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Articles 1 - 30 of 42

Full-Text Articles in European History

Integration In The European Union: Does Widening Make Deepening?, Angelica Smyrnios Jan 2019

Integration In The European Union: Does Widening Make Deepening?, Angelica Smyrnios

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Integration of the European Union over the years has continued to be debated, with many theories attempting to explain how the Union has consistently become ever closer. While many theories focus on the role of the individual member states or, on the other hand, the role of the Union’s institutions in driving forward integration, fewer consider the impact of widening, which entails adding more countries to the EU through enlargements. Since the first enlargement in 1973, the EU has grown from six members to its current twenty-eight. Meanwhile, it has transformed from a small community with specific economic purposes ...


Over Her Dead Body: The Subversion Of Feminine Beauty In La Scapigliatura, Serafina Paladino Jan 2019

Over Her Dead Body: The Subversion Of Feminine Beauty In La Scapigliatura, Serafina Paladino

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Within the canon of Italian literature, there is but a small pool of research on the archetypical avant-garde movement of La Scapigliatura, especially in how this circle of unique circle of artists especially their authors and poets, depicted female characters within their works. In fact, there is a dominating view that the portrayal of women presented by the Scapigliati in their works is incredibly misogynistic in nature and was inspired by the “fear of women” that was commonly felt by male artists in the mid 1800’s. However, this undergraduate thesis attempts to uncover the true nature of the women ...


The American Gluten Craze: Its Origins, Persistence, And Impacts On The Safety Of Gluten-Free Boulder Restaurant Foods, Isabel Trede Jan 2019

The American Gluten Craze: Its Origins, Persistence, And Impacts On The Safety Of Gluten-Free Boulder Restaurant Foods, Isabel Trede

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Gluten, a complex mixture of hundreds of related but distinct proteins found in wheat, barley, rye, and triticale, can be dangerous if consumed by individuals with gluten-related disorders. I define the Gluten Craze as the widespread public fascination with the gluten-free diet as it is advertised in the media and in technology-based sources of information. The purpose of this research is to examine the origins, persistence, and impacts of the Gluten Craze in the U.S. and to understand the impacts of the craze in Boulder, Colorado through the tested safety of gluten-free restaurant foods.

The research included in this ...


Buried Before, Devan Herbert Jan 2019

Buried Before, Devan Herbert

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Buried Before is a twelve-minute concert dance work which was performed February 7-10, 2019, in the Charlotte York Irey Theatre by Sasha Alcott, Sara Varra, Olivia Hodnett, and Adia Banks. This essay is a roadmap to understanding the piece as well as the research process that accompanied it. The piece challenges the way war stories are told, particularly the themes of glorification, masculinity, and heroism. It centralizes the body in the telling of women’s war stories which provides a level of complexity and abstraction which are not present in linear, traditional war narratives. Throughout both the essay and the ...


Impossible Parties: An Exploration Of The Convergence Of Life And Art As A Romantic Theory Of The Party, Amina Otto Jan 2018

Impossible Parties: An Exploration Of The Convergence Of Life And Art As A Romantic Theory Of The Party, Amina Otto

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The nature of the interaction between life and art has been a point of dispute in the field of Humanities for centuries, and we have failed to reach a consensus on which one imitates or informs the other. During the Romantic era, it was particularly difficult to separate the two, especially when considering some of the parties, balls, and fêtes that took place in that time. Romantic novelist Georges Sand provides a Romantic theory of the party as a work of art in her novel Lélia, and provides criteria that the ideal ball must meet in order to be successful ...


