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Full-Text Articles in European History

Strict Restraints: Abstinence's Gender Problems In Measure For Measure, Joseph Makuc Apr 2019

Strict Restraints: Abstinence's Gender Problems In Measure For Measure, Joseph Makuc

History Honors Papers

Shakespeare’s Measure for Measure poses questions about sexual coercion and governmental corruption that resonate today. Recent scholarship has examined sexual abstinence in Measure for Measure in terms of its historical economic and religious context regarding Isabella. However, Angelo and the Duke, the play's other central characters, also make claims about the value of abstinence. I put these characters’ claims into dialogue with Judith Butler’s theory of gender performativity and extensive scholarship on Shakespearean England. I argue that abstinence is the axis around which Measure’s main characters revolve, and that Measure locates these characters’ abstinences as competing ...


Communism, Post-Communism, Sport, And Patriotism In 1980s-1990s Hungary, Sarah Johns, Morgana Olbrich Apr 2019

Communism, Post-Communism, Sport, And Patriotism In 1980s-1990s Hungary, Sarah Johns, Morgana Olbrich

Cold War Lives

We will argue that Communism left long lasting effects on the ways in which patriotism was perceived and executed through labor. Specifically we will look into the ways in which laborers, namely athletes, both intentionally and unintentionally used their work to gain privileges.


Complete Bosoms, Incomplete Men: Reading Abstinence In Measure For Measure, Joseph Makuc Jul 2018

Complete Bosoms, Incomplete Men: Reading Abstinence In Measure For Measure, Joseph Makuc

English Summer Fellows

Measure for Measure has often been called one of Shakespeare’s problem plays, and as recent productions show, Measure’s problems — including sexual coercion and governmental corruption — resonate with readers and audiences today. Recent scholarship has examined sexual abstinence in Measure for Measure in terms of its historical economic and religious context, arguing that protagonist Isabella represents a radical break from merchant economics by opting out of the sexual economy. However, Angelo and the Duke, the play's other central characters, also make claims about the values of abstinence, and those claims are at odds with Isabella's claims. My ...


'Not Cruelty But Piety': Circumscribing European Crusading Violence, Susanna A. Throop Jan 2018

'Not Cruelty But Piety': Circumscribing European Crusading Violence, Susanna A. Throop

History Faculty Publications

Was there such a thing as “crusading violence”? Traditionally the crusading movement has been sharply distinguished from other forms of Christian violence motivated, or at least justified, by religion. However, we have increasingly come to recognize the difficulties of drawing clear-cut boundaries between crusading and other aspects of western European culture in the Middle Ages. This chapter assesses the ways in which crusader violence was like and unlike other forms of medieval Christian violence.


Bosnia: Doomed To Failure Or A Rising Hope?, Caitlin V. Moore Apr 2016

Bosnia: Doomed To Failure Or A Rising Hope?, Caitlin V. Moore

Politics Honors Papers

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country that suffers from a lack of a national identity as it has three main ethnic groups, Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs, who are all fighting for power. After the Bosnian war, which lasted from 1992-1995 and involved genocide that was committed against the Bosniaks, the ethnic divisions were further entrenched. These divisions were not helped by the provisions of the Dayton Peace Accords, which was the peace settlement that brought an end to the war. Dayton created an ethnocracy within Bosnia that places more importance on ethnic groups than national identity. In order to see ...


Mirrored Images: The Passion And The First Crusade In A Fourteenth-Century Parisian Illuminated Manuscript (Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale De France, Ms Fr. 352), Susanna A. Throop Mar 2015

Mirrored Images: The Passion And The First Crusade In A Fourteenth-Century Parisian Illuminated Manuscript (Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale De France, Ms Fr. 352), Susanna A. Throop

History Faculty Publications

This lavish mid-fourteenth-century Parisian illuminated manuscript (Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS fr. 352) combines a description of the Holy Land with an abridged version of the history and continuations of William of Tyre in Old French known as the Eracles. It is both visually familiar to scholars and under-studied. Several of its Gothic panel miniatures, especially folio 62r, the conquest of Jerusalem, have been published more than once, yet the manuscript's illumination programme as a whole has not been assessed since Jaroslav Folda's 1968 doctoral dissertation. Analysis of folio 62r in the context of both the full ...


