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Articles 1 - 30 of 113

Full-Text Articles in European History

Pirates, Merchants, And A Small Battle On The Island Of Kythira In The Later Middle Ages, David D. Terry Aug 2019

Pirates, Merchants, And A Small Battle On The Island Of Kythira In The Later Middle Ages, David D. Terry

The Hilltop Review

Merchants in the later medieval Mediterranean crossed boundaries both geographical and moral. In November 1327 two Mallorcan investors complained to the king’s court that their ship, which they had sent to the eastern Mediterranean laden with tradable goods, had been ransacked by the violent natives of Kythera, an Aegean island at that time ruled by Venice. The Venetians, always conscious of maintaining good trade relations, sent representatives to the island and conducted a full investigation. After interviewing the islanders, the duke of the island sent his conclusions back to Venice: the Catalan “merchants” had come ashore on the island ...


Royalist Propaganda: Fabrication Of Magna Farta, Daniel R. Palthe Aug 2019

Royalist Propaganda: Fabrication Of Magna Farta, Daniel R. Palthe

The Hilltop Review

This paper examines the perception and usage of Magna Carta in interregnum England. The central question is whether or not Oliver Cromwell ever referred to this royal document as the "Magna Farta." While one of the most common posthumous charges against him was a disdain for Magna Carta and English rights, accounts of his calling it a "Magna Farta" are questionable. The ways in which the Magna Carta was actually used under Cromwell rather seems to indicate a different opinion. Essentially, this paper compares royalist propaganda with the Commonwealth's accounts.


A Kingdom Of Co-Inherence: Christian Theology And The Laws Of King Magnus The Lawmender Of Norway, 1261-1281, Dillon Richard Frank Knackstedt Aug 2019

A Kingdom Of Co-Inherence: Christian Theology And The Laws Of King Magnus The Lawmender Of Norway, 1261-1281, Dillon Richard Frank Knackstedt

Master's Theses

This thesis explains a new interpretation of the law books written during the reign of King Magnus the Lawmender of Norway (1239-1280, crowned 1261, r.1263-1280). In the process it also teases out common themes in Norway’s early histories, Iceland’s early laws, and biblical exegesis and re-writes much of what is assumed about “church” and “state” in this era, beginning at Magnus’ coronation and ending with the fraught year following his death, 1281.

According to the new interpretation explored in these four chapters, the laws of Magnus the Lawmender were not an attempt at royal legitimization of the ...


Book Review Of King & Etty's England And Scotland, 1286-1603, Austin M. Setter Jan 2019

Book Review Of King & Etty's England And Scotland, 1286-1603, Austin M. Setter

The Hilltop Review

This review addresses the strengths and weaknesses of Andy King and Claire Etty's 2016 book England and Scotland, 1286-1603.


Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2018 Annual Report, Michael S. Nassaney Jan 2019

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2018 Annual Report, Michael S. Nassaney

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Western Michigan University (WMU) hosted its 43rd annual archaeological field school this past July and August under the auspices of the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project. The Project is a long-term, multidisciplinary, community-based partnership between the City of Niles and WMU that investigates and interprets colonialism and the fur trade in the region.

We selected the theme “Technology Then and Now,” to focus our activities in 2019. We recognize that technology is not only important in the 21st century, but has defined humanity since our earliest ancestors crafted simple tools to assist them in their survival. Most of the archaeological ...


Curation, Erika K. Hartley, Miro Dunham Jan 2019

Curation, Erika K. Hartley, Miro Dunham

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Table of Contents

  • Preserving the Past for the Future
  • Common Curation Challenges
  • Fort St. Joseph Collection
  • Did You Know?
  • Collection Challenges
  • Fort St. Joseph Curatorial Fellowship
  • How You Can Help


The Dark And Middle Ages, Edward Jayne Dec 2018

The Dark And Middle Ages, Edward Jayne

English Faculty Publications

For the most part only Plato's teachings supported by a limited version of Aristotelian cosmology supportive of Platonism survived the decline of ancient Greek philosophy during the Roman Empire. Christianity later prevailed, and toward the end of the Middle Ages Aristotle’s secular perspective was only taken into account by Arab philosophers such as Averroes and Avicenna. After the collapse of Arab civilization during the twelfth century, the secular concept of a double truth between belief and reason put philosophy on equal footing with religion in such universities as Cordoba and the University of Paris. After a large assortment ...