Herat: The Key To India, The Individual Fears And Plans That Shaped The Defense Of India During The Great Game, Trevor L. Borasio Jan 2018

Herat: The Key To India, The Individual Fears And Plans That Shaped The Defense Of India During The Great Game, Trevor L. Borasio

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Herat was exalted as the key to India’s defense during the nineteenth century. This small city in the Khorasan region of contemporary Afghanistan was obsessed over by British politicians, explorers, agents, and authors, yet no secondary source has sought to explain why British advocates attributed importance to the city. This thesis argues that Herat was important to British men on the ground in Central Asia who feared that oncoming Russian and Persian expansionism would threaten India. Initially, British interest in the northwest frontier of India grew out a need to protect what they perceived to be the only vulnerable ...


From The Rhineland To Czechoslovakia: How The Policies Of Appeasement In The British Government Led To The Second World War, Tyler Berger Jan 2018

From The Rhineland To Czechoslovakia: How The Policies Of Appeasement In The British Government Led To The Second World War, Tyler Berger

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis's goal is to better explain how the appeasement policies of the British government between 1936 and 1939 brought about the Second World War. This thesis looks at the British government's response to the remilitarization of the Rhineland by Germany in 1936, the Anschluss, the Munich Conference, and the German invasion of Czechoslovakia.


Elizabeth's Silver Age, Ryan Smith Jan 2018

Elizabeth's Silver Age, Ryan Smith

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper asks if privateering and piracy were the source of the silver bullion coined at the English mint between 1558-1601. Production at the English mint boomed after the accession of Elizabeth I and continued throughout her reign. This expansion in the Elizabethan money supply had far-reaching consequences for the Elizabethan economy as well as the regime. Many contemporaries and many historians since have credited the Elizabethan privateers for supplying the English mint with Spanish plunder. In fact, the true picture seems more complicated, as production boomed for twenty years before a plausible case can be made for privateering driving ...


To A Millennial Kingdom: The Nazi Aryanization Of Christianity, Daniel Lucca Jan 2018

To A Millennial Kingdom: The Nazi Aryanization Of Christianity, Daniel Lucca

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper argues during the Third Reich, an Aryanization of Christianity took place, one that emerged into a distinct Nazi theology which emphasized the implementation of “Germanic customs” in place of the perceived Jewish aspects into religion and religious holidays, most notably in Christmas. This replacement of perceived Jewish aspects of Christianity was part of a larger millennial attempt to create the Nazis' ideal thousand-year empire. In examining how the Nazis did so, this paper will begin with an analysis of the relationship between the DC religious movement and the Nazis in the first years of the Third Reich. I ...


“Beauty Fled, And Empire Now No More” Lady Mary Wortley Montagu’S Transimperial Femininity In The Turkish Embassy Letters (1716-1718), Rachael Gessert Jan 2018

“Beauty Fled, And Empire Now No More” Lady Mary Wortley Montagu’S Transimperial Femininity In The Turkish Embassy Letters (1716-1718), Rachael Gessert

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Mary Wortley Montagu’s Turkish Embassy Letters contain commentary on feminine beauty within an orientalist context, which reflects transimperial networks of contact and communication during the early modern period. Lady Mary was uniquely situated at the nexus of empire, with privileged access to both the public political and privately feminine spaces of the British, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman empires. Her literary accounts of feminine beauty and the broader theme of Orientalism reflect the European geopolitical situation and the bigger question of transimperial systems of exchange that shaped modern Europe. In narrating the women of the Ottoman court, Montagu’s literary account ...


The Extermination Of Peaceful Soviet Citizens: Aron Trainin And International Law, Michelle Jean Penn Jan 2017

The Extermination Of Peaceful Soviet Citizens: Aron Trainin And International Law, Michelle Jean Penn

History Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines the life and work of Soviet Jewish lawyer Aron Trainin, placing him in conversation with his better-known contemporaries, the founder of the concept of genocide Raphael Lemkin, and human rights advocate Hersch Lauterpacht. Together these three legal minds—who differed widely in temperament and approaches to law but possessed similar backgrounds as Jewish lawyers from the eastern European borderlands, developed concepts foundations to the Nuremberg Tribunal and, subsequently, modern international criminal law. By situating Trainin’s work with Lemkin’s and Lauterpacht’s, this dissertation acknowledges the central role Trainin played in the development of international criminal ...