Taking Liberties, Matt Kozusko Jun 2006

Taking Liberties, Matt Kozusko

English Faculty Publications

The 'place' scholars have assigned to the stage in early modern London is as much a reflection of the procedures of contemporary literary criticism as a reflection of the cultural function of popular drama in the early modern period. Modern critics are often not engaged in re-examining available data, preferring instead to rest on a conjectural paradigm or heuristic that has hardened, over the past couple of decades, into a New Historicist version of 'fact'. Critics have collapsed boundaries and important distinctions in London jurisdiction and geography in the interest of a unified critical narrative that characterizes the theatre as ...


Vengeance And The Crusades, Susanna A. Throop Jun 2006

Vengeance And The Crusades, Susanna A. Throop

History Faculty Publications

This article demonstrates that the popularity of the idea of crusading as vengeance was not limited to the laity, and, instead of fading away after 1099, the ideology grew more widespread as the twelfth century progressed. The primary aim here is to present the evidence alongside preliminary analysis, reserving further, more detailed interpretation for future publications.


Report From Dr. Schweizer On A Trip To Norway And Denmark, May 15, 1944, Bruno Schweizer May 1944

Report From Dr. Schweizer On A Trip To Norway And Denmark, May 15, 1944, Bruno Schweizer

Norwegian Projects

Schweizer describes the results of a trip to Scandinavia designed to investigate opportunities for collaboration with Scandinavian scholars and set goals for language and dialect research, with particular focus on the development of Scandinavian and Germanic language atlasses. The report describes several opportunities for collaboration and names of potential resources, but describes a fraught political situation where collaboration must be conducted privately for fear of backlash for the Scandinavian scholars involved.


Letter From Heinrich Harmjanz To Wolfram Sievers, February 10, 1944, Heinrich Harmjanz Feb 1944

Letter From Heinrich Harmjanz To Wolfram Sievers, February 10, 1944, Heinrich Harmjanz

Atlas of German Folklore

Heinrich Harmjanz writes to Wolfram Sievers in 1944 to thank him for his holiday wishes and for thinking of him. Now in the military, he discusses former colleagues, whether or not to continue the Ahnenerbe folk studies journal, the protection of the Atlas of German Folklore materials during the war, and complexities of publishing.


Report From Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Ss-Sturmbannführer Noot Of The Sd, October 30, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Report From Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Ss-Sturmbannführer Noot Of The Sd, October 30, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Schwalm summarizes a meeting with SS-Sturmbannführer Noot in which Noot promised that relevant SD documents would be made available to Schwalm in the areas of Germanic culture and scientific research. The situation in Norway was discussed, including political tension following the death of Minister Lunde. Skepticism was noted concerning the success of German research endeavors in Norway, partly attributed to political uncertainty and partly to "weary" Norwegian blood. It was noted however that the work was important and should be attempted nonetheless as even a negative result was significant for making decisions about the reconstruction of Europe.


Report From Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Ss-Obersturmführer Dr. Vollberg, October 25, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Report From Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Ss-Obersturmführer Dr. Vollberg, October 25, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Hans Schwalm reports on a meeting with SS-Obersturmführer Dr. Vollberg of the SD on October 23, 1942. The meeting focuses on the anti-German sentiment of the Norwegian science community. It is noted that the University of Oslo had been rejecting members of Nasjonal Samling and German patience was wearing thin. They additionally discussed individual scientists with anti-German sentiments, including Anton Wilhelm Brøgger, Sigurd Grieg, Carl Marstrander, and Johannes Bøe. Of particular concern was the appointment of Johannes Bøe to a prestigious position without consulting the German occupiers. Schwalm asked to be informed on such topics. They additionally discussed Eberhard Günther ...


