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Full-Text Articles in European History

No One Expects The Spanish Inquisition: Witchcraft Trials In Basque Spain And Southwestern Germany, Alexandra C. Steed Jun 2017

No One Expects The Spanish Inquisition: Witchcraft Trials In Basque Spain And Southwestern Germany, Alexandra C. Steed

Honors Theses

The age of witch trials lasted from 1450 to 1750 and encompassed most of Western Europe. Seventy-five percent of all witchcraft trials took place in Germany, and 480 occurred in Southwestern Germany. Germany lacked centralized leadership, and lack of control over a region’s governing body meant a prince or a bishop could burn as many people as he saw fit. The trials in Southwestern Germany lasted from 1562 to 1684 and killed between 1,000 and 1,500 people. The trials in Southwestern Germany are Central because they all shared similar elements. Many of the towns were undergoing social ...


Multi-Agent Simulation Of The Battle Of Ankara, 1402, Ruili Tang Jun 2017

Multi-Agent Simulation Of The Battle Of Ankara, 1402, Ruili Tang

Honors Theses

In 1402, at the north of city Ankara, Turkey, a battle between Ottoman Empire and Tamerlane Empire decided the fate of Europe and Asia. Although historians largely agree on the general battle procedure, the details are still open to dispute. Several factors may have contributed to the Ottoman defeat, such as the overwhelming size of Tamerlanes army, poisoned water, the tactical formations of the military units, and betrayal by the Tartar cavalry in the Ottoman left wing. The approach is divided into two stages: the simulation stage, which provides data to analyze the complex interactions of autonomous agents, and the ...


Symbols Of A Bourgeois Empire: The Intersection Of Class And Government During Paris's Transformation Into A Middle-Class Capital, Brian Teitelbaum Jun 2017

Symbols Of A Bourgeois Empire: The Intersection Of Class And Government During Paris's Transformation Into A Middle-Class Capital, Brian Teitelbaum

Honors Theses

Between 1853 and 1870 the face of Paris was dramatically altered by the modernization effort on the part of the Second French Empire. Hundreds of thousands were displaced, billions of francs were paid out by the government, and old Paris gave way to the new. This is important today to the study of history as it marks the definitive end of an era of aristocratic oriented government and the start of the prominence afforded to the middle classes.

The renovation of Paris and the Palais Garnier defined an architectural style called Second Empire that was copied by many cities across ...


Cold War And The Olympics: An Athlete's Perspective, Mike Vecchione Jun 2017

Cold War And The Olympics: An Athlete's Perspective, Mike Vecchione

Honors Theses

When President Jimmy Carter decided to boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, it was the largest act of political interference in the history of the Olympics. It began in December of 1979 when Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan. Carter was having a difficult time getting the hostages back so in response to the invasion of Afghanistan, Carter gave the Soviets one month to withdraw their troops or the United States would boycott their Olympics. Since the Soviets did not respect the demands of the President, Carter stuck to his threat and the United States did not participate in the 1980 ...


Stronger For Scotland: The Rise Of The Modern Scottish Nationalist Movement, Thomas Wilson Jun 2017

Stronger For Scotland: The Rise Of The Modern Scottish Nationalist Movement, Thomas Wilson

Honors Theses

This research analyzes the growth of the Scottish Nationalist Party, currently Scotland’s main party in Scottish Parliament. The growth of the nationalist movement began in the 1920s and took a long period of formative years before the movement grew into the Scottish Nationalist party seen today. The nationalist movement was most successful in the latter years of the 20th century, but the most important stages of the nationalist movement were its formative years in from the 1920s through the 1940s. This thesis analyzes the nationalist’s developmental process of determining the goal of the nationalist movement and the methods ...


Role Des Femmes Dans La France De Vichy Pendant L'Occupation Allemande, Elizabeth Almonte Jun 2017

Role Des Femmes Dans La France De Vichy Pendant L'Occupation Allemande, Elizabeth Almonte

Honors Theses

The German occupation of France caused several changes in the lives of people living in France at the time. Although the French government continued having legal authority over the country as per specified in the Franco-German Armistice the occupied zone was in reality under German military administration. Meanwhile the "free zone" was undergoing numerous changes that affected the French population especially women and their role in society. Vichy France the name given to the French government under the administration of Philippe Petain utilized women as scapegoats for the defeat and subsequent occupation of France by the German army. In order ...


