that legally cemented the principles of Nazi ideology: The Nuremberg Laws. The Nuremberg Laws were composed of three parts. One, the “Reich Citizenship Law” revoked the status of Jews as legal citizens and created the framework the Nazis would use to persecute by defining what it meant to be German or Jewish; later the laws were expanded by the Nazis to label minorities as non-German citizens. The “Laws of the Protection of Hereditary Health” stated that anyone the Nazis deemed as carrying inheritable diseases would be ...


The Assertion Of English Royal Authority In The American Colonies And Royal Revenue: 1651-1701, Benjamin Lesh Jan 2016

The Assertion Of English Royal Authority In The American Colonies And Royal Revenue: 1651-1701, Benjamin Lesh

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

English royal colonial policy began to take shape after the end of the English Civil War and the Interregnum in 1660. The English crown implemented a series of policies aimed at centralizing monarchical rule over the American colonies in order to utilize potential revenue sources from the colonies. Parliament was unwilling to grant the king new taxes, so the monarchy needed to find new sources of revenue to utilize. This research analyzes English trade legislation and English colonial policies as they pertain to the generation of royal revenues and the direct administration of the American colonies.


Reforming 'The Sacred': Standardization Of Church Space In Laudian England (1633-1641), Ashley Fierstadt Jan 2016

Reforming 'The Sacred': Standardization Of Church Space In Laudian England (1633-1641), Ashley Fierstadt

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

The break from the Catholic Church and the formation of the Anglican Church of England in 1547 resulted in a tumultuous eighty-year period of redefining church doctrine. In the 1620s, the Church of England recognized that it still lacked cohesion and sound doctrine; thus, King Charles I (r. 1625-1649) and Archbishop William Laud (1633-1641) sought to bring the diverse ideas and sects of Christianity together under one unified church. Other historians have touched upon the concept of sacred space in England during this period; I argue that debates of sacred space are embedded in these attempts at unifying the Anglican ...


The Irish Theology: Formation Of Celtic Christianity In Ireland (5th To 9th Century), Emma M. Foster Jan 2016

The Irish Theology: Formation Of Celtic Christianity In Ireland (5th To 9th Century), Emma M. Foster

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

The conversion process of Ireland resulted in a culture that reflected both its pagan, Celtic roots and the new Christian ontology. From the fifth to ninth century, Ireland’s learned elite began to be converted to Christianity and created the early monastic settlements that shaped how Christianity was introduced. The interactions between the early Irish monastic founders and the pre-Christian Irish influenced the ways in which early monasteries were established and why Christianity was introduced the way it was. By establishing the Christian faith on the basis of Irish learning, the early church worked with the learned men to establish ...


Eugenics And Racial Hygiene: The Connections Between The United States And Germany, Nicholas Baker Jan 2016

Eugenics And Racial Hygiene: The Connections Between The United States And Germany, Nicholas Baker

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

During the 1910s-1930s eugenics movement, communications zipped between the German and American eugenicists; this movement was directed towards better breeding in human beings to weed out the unfit who were supposedly plaguing society. Most research has predominantly focused on the eugenics movements within individual countries and not the interplay between them. Through letters, pamphlets, propaganda, and research conducted by eugenics organizations, my research explores the contact between movements and focuses on the exchange itself. A pamphlet produced by the Human Betterment Foundation entitled best illustrates the exchange of ideas. It was created in 1934, and argued in favor of the ...


Manipulating The Medieval Past: Convivencia And The Politics Of Religious Identity, Gregory Baker Jan 2015

Manipulating The Medieval Past: Convivencia And The Politics Of Religious Identity, Gregory Baker

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

This paper examines the idea of la convivenica - a historiographical term which refers to the complex relationships between Christian, Jewish and Muslim communities coexisting in the medieval Iberian Peninsula - and explores its popularity as a historical narrative in the recent past compared to previous narratives of Spanish history. Analyzing its relevance to various political agendas both past and present, this paper argues that questions of religious tolerance and identity that lie at the heart of la convivenica have been manipulated since the medieval period itself to suit various political interests throughout history.