Report By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Norwegian Minister Of Justice Riisnaes, October 25, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Report By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Norwegian Minister Of Justice Riisnaes, October 25, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Report on a meeting with Norwegian Minister of Justice Riisnaes describing individuals in Oslo of interest to the Germans, particularly historians and those involved in the Ministry of Culture.


Report By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Sd Literature Advisor Ss-Hauptsturmführer Falk, October 21, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Report By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Sd Literature Advisor Ss-Hauptsturmführer Falk, October 21, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

In this document, Hans Schwalm describes a meeting with SS-Hauptsturmführer Falk, literature advisor of the SD. Falk was unable to recommend individuals to collaborate on Ahnenerbe work, but recommended Schwalm reach out to Fin Halvorsen and SS-Obersturmführer Bischof. He described struggling efforts by Gudmud Schnittler to publish a Norwegian lexikon, attributing the failure to anti-German sentiment and refusal to collaborate. He also warns against the circle of people led by Gulbrund Lunde, as they were focused on Norse identity ("norrön") in opposition to a pan-Germanic concept of identity, including efforts to purge German influences from the Norwegian language.


Report By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Alfred Huhnhäuser, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Report By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Alfred Huhnhäuser, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

This report by Hans Schwalm on a meeting with Alfred Huhnhäuser discusses possibilities for creating a centralized research institute in Norway. Huhnhäuser was disappointed that his plan would receive no support as long as it included the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Society as the main tie to Germany. He and Schwalm discuss other options. Schwalm reports on the situation of the Ahnenerbe in pursuing such a project, indicating that they are 2 1/2 years behind Huhnhäuser, who has achieved great respect and built solid connections. He indicates that it would be better to work with Huhnhäuser than pursue such a project separately. The ...


Confidential Statement From Hans Schwalm To Hans-Ernst Schneider And Wolfram Sievers On Objections To The Book "Norwegian History" By Martin Gerlach, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Confidential Statement From Hans Schwalm To Hans-Ernst Schneider And Wolfram Sievers On Objections To The Book "Norwegian History" By Martin Gerlach, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

In this confidential note, Schwalm discusses a book by German professor Martin Gerlach titled "Norwegian History". Ministerial Councilor Huhnhäuser had several objections to the book's content, with which Schwalm agrees upon a cursory review of the manuscript. The objections relate to the author's Christian perspective and lack of focus on pre-Christian pan-Germanic cultural heritage. It is noted that the book fills a missing gap, that of the German perspective on Norwegian history, and would therefore sell well and be considered the official position of German authorities, due to the regime's reputation for censorship. The letter concludes with ...


Report From Dr. Schwalm On A Meeting With School Director Kern In Oslo, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Report From Dr. Schwalm On A Meeting With School Director Kern In Oslo, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Schwalm describes a meeting with Kern, who ran a language school in Oslo and had prior affiliations with the Foreign Organization. Kern's precarious position is detailed, including his ouster from the Foreign Organization and the efforts against him and his school by Huhnhäuser and Pudelko of the German Academy. Schwalm describes Kern as one willing to tap into his connections from years of teaching, but who is looking to benefit from this association. Kern refers to the atmosphere among the Norwegian intelligentsia including their reluctance to join the NS and willingness to engage in dialogue with Germans as long ...


Report From Schwalm On A Meeting With Ivar Sæter, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Report From Schwalm On A Meeting With Ivar Sæter, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Schwalm describes a meeting with Ivar Saeter of the National Teacher's Federation of Norway. He provides a summary of Saeter's military background and his lack of interest in and connection to the Teacher's association. In the meeting, Saeter described the types of people found in the NS (conquerors, sychophants, those aiming to restore an independent Norway and those who wish to collaborate with Germans) and the overall Norwegian situation. It is stated that the concept of Lebensraum means that Norway must be part of a greater Germain Reich and Norwegians should think of themselves as Germanic but ...