Students And Digital Projects At Wmu: Working And Learning Together, Marianne Swierenga Jun 2018

Students And Digital Projects At Wmu: Working And Learning Together, Marianne Swierenga

University Libraries Faculty & Staff Presentations

Western Michigan University Libraries uses undergraduate and graduate students in many stages of their digital projects, from finding aid creation and translation, to scanning and editing digital images. Using the recent digitization and description of a WWI German soldier’s scrapbook, we will examine how students are incorporated into the overall workflow, often bringing needed skills to the project and gaining valuable hands-on experience with archival materials, scanning equipment and software, and metadata creation.


Stifling The Subversive Swing: An Austrian Perspective On The Nazi Jazz Ban, Colin J. Rensch Apr 2018

Stifling The Subversive Swing: An Austrian Perspective On The Nazi Jazz Ban, Colin J. Rensch

Master's Theses

This research investigates the rationale behind the Nazis’ suppression of jazz music during the Second World War. Existing scholarship explains the circumstances surrounding this suppression, but it does not explore why the Nazis did not completely eradicate jazz. The goal of this research is to reveal which aspects of jazz the Nazis particularly disdained and why they allowed this music to continue while they so vehemently suppressed other forms of art that they deemed undesirable.

In order for the arguments to be viewed in their proper context, the thesis first discusses the rise of jazz in Austria and the Austrian ...


Technology Then And Now 2: Glass Beads, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2018

Technology Then And Now 2: Glass Beads, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

People at Fort St. Joseph used glass beads to embellish their appearance in the eighteenth century.

Technology Then and Now was developed by the students (Nicole Aquino, John Campbell, Patrick Dwyer, Abby Floyd, Jacob Kowalczyk, Allie Lewis, Amanda Owens, Brendan Sapato, and Callisto Wojcikowski) in the Museum Studies class (HIST 4080) at Western Michigan University under the direction of Professor Michael Nassaney. The research, contents, and design of the exhibit were made possible through the support and assistance of Christina Arseneau, David Brose, Mary Ellen Drolet, Joe Hines, Larry Horrigan, Cori Ivens, Erika Loveland, Meghan Williams and Michael Worline.

Full ...


Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2017 Annual Report, Michael Nassaney Jan 2018

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2017 Annual Report, Michael Nassaney

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

In 2017, the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project (hereafter the "Project") continued its focus on discovering and sharing the history of Fort St. Joseph while emphasizing the importance of community partnerships. This was a logical theme for 2017 since the Project has long been a collaboration between Western Michigan University (WMU) faculty and students, the City of Niles, the Fort St. Joseph Archaeology Advisory Committee (see Appendix A), interested stakeholders, supporters, members, and community volunteers in the greater Niles area. In addition, the Project has embraced a community service-learning model to guide our field, laboratory, and outreach activities. Students learn ...


Technology Then And Now 4: Hide Processing In The Fur Trade, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2018

Technology Then And Now 4: Hide Processing In The Fur Trade, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Native Americans were the primary procedures of hides in the fur trade.

Technology Then and Now was developed by the students (Nicole Aquino, John Campbell, Patrick Dwyer, Abby Floyd, Jacob Kowalczyk, Allie Lewis, Amanda Owens, Brendan Sapato, and Callisto Wojcikowski) in the Museum Studies class (HIST 4080) at Western Michigan University under the direction of Professor Michael Nassaney. The research, contents, and design of the exhibit were made possible through the support and assistance of Christina Arseneau, David Brose, Mary Ellen Drolet, Joe Hines, Larry Horrigan, Cori Ivens, Erika Loveland, Meghan Williams and Michael Worline.

Full size panel available as ...


Technology Then And Now 3: Building A House In New France, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2018

Technology Then And Now 3: Building A House In New France, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph buildings were constructed using Old World techniques and local and imported raw materials.

Technology Then and Now was developed by the students (Nicole Aquino, John Campbell, Patrick Dwyer, Abby Floyd, Jacob Kowalczyk, Allie Lewis, Amanda Owens, Brendan Sapato, and Callisto Wojcikowski) in the Museum Studies class (HIST 4080) at Western Michigan University under the direction of Professor Michael Nassaney. The research, contents, and design of the exhibit were made possible through the support and assistance of Christina Arseneau, David Brose, Mary Ellen Drolet, Joe Hines, Larry Horrigan, Cori Ivens, Erika Loveland, Meghan Williams and Michael Worline.

Full ...