La Exclusion Del Otro: Los Efectos Negativos Del Nacionalismo En Flores De Otro Mundo (1999) Y Forasters (2008), Brianna Prudencia Gutiérrez Jun 2017

La Exclusion Del Otro: Los Efectos Negativos Del Nacionalismo En Flores De Otro Mundo (1999) Y Forasters (2008), Brianna Prudencia Gutiérrez

Honors Theses

This thesis examines two films for their critique on the damaging effects of nationalism on both the native and foreign populations in rural Spain and urban Catalonia. The two films are Flores de otro mundo (Flowers from another world) (1999), directed by Spanish director Iciar Bollain, and Forasters (Outsiders) (2008), a film by Catalan director Ventura Pons, based on Sergi Belbel's play. The theoretical framework for this study is based on Michael Billig's terms: "hot" and "banal" nationalism. According to Billig, nationalism itself is the emotional and mental force that creates nation-states or threatens the stability of pre-existing ...


Living Within The Margins: The Constitutional Culture Of Irish Life Law And Literature, Meghan Keator Jun 2017

Living Within The Margins: The Constitutional Culture Of Irish Life Law And Literature, Meghan Keator

Honors Theses

Serving as a stepping stone to asserting independence from British authority and oppression, the Bunreacht Na hÉireann, Ireland’s modern constitution, allowed the nation and its people finally to shape themselves by their own legal standards, customs, and norms. Yet, after years of oppression from forced British standards, Ireland began the search for its own distinct voice as a newly liberated, competitive country. This thesis explores how the Irish Constitution contributes to shaping a homogenous society that promotes normative views and behaviors that damagingly marginalize minority groups–who differ from such social standards. By examining the specific language, diction, order ...


Impact Of The Nuclear Phase-Out In Germany: Examining The Costs And Benefits Of Aggresive Energy Policy In Relation To A Sustainable Future, David M. Olio Jun 2017

Impact Of The Nuclear Phase-Out In Germany: Examining The Costs And Benefits Of Aggresive Energy Policy In Relation To A Sustainable Future, David M. Olio

Honors Theses

The German nuclear phase-out legislation of 2011 will cause substantial changes in the country's energy mix, energy generation and electricity grid demands. The phase-out exists as part of the Energiewende, or energy transition, occurring in Germany where renewable energy has been subsidized to replace the share of nuclear energy, which is decreasing annually and moving towards a complete phase-out in 2022. This paper will analyze the benefits and costs of Germany's decision to phase out nuclear power. First, it will explore the dynamic history of German energy policy and discuss how a history of anti-nuclear sentiments led to ...


Game Of Thrones And Ancient Rome, Alexander Arnold Jun 2016

Game Of Thrones And Ancient Rome, Alexander Arnold

Honors Theses

Ancient Roman society to this day influences different aspects of modern life. One of these aspects includes visual media and entertainment. Renowned by ancient sources and secondary sources as one of the most successful and powerful empires throughout history, the actions of the Romans inspire spectacles of amusement on contemporary award-winning movies and television shows. This would include movies like Gladiator and Spartacus along with television shows like Rome. This study investigates the award-winning, HBO television series Game of Thrones. The show is adapted from a novel series entitled A Song of Ice and Fire, written by George R.R ...


Boudicca's Rebellion Against The Roman Empire In 60 Ad, Daniel Cohen Jun 2016

Boudicca's Rebellion Against The Roman Empire In 60 Ad, Daniel Cohen

Honors Theses

This paper examines the rebellion of Boudicca, the queen of the Iceni tribe, during the Roman Empire’s occupation of Britannia in 60 AD. The study shows that had Boudicca not changed her winning strategy in one key battle, she could have forced the Roman Empire to withdraw their presence from Britannia, at least until it was prudent to invade again. This paper analyzes the few extant historical accounts available on Boudicca, namely those of the Roman historians Tacitus and Cassius Dio, to explore the effectiveness of tactics on both sides of the rebellion. The sources reveal that Boudicca enjoyed ...


Constructing A Narrative Of Irish Republicanism 1913 - 1921, Christopher Graff Jun 2016

Constructing A Narrative Of Irish Republicanism 1913 - 1921, Christopher Graff

Honors Theses

The Easter Rising of 1916 and subsequent Anglo-Irish War were two seminal events in contemporary Irish history, and are especially pertinent as the 100th anniversary of the Rising approaches this year. In this thesis, I examine the underlying causes of the Easter Rising, specifically the growing influence of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and an increase in Irish Nationalism. I then trace the planning, preparation, and execution of the Easter Rising, which was not a popular uprising, but rather an armed insurrection led by a small group of militarized radicals. I also analyze the political, social, and economic consequences of the ...


The Romanization Of Romania: A