Letter From Hans Schwalm Regarding His Work In Norway To Schneider And Wolfram Sievers, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Letter From Hans Schwalm Regarding His Work In Norway To Schneider And Wolfram Sievers, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Schwalm writes to Schneider and Sievers regarding the difficulties of his work in Norway, focusing on lack of proper offices and his planned stay in Posen, which he is hoping will be cancelled to prevent an interruption of the work in Norway. Schwalm indicates the work is not progressing well and any interruption would mean having to start all over again.


Statement By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Ss-Obersturmführer Dr. Ritz Of The Sd, October 15, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Statement By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Ss-Obersturmführer Dr. Ritz Of The Sd, October 15, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Hans Schwalm describes a meeting with SS-Obersturmführer Dr. Ritz regarding plans of Alfred Huhnhäuser for a broad-reaching research facility in Norway. The note describes the challenges involved in such a plan, including the involvement of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and negative sentiment among Norwegian intellectuals due to the imposition of martial law in Trondheim. It is stated that contact may take long to establish and that a trip to Posen for Schwalm would break off work entirely.


Letter From Rudolf Brandt Of Heinrich Himmler's Personal Staff To Ss-Gruppenführer Berger Of The Ss Main Office, September 28,1942, Rudolf Brandt Sep 1942

Letter From Rudolf Brandt Of Heinrich Himmler's Personal Staff To Ss-Gruppenführer Berger Of The Ss Main Office, September 28,1942, Rudolf Brandt

Norwegian Projects

A letter from Rudolf Brandt of the Reichsführer-SS Personal Staff, in which he states that the recipient, SS-Gruppenführer Berger of the SS Main Office, has been unjust to SS-Obersturmbannführer Dr. Richert. He states the Reichsführer SS is supportive of proposals to form a research institute in Norway in cooperation with the Ahnenerbe.


Note From Gottlob Berger To Wolfram Sievers With Forwarded Letter To Heinrich Himmler, September 22, 1942, Gottlob Berger Sep 1942

Note From Gottlob Berger To Wolfram Sievers With Forwarded Letter To Heinrich Himmler, September 22, 1942, Gottlob Berger

Norwegian Projects

This document includes a note from Gottlob Berger to Wolfram Sievers accompanying a copy of a letter to Heinrich Himmler. In the note to Sievers, Berger comments on the rival plans of Hans Schwalm and Gustav Richert for a centralized research institution in Norway, stating that it could not be allowed to have two separate organizations. The letter to Himmler includes comments on the struggles of the Ahnenerbe in creating its reputation and the importance of establishing the Ahnenerbe as the authorititive scientific research institution, as well as doubts regarding the authenticity of Richert. It concludes with a push for ...


Statement From Hans Schwalm, September 18, 1942., Hans Schwalm Sep 1942

Statement From Hans Schwalm, September 18, 1942., Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Statement from Dr. Schwalm on a meeting with Dr. Huhnhäuser in which it was determined that Huhnhäuser would be informed of the results of upcoming meetings and his program would be on hold until that point.


Note By Schwalm On A Meeting With Hans Jacobsen, September 18,1942, Hans Schwalm Sep 1942

Note By Schwalm On A Meeting With Hans Jacobsen, September 18,1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Schwalm describes a meeting with Hans Jacobsen, Fylkesmann of Østfold and founder of the journal Ragnarok. In the meeting, Schwalm inquired about individuals from the Ragnarok circle who might be useful in the cultural and racial research projects he wished to conduct in Norway. Most individuals mentioned were not suitable for various reasons, often anti-NS and anti-German sentiment due to events and behavior related to the occupation of Norway. Jacobsen himself was willing to contribute but did not show interest in leadership of a committee. They agreed to continue to meet as circumstances allowed.