"Ce Jour Immortel": The Storming Of The Bastille And The Formation Of Cultural Memory, 1789–1794, Joanna Hope Toohey Jan 2017

"Ce Jour Immortel": The Storming Of The Bastille And The Formation Of Cultural Memory, 1789–1794, Joanna Hope Toohey

Undergraduate Honors Theses

On 14 July 1789, a Parisian crowd stormed the Bastille prison in an act of popular violence that is now remembered as one of the most significant events of the French Revolution. During the ensuing five years, the French national memory of the storming of the Bastille was interpreted, guided, and contested by each dominating faction of the Revolution, and gradually came to manifest the central ideals and ironies of the Revolution itself. However, in the historiography of the French Revolution, the formation of this cultural memory has been strangely overlooked. This thesis seeks to fill the gap in the ...


Overstating And Misjudging The Prospects Of Civil War: The Ulster Volunteer Force And The Irish Volunteers In The Home Rule Crisis, 1912-1914, Julia Birgen Jan 2017

Overstating And Misjudging The Prospects Of Civil War: The Ulster Volunteer Force And The Irish Volunteers In The Home Rule Crisis, 1912-1914, Julia Birgen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 1914, as Europe marched towards war, the British government focused on internal issues in Ireland. The Government of Ireland Act 1914 passed the House of Commons and would have allowed for a limited power parliament in Dublin to control Irish issues. Militia’s formed in Ireland in reaction to the bill. The Irish Volunteers, in favor of the bill, swore to uphold the law, while the Ulster Volunteer Force vowed to stop the law at any cost. The British government feared both of these paramilitaries. This thesis explores the threat posed by these militias and their effects on Britain ...


A National Flag?: King James I And The British Flag, James Stokes Jan 2017

A National Flag?: King James I And The British Flag, James Stokes

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper asserts that the Union Flag was not a national flag but a heraldic device of James I. The Union Flag represented James I and his experiment in union, and not a British nation. The Union Flag was not a national flag in 1606, but a new version of the royal arms. At this time, Britain was simply the creation of heritage and the politics that surrounded it. King James I was for all intents and purposes Britain.


Demographic Engineering: Post-War Canadian Immigration Advertising And Scottish Migration, 1919-1929, Kira Johnson Jan 2017

Demographic Engineering: Post-War Canadian Immigration Advertising And Scottish Migration, 1919-1929, Kira Johnson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 1924 Norman MacKenzie, a Scottish World War I naval veteran, decided with his wife Annie MacKenzie to move their young family to Saskatchewan farmland in Canada. They boarded the famous Metagma ship sailing from Stornoway, on the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, for a new life in the Canadian prairies. My great-grandparents’ and grandmother’s story is not uncommon. This was a familiar movement for many Scottish Highlanders and Islanders in the 20th century. Additionally, this post-war emigration from Scotland was certainly not an isolated incident. Scotland has experienced mass emigration, particularly from the ...


The Ecocritical Carnivalesque Of Mason & Dixon: Thomas Pynchon's Environmental Vision, Theodor Jack Hamstra Jan 2017

The Ecocritical Carnivalesque Of Mason & Dixon: Thomas Pynchon's Environmental Vision, Theodor Jack Hamstra

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Among American novelists since 1945, Thomas Pynchon ranks as one of the most accomplished, with arguably the most fully realized and profound visions of Postmodernity. Therefore, his absence from the field of Ecocriticism is alarming. The aim of my thesis is to demonstrate that Pynchon’s 1997 novel Mason & Dixon ought to be considered as an essential text of American environmental writing. My thesis triangulates the environmental vision of Mason & Dixon by highlighting its affinity with environmental literature on three overlapping levels: the specter of the ancient, the spectacle of the new during the Enlightenment setting of the novel, and ...