Technology Then And Now 6: Flintlock Muskets, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2018

Technology Then And Now 6: Flintlock Muskets, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Flintlocks were imported from Europe and widely distributed in New France for hunting and warfare.

Technology Then and Now was developed by the students (Nicole Aquino, John Campbell, Patrick Dwyer, Abby Floyd, Jacob Kowalczyk, Allie Lewis, Amanda Owens, Brendan Sapato, and Callisto Wojcikowski) in the Museum Studies class (HIST 4080) at Western Michigan University under the direction of Professor Michael Nassaney. The research, contents, and design of the exhibit were made possible through the support and assistance of Christina Arseneau, David Brose, Mary Ellen Drolet, Joe Hines, Larry Horrigan, Cori Ivens, Erika Loveland, Meghan Williams and Michael Worline.

Full size ...


Technology Then And Now 5: Birch Bark Canoes, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2018

Technology Then And Now 5: Birch Bark Canoes, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Birch bark canoes were a technologically-sophisticated means to travel and transport goods during the fur trade.

Technology Then and Now was developed by the students (Nicole Aquino, John Campbell, Patrick Dwyer, Abby Floyd, Jacob Kowalczyk, Allie Lewis, Amanda Owens, Brendan Sapato, and Callisto Wojcikowski) in the Museum Studies class (HIST 4080) at Western Michigan University under the direction of Professor Michael Nassaney. The research, contents, and design of the exhibit were made possible through the support and assistance of Christina Arseneau, David Brose, Mary Ellen Drolet, Joe Hines, Larry Horrigan, Cori Ivens, Erika Loveland, Meghan Williams and Michael Worline.

Full ...


Technology Then And Now 1: Technology Then And Now, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2018

Technology Then And Now 1: Technology Then And Now, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Archaeologists employ technology to learn how goods were made and used at Fort St. Joseph in the eighteenth century.

Technology Then and Now was developed by the students (Nicole Aquino, John Campbell, Patrick Dwyer, Abby Floyd, Jacob Kowalczyk, Allie Lewis, Amanda Owens, Brendan Sapato, and Callisto Wojcikowski) in the Museum Studies class (HIST 4080) at Western Michigan University under the direction of Professor Michael Nassaney. The research, contents, and design of the exhibit were made possible through the support and assistance of Christina Arseneau, David Brose, Mary Ellen Drolet, Joe Hines, Larry Horrigan, Cori Ivens, Erika Loveland, Meghan Williams and ...


Life Among Good Women: The Social And Religious Impact Of The Cathar Perfectae In The Thirteenth-Century Lauragais, Derek Robert Benson Dec 2017

Life Among Good Women: The Social And Religious Impact Of The Cathar Perfectae In The Thirteenth-Century Lauragais, Derek Robert Benson

Master's Theses

This Master’s Thesis builds on the work of previous historians, such as Anne Brenon and John Arnold. It is primarily a study of gendered aspects in the Cathar heresy. Using inquisitorial registers from the mid-thirteenth century to the early-fourteenth, as well as a few poetic and prose sources, it seeks to understand how the Cathar “Good Women” were perceived by their lay believers. The methodology of prosopography is utilized throughout to measure witness testimonies against one another and to compare the connections between the Cathar constituency and the female ministers.

Two main inquiries are investigated: the sacerdotal and pastoral ...


A Necessary Evil?, Jessica Wetzel Nov 2017

A Necessary Evil?, Jessica Wetzel

Honors Theses

In this essay, I set out to prove that some of the medical experiments undertaken by Nazi doctors during World War II have scientific relevance in today’s scientific community. In the first section, the experiments connected with Dr. Karl Brandt will be examined in some detail allowing the reader to develop a basic knowledge of the experiments that will be discussed. This will also set the foundation for the discussion on scientific validity due to the nature in which they are described. In the second section, the results relevant to today’s scientific community will be discussed, proving that ...


Liturgical Processions In The Black Death, Eric A. Gobel Jun 2017

Liturgical Processions In The Black Death, Eric A. Gobel

The Hilltop Review

The popularity of the flagellant movement in the German speaking lands during the Black Death is due to a number of factors. Flagellation may seem like a nonsensical reaction to despair from a modern perspective, but for medieval people, the itinerant processional penitent pilgrims represented more than a bloody, painful spectacle. Rather, it was a rational and emotion reaction to their troubles. The success of the flagellants lays, not in the grotesquerie of their performances, but instead in their ability to provide people with familiar, engaging ways to perform and observe penance while also departing from ecclesiastical norms that had ...