Report From Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Alfred Huhnhäuser And Forwarded Copy Of Huhnhäuser's Proposal For A Norwegian Research Association, September 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm, Alfred Huhnhäuser Sep 1942

Report From Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Alfred Huhnhäuser And Forwarded Copy Of Huhnhäuser's Proposal For A Norwegian Research Association, September 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm, Alfred Huhnhäuser

Norwegian Projects

Schwalm reports on a meeting with Dr. Huhnhäuser concerning the Reichskommissariat Science and Education Department, the establishment of a centralized research association in Norway, literature propaganda and future collaboration. He discusses the incorporation of Huhnhäuser into the SS to facilitate future work as well as Huhnhäuser's work to promote German literature, particularly to counteract the literature distributed by German emigrants. The primary focus is on the possibility of creating a centralized research institute through close German-Norwegian collaboration. Schwalm notes that Huhnhäuser's plans fit with the Ahnenerbe goals. The attached paper by Huhnhäuser describes the current situation and the ...


Report By Schwalm On The History Of Competing Efforts To Establish A Centralized Research Association In Norway, September 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm Sep 1942

Report By Schwalm On The History Of Competing Efforts To Establish A Centralized Research Association In Norway, September 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

This document offers a description of competing efforts to establish a centralized research association in Norway. The primary interests of many stakeholders were racial biology and ethnology, though Huhnhäuser was shown to want an organization encompassing all fields of research. The note concludes with future plans for coordination between the R.u.S. and the Ahnenerbe as well as a note of warning against a plan to create an R.u.S. office within the NS as it would strip the work of German control.


Note By Wolfram Sievers On A Meeting With Gottlob Berger, August 17, 1942, Wolfram Sievers Aug 1942

Note By Wolfram Sievers On A Meeting With Gottlob Berger, August 17, 1942, Wolfram Sievers

Norwegian Projects

Wolfram Sievers reports on a meeting with Berger, who requests an Ahnenerbe science advisor for SS-Sturmbannführer Neumann, soon to be dispatched to Oslo. Sievers noted that he could not spare anyone else, but Hans Schwalm, already in Oslo, could assist. Berger also recommended that Sievers get a decree from Himmler stating that the Ahnenerbe was responsible for all legitimate scientific research in the SS and implied that this was important, but was unable to explain why.


Letter From Dr. Spengler To Wolfram Sievers, December 3, 1941, Wilhelm Spengler Dec 1941

Letter From Dr. Spengler To Wolfram Sievers, December 3, 1941, Wilhelm Spengler

Dowsing Research

In a letter to Obersturmbannführer Sievers, Dr. Spengler notes that dowsing rod researchers/users were not targeted in action taken against occult groups, but some may have been arrested if they were active in other occult activities. The letter states that the head of the security police and the SD want to meet with these groups to discuss scientific problems related to the occult. It was not expected that research of dowsing rods would be included in the planned work.


Letter From Josef Wimmer To Walther Wüst, August 7, 1941, Josef Wimmer Aug 1941

Letter From Josef Wimmer To Walther Wüst, August 7, 1941, Josef Wimmer

Dowsing Research

In a letter dated August 7, 1941, Josef Wimmer asks Ahnenerbe Curator Walther Wüst and Ahnenerbe Reichsgeschäftsführer Wolfram Sievers for information regarding an article in the Journal of Dowsing Rod Research. The article addresses the future of dowsing rod research. Wimmer adds that it is rumored that a research institute will be created to manage future research. He requests information first from Wüst and in the second part of the document, reports that Wüst had no information and asks that Sievers please find out what he can and let Wimmer know.


Letter From Josef Wimmer To Walther Wüst Forwarded By Wolfram Sievers To Rudolf Brandt, July 22, 1941, Josef Wimmer, Wolfram Sievers Jul 1941

Letter From Josef Wimmer To Walther Wüst Forwarded By Wolfram Sievers To Rudolf Brandt, July 22, 1941, Josef Wimmer, Wolfram Sievers

Dowsing Research

In this letter, Josef Wimmer asks for direction on whether or not to carry out dowsing studies on the mountain Hohenwehen in Hegau. Sievers forwards the note to Rudolf Brandt asking if there are objections and stating that he believes it fine for Wimmer to travel.