Settling The Wandering Kingdom: The Establishment Of The Visigothic Kingship Under Ataulf, Drakeford Kennon Jan 2017

Settling The Wandering Kingdom: The Establishment Of The Visigothic Kingship Under Ataulf, Drakeford Kennon

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this thesis, I argue that Alaric was not the first king of the Visigoths, at least not in the way in which scholars traditionally have envisaged him as being. This title of first king, I argue, belongs instead to Ataulf who was the one to settle the Visigoths in Hispania and pass on a style of rule that was not based on purely military might. Alaric certainly had a decisive role to play in the formation of the incipient Visigothic kingdom but his role had more to do with laying the groundwork for the development within Visigothic society for ...


Staging A New Community: Immigrant Yiddish Culture And Diaspora Nationalism In Interwar Paris, 1919-1940, Nicholas Lee Underwood Jan 2016

Staging A New Community: Immigrant Yiddish Culture And Diaspora Nationalism In Interwar Paris, 1919-1940, Nicholas Lee Underwood

History Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Interwar Paris was an immigrant city. By the 1930s, Paris was home to approximately two million immigrants. Around 150,000 of these were Yiddish-speaking Jews from Eastern Europe who used Paris as the basis for a new Western European-influenced Yiddishism and Diaspora Nationalism. I demonstrate how France–the supposed home of an assimilationist model of national belonging–provided fertile ground for an alternative Yiddishist and Jewish Diaspora Nationalist identity. This was an Eastern European, Jewish community ideal grafted onto a French Republican notion of belonging. Using sources ranging from Yiddish theatre and chorus documents to Yiddish-, French-, and German-language newspapers ...


Warrior Bishops: The Development Of The Fighting Clergy Under The Ottonians In The Tenth Century, Jordan N. Becker Jan 2016

Warrior Bishops: The Development Of The Fighting Clergy Under The Ottonians In The Tenth Century, Jordan N. Becker

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Ottonian Empire in Germany experienced numerous wars, invasions, and rebellions over the course of the tenth century. Because the royal family practiced an itinerant form of rule, they established an infrastructure of ecclesiastical establishments that facilitated the royal household’s movements and defended the rest of the realm. It was here that the fighting clergy, or the bishops and abbots who actually took up military command, became a crucial component of the empire’s stability and protection.


La Grande Nation: The Revolutionary Tradition In French West Africa, Michael Rupert Jan 2016

La Grande Nation: The Revolutionary Tradition In French West Africa, Michael Rupert

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Historically, France has garnered a reputation for being one of the most enlightened nations due to its progressive policies and having produced so many enlightenment thinkers. In imperial historiography, a similar assertion is often made about French West Africa. Historians and Frenchmen alike often make claims about the altruistic nature of the French empire and frequently point out efforts undertaken in French West Africa to significantly develop the federation and aid the Africans in need. In this thesis I will provide a much more nuanced look at the condition of French West Africa as it existed from 1870-1930. In this ...


The End Of The State Of Autonomies? An Analysis Of The Controversy Surrounding The 2010 Spanish Constitutional Court Ruling On Catalonia's 2006 Statute Of Autonomy, Kevin Mermel Jan 2016

The End Of The State Of Autonomies? An Analysis Of The Controversy Surrounding The 2010 Spanish Constitutional Court Ruling On Catalonia's 2006 Statute Of Autonomy, Kevin Mermel

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In recent years, many citizens in the Spanish region of Catalonia have mobilized in favor of independence, a desire previously far outside the mainstream. As of the spring of 2016, separatists control the majority of seats in Catalan parliament. This study seeks to explain why independence is so widely supported in Catalonia, and focuses specifically on the region’s 2006 Statute of Autonomy, which the Spanish Constitutional Court modified in a 2010 ruling. The struggles that the statute faced both before and after the court’s 2010 ruling provided a crucial turning point in the debate over Catalan independence. The ...