Tricolor And The Union Jack At Sea: How The French Revolution Decapitated Napoleon's Navy And Thereby Ruined His Ambitions, Dominic Annen Jan 2015

Tricolor And The Union Jack At Sea: How The French Revolution Decapitated Napoleon's Navy And Thereby Ruined His Ambitions, Dominic Annen

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

An examination of the failures of Napoleon's Navy. Using primary and secondary examination, this paper answers the question of why Napoleon's Navy was such a spectacular failure during the Napoleonic Wars. The paper contends that the French Revolution destroyed the experienced admiralty and thereby doomed the French Navy to failure.


French Vs France: Vichy Government Attempts To Save The Empire, Jennifer R. Roberts Jan 2015

French Vs France: Vichy Government Attempts To Save The Empire, Jennifer R. Roberts

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

The French State, Vichy France, had a large impact on global politics during and after its inception and fall from power. The impact this World War II government would have on decolonization is discussed with a focus on Indochina, and French North Africa. Analyzing Vichy policies both in continental France and in the colonies, the focus on nationalism, patriotism, and 'return to a better times' sentiment drove a wedge between the 'French' people creating a epidemic of decolonization around the world.


Pulling The Strings: The Influential Power Of Women In Viking Age Iceland, Kendall M. Holcomb Jan 2015

Pulling The Strings: The Influential Power Of Women In Viking Age Iceland, Kendall M. Holcomb

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

Icelandic women during the Viking Age managed households, raised their children, tended to the animals, and wove the cloth, along with a host of other duties overlooked by their male counterparts. These women were the unacknowledged strength within their societies. Through an examination of the culture that surrounded female Vikings in pre-Christian Iceland, historians present a more thorough understanding of the roles that these women played. This is especially evident in the study of female influences employed within pre-Christian Icelandic society. The women of Viking Age Iceland exercised power through their management of household and familial interactions, maintaining influence within ...


Silencing Lord Haw-Haw: An Analysis Of British Public Reaction To The Broadcasts, Conviction And Execution Of Nazi Propagandist William Joyce, Matthew Rock Cahill Jan 2015

Silencing Lord Haw-Haw: An Analysis Of British Public Reaction To The Broadcasts, Conviction And Execution Of Nazi Propagandist William Joyce, Matthew Rock Cahill

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

This paper focuses primarily on British public reaction to the Nazi radio propaganda broadcasts of William Joyce during World War II. More popularly known as Lord Haw-Haw, Joyce, an American-born British Fascist, raised in Ireland and England who came to embrace Nazism, moved to Germany in 1939 where he was employed as the English voice of Hitler’s vision.

Utilizing archival materials gathered from dozens of newspapers of the period and historiographical contributions from authorities on the subject, this study follows British public reaction to Joyce from his earliest broadcasts to his eventual capture, trial and execution by hanging in ...


Napoleon: The Warrior Unmasked, Drew A. Larson Jan 2014

Napoleon: The Warrior Unmasked, Drew A. Larson

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

United States expansion, Latin American independence, and the legal equality of Frenchmen, in some degree are all attributed to Napoleon Bonaparte. Contrary to popular belief Napoleon did more than just conquer much of Europe; he left a lasting impression on the world beyond his military prowess. Napoleon will not be examined as a warrior, but rather this thesis will deal with Napoleon as a man who changed the world. This thesis attempts to debunk the widely held notion of Napoleon as solely a military leader, or a simple emperor. It brings to light Napoleon’s involvement in France, and upon ...


The Lion Looks West: Change In The Welsh Marches During The Last Half Of The Eleventh Century, David M. Price Jan 2014

The Lion Looks West: Change In The Welsh Marches During The Last Half Of The Eleventh Century, David M. Price

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

The change with the coming of the Normans to the Welsh Marches was not as encompassing as scholarship indicates, based on primary source analysis. Castles and leadership in the Welsh Marches did indeed change, yet the economy continued to be fluid and semblances of nationalism scholars attribute to the last half of the eleventh century have been distorted. While a glimpse of the countryside and a history book will shout the word "CASTLES", there is more to the Norman arrival, to the people who lived in the region of the Welsh Marches, and to the Welsh, than simply the construction ...