Legal Encounters On The Medieval Globe, Elizabeth Lambourn Apr 2017

Legal Encounters On The Medieval Globe, Elizabeth Lambourn

The Medieval Globe Books

Law has been a primary locus and vehicle of contact across human history—as a system of ideas embodied in people and enacted on bodies; and also as a material, textual, and sensory "thing." The seven essays gathered here analyze a variety of legal encounters on the medieval globe, ranging from South Asia to South and Central America, Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Contributors uncover the people behind and within legal systems and explore various material expressions of law that reveal the complexity and intensity of cross-cultural contact in this pivotal era. Topics include comparative jurisprudence, sumptuary law, varieties ...


Partnerships 6: Partnering With The Pokagan Band Of Potawatomi, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2017

Partnerships 6: Partnering With The Pokagan Band Of Potawatomi, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Western Michigan University anthropology students and citizens of the Pokagon Band have begun to identify areas of shared interest that can be pursued in building a relationship to create more inclusive histories in the St. Joseph River valley


Partnerships 5: Living History Partnerships At Fort St. Joseph, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2017

Partnerships 5: Living History Partnerships At Fort St. Joseph, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

The living history community is a bridge between scholars and the public. Re-enactors and craftsmen bring history to life for the public through events sponsored by the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project , demonstrating 18th-century lifeways and animating archaeological discoveries.


Partnerships 4: Anthropology And Education In The Niles Community, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2017

Partnerships 4: Anthropology And Education In The Niles Community, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Western Michigan University (WMU) anthropology students have begun working with the Niles school system to identify potential opportunities for collaboration with the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project.


Partnerships 3: Building Bridges Between The St.Joseph River And Local Archaeology, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2017

Partnerships 3: Building Bridges Between The St.Joseph River And Local Archaeology, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project (hereafter "the Project") has an ally among naturalists (experts and/or students of natural history) and recreational users of the St. Joseph River (fishermen, kayakers, and canoers).


Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2016 Annual Report, Michael Nassaney Dec 2016

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2016 Annual Report, Michael Nassaney

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

This year the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project continued to build upon its foundations and develop new research, teaching, and public outreach activities directed towards the study of the fur trade and colonialism in southwest Michigan. The Project is a collaboration between Western Michigan University (WMU) faculty and students, the City of Niles, the Fort St. Joseph Archaeology Advisory Commission (FSJAAC), interested stakeholders, supporters, members, and community volunteers in the greater Niles community.


Nightmare In The City Of Dreams: Civic Consciousness And Industrialization In Imperial Vienna, 1848-1881, J. Alexander Killion Dec 2016

Nightmare In The City Of Dreams: Civic Consciousness And Industrialization In Imperial Vienna, 1848-1881, J. Alexander Killion

Master's Theses

Since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, a distinct trend toward urbanization has continually reshaped history and society, yet the development and evolution of urban spaces has been largely overlooked by scholars until recent decades. This is especially true for the cities of the Habsburg Empire, although Vienna provides a good case study of industrialization’s impact on the urban landscape due to its history of rapid population growth, extensive environmental change, and established administrative structures. Although the logistical challenges associated with urban administration, such as importing adequate food, accessing clean water, and disposing of waste in a prompt manner ...


Fort St. Joseph Post - Spring 2016, Michael S. Nassaney Apr 2016

Fort St. Joseph Post - Spring 2016, Michael S. Nassaney

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

We hope you enjoy this issue of the Fort St. Joseph Post, filled with information about current activities that are being conducted under the auspices of the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project, a partnership between the City of Niles and Western Michigan University. As you can see, students, staff, faculty, and volunteers are busy investigating, interpreting, and promoting the archaeology of Fort St. Joseph, one of the most important French colonial sites in the western Great Lakes region. We are regularly present at professional conferences, community events, and other venues sharing information about the fort and inviting the public to ...


5: Project History, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2016

5: Project History, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Investigations at the long lost fort were begun in 1998 by WMU archaeologists.


2: Fort History, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2016

2: Fort History, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

The French established Fort St. Joseph in the 1691 in present day Niles.


8: Religious Life At Fort St. Joseph, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project Jan 2016

8: Religious Life At Fort St. Joseph, Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Written documents indicate that the Jesuit priests settled among neighboring Native American groups and were successful at creating some converts at the St. Joseph mission.