From King’S African Rifles To Kenya Rifles: The Decolonization And Transition Of An African Army, 1960-1970, Christian A. Harrison Jan 2016

From King’S African Rifles To Kenya Rifles: The Decolonization And Transition Of An African Army, 1960-1970, Christian A. Harrison

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis explores the post-colonial relationship between the Kenya Army and the British Military. It addresses the colonial legacies of the Kenya Rifles, as well its transition from colonial army to national independent army. By understanding the various discourses that existed in the King's African Rifles, as well how those discourses impacted the independent Kenya Rifles, this thesis details the decolonization, transition, and evolution of one of the most successful armies in Africa.


Chansons, Madrigales & Motetz À 3 Parties By Noé Faignient: A Composer's Debut In 16th-Century Antwerp, Sienna M. Wood Dec 2015

Chansons, Madrigales & Motetz À 3 Parties By Noé Faignient: A Composer's Debut In 16th-Century Antwerp, Sienna M. Wood

Musicology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Chansons, madrigales & motetz à 3 parties of 1568 is one of two volumes that constitute the debut of Antwerp composer Noé Faignient (c.1537-1578). This musical collection (henceforth CM&M à 3) survives only in manuscript in three partbooks held at the Stifts- och Landsbiblioteket in Linköping, Sweden and has never before appeared as a complete modern edition. Like its sister volume for 4, 5, and 6 voices, Faignient's 3-voice collection contains French chansons, Italian madrigals, Latin motets, and Dutch liedekens. A multi-genre debut was well chosen for the diverse city of Antwerp, the center of commerce and culture in the Low Countries in the 16th century, and for international distribution in pursuit of patronage or permanent employment abroad. The commercial value of chansons, madrigals, and motets had been well established in Western Europe by this time, but liedekens did not share the international marketability of the other genres. Liedekens are included in CM&M à 3 not for commercial reasons, but as vehicles of political propaganda and expressions of national identity corresponding with the outbreak of the Dutch Revolt against Spanish rule of the Low Countries. Faignient's posture of religious nonalignment in CM&M à 3 parallels early rebel propaganda, but also reveals the composer to be a careerist; one of many composers of his generation to separate his professional and creative activities from religion in order to serve his professional ambitions and his political ideals amid the turbulence of the Reformation.


The Converted Menace: Morisco Transformation, Resistance, And Revolution In Sixteenth-Century Granada, Aaron Jeffrey Stamper Jan 2015

The Converted Menace: Morisco Transformation, Resistance, And Revolution In Sixteenth-Century Granada, Aaron Jeffrey Stamper

Religious Studies Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Between 1482 and 1492 a drawn-out and arduous war was conducted on the southern-most border of the Kingdom of Castile and the final Iberian Muslim Kingdom of Granada. While the conflict can be understood as local to the Iberian Peninsula and the growing incorporative efforts of the combined Crowns of Castile and Aragon, this event along with the subsequent century of consequences, offer insight into the larger tensions developing between Catholic rulers and the rising Ottoman Sultanate. The result of the Toma of Granada was a complex narrative that reflected the ongoing fluctuations between the political borders throughout the Mediterranean ...


Poujade And Poujadolf: Fears Of Fascism In France’S Fourth Republic, Wojciech J. Owczarek Jan 2015

Poujade And Poujadolf: Fears Of Fascism In France’S Fourth Republic, Wojciech J. Owczarek

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Poujadist Movement, which began as a protest of shopkeepers in southern France in 1953 and rose to national prominence in the elections of January, 1956, was, at the time of its political activity, accused by its critics of fascism. While analyses of the Poujadists have generally focused on the movement’s ideological characteristics to evaluate its possible fascism or its classification as a member of the French far right, I look at Pierre Poujade and the label of fascism in the context of the postwar political climate and the politicized memory of the French Resistance. In addition to analyzing ...