Prostitution And The Contagious Diseases Acts In 19th Century British Colonies, Katria Hiersche Jan 2014

Prostitution And The Contagious Diseases Acts In 19th Century British Colonies, Katria Hiersche

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

The Contagious Diseases Act allowed the British government to arrest anyone who was thought to be a prostitute and perform unauthorized, and oftentimes non consensual, medical tests on them. Despite the confidence the British government felt while backing up the Act, there has been plenty of evidence to show that the spread of disease actually increased while the Act was in place, and declined sharply after the repeal in the late 19th Century. Many different organizations were created to put a stop to the unfair treatment against women, such as the Woman’s Club and the protests put on by ...


Leading Ladies: A Study Of Queenship And Identity Through Conquest, Rose Thormahlen Jan 2014

Leading Ladies: A Study Of Queenship And Identity Through Conquest, Rose Thormahlen

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

The study of medieval women is often viewed with a qualitative purpose. Scholars seek to define the medieval woman as either empowered or oppressed, and within the medieval timeframe, as either more or less so than their predecessors. The year 1066 is seen as a turning point by many for the female narrative; it was the year of the Norman Conquest, which brought with it new schools of thought and manners of life. Rather than attempting to qualify the lives of women as either good or back, the question of medieval women can be approached by asking how they were ...


Nazi Propaganda: The Theme Of Work And Workers In The Pre-Power And Post-Power Years, Stephen H. Kingsborough Jan 2013

Nazi Propaganda: The Theme Of Work And Workers In The Pre-Power And Post-Power Years, Stephen H. Kingsborough

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

The Nazi Party in Germany used propaganda in order to secure support both locally and internationally. This paper focuses on their posters and the theme of work and workers in these posters. Comparing the time periods before the seizure of power in 1933 and after the seizure of power, but before the beginning of the war in 1939.


Michelin: The Phoenix Of French Modernity In The Twentieth Century, Zachary R. Hammond Jan 2013

Michelin: The Phoenix Of French Modernity In The Twentieth Century, Zachary R. Hammond

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

This article looks at the cultural and economical effects of the Michelin Tire Company during the twentieth century. It analyzes the role that Michelin played in reinventing Frances culture as a center for sophistication and modernization. This paper looks at the aspects of modernity in colonialism and French nationality as well as the Michelin Tire Company's fight to rejuvenate the nation's cultural notions of travel and leisure. From their humble french beginnings to their international corporation this thesis shows the Michelin Tire Company's role in modernizing France to its new founded glory.


Queenship: A Study Of What It Was To Be A Queen In Europe During The 11th-16th Centuries, Alyssa Penn Jan 2013

Queenship: A Study Of What It Was To Be A Queen In Europe During The 11th-16th Centuries, Alyssa Penn

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

This paper examines the role of queenship in the medieval and Early Modern era, and attempts to prove that women could rule without the aid of a man.


Insatiable Shipyards: The Impact Of The Royal Navy On The World's Forests, 1200-1850, Patrick Melby Jun 2012

Insatiable Shipyards: The Impact Of The Royal Navy On The World's Forests, 1200-1850, Patrick Melby

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

No abstract provided.


The Negotiation Between Ethnicity And Language In German-Immigrant Hip-Hop, Brittney Teal-Cribbs Jan 2012

The Negotiation Between Ethnicity And Language In German-Immigrant Hip-Hop, Brittney Teal-Cribbs

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

Throughout Europe, hybrid youth cultures continue to form and morph as global migration creates minority enclaves in urban areas. Music plays a large part in the transformation of this culture for Germany's large Turkish population. Participation by both sides in the German hip-hop scene has created a type of transculturation in which aspects of both cultures are preserved. Hip-hop was first transformed in Germany by white artists whose lyrics more closely resembled traditional soft rock. Today, the immigrant populations have appropriated this uniquely German form of hip-hop to discuss deeper issues of race, poverty and violence that transcend racial ...


The Harem: Looking Behind The Veil, Diane M. Huddleston Jan 2012

The Harem: Looking Behind The Veil, Diane M. Huddleston

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

European travel writing about Middle Eastern countries became a popular genre in the 1700s and into the early 1900s. When European male writers were not permitted access into the part of Eastern households known as harems, they became suspicious and wrote sexualized descriptions of harems in their travelogues, based on Western hegemonic views and male fantasy. These claims refuted by European women who were permitted into the harems and wrote their own, more accurate observations. Their writings evolved into harem literature and became a women-dominated genre. However, while dispelling the male sexualized fantasy of harems, the women’s writings had ...