“A Game Of Human Chess”: The Double Cross System And Mi-5’S Supremacy In World War Ii, Adamya Sharma Jan 2015

“A Game Of Human Chess”: The Double Cross System And Mi-5’S Supremacy In World War Ii, Adamya Sharma

Undergraduate Honors Theses

World War II featured monumental battles, such as the Normandy invasions, the Battle of the Bulge, Stalingrad, Iwo Jima, El Alamein, and Kursk. While historical scholarship of the World War II generally focuses on the war’s grand military engagements, it is imperative to note that Allied and Axis intelligence units battled for supremacy in a war of deception. The Double Cross system employed by the British military intelligence division (MI-5) was, virtually from the war’s onset, successful in overwhelming its German opponent, the Abwehr by turning its agents into supportive double agents. Traditional historiography follows the classic spy ...


Investigating A Century-Long Hole In History: The Untold Story Of Ayahuasca From 1755-1865, Justin Williams Jan 2015

Investigating A Century-Long Hole In History: The Untold Story Of Ayahuasca From 1755-1865, Justin Williams

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis illuminates the lost history of ayahuasca and argues that a larger institution, the ethnocentric and economically focused European milieu, prevented eighteenth and nineteenth-century Europeans from further investigating this mysterious plant-based hallucinogenic infusion. A myriad of factors contributed to these triumphal trade winds of prevailing European thought—ethnocentricity, consequent internalization, economic avarice, and European geo-political domination. In addition, there were other fateful historical circumstances beyond the influence of European paradigms that may have prevented ayahuasca from entering mainstream history.

This thesis begins an understanding toward the reasons that led to a century of historical cover-up—the skeleton of what ...


From The Holy Land To The Cloister: The Decline Of Female Ascetic Pilgrimages In The Early Medieval West (C. 350-615), Manon Williams Jan 2015

From The Holy Land To The Cloister: The Decline Of Female Ascetic Pilgrimages In The Early Medieval West (C. 350-615), Manon Williams

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper will focus on the mobility of ascetic women from late antiquity through to the early Middle Ages with a particular emphasis on the practice of pilgrimage. As seen in multiple primary source documents, religious women from the West were journeying to the Holy Land and beyond from the fourth through to the early fifth centuries. This practice, however, is mentioned remarkably less in accounts of religious women north of the Alps in the late fifth century onwards. Evidence of women undertaking pilgrimages to the Holy Land is sparse while their male counterparts continued to make such journeys. Although ...


Faith And Terror: Religion In The French Revolution, Maura Kalthoff Jan 2015

Faith And Terror: Religion In The French Revolution, Maura Kalthoff

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis explores expressions of Catholic belief and practice during the Radical Phase of the French Revolution. Religion was one of the most contentious issues of the Revolution and the government's treatment of it was one of the major causes for popular discontent and even counterrevolution. As the Revolution turned more radical it became more dangerous to follow traditional Catholicism, yet dechristianization did not end its practice. The goal of this study is to understand the ways in which French men and women were able to maintain their faith despite the government's increasingly hostile approach to dealing with ...


Conditional Neutrality, Limited Intervention: The Ad Hoc Nature Of Britain's Taiping Policy, 1853-1862, Leslie Faulder Jul 2014

Conditional Neutrality, Limited Intervention: The Ad Hoc Nature Of Britain's Taiping Policy, 1853-1862, Leslie Faulder

History Graduate Theses & Dissertations

British imperial policy in the nineteenth century often found itself stretched and challenged as local policy makers struggled to adapt to their changing circumstances, the expectations and demands of local populations, while still adhering to the goal of British imperialism. Local British officials who responded to the Taiping Civil War, 1853-1864, highlight this struggle. Great Britain created their Taiping policy in an ad hoc manner in order to balance contending opinions about the potential of the Taiping compared with the Qing in furthering British economic, social and political goals. In this pursuit of a balanced policy, I argue that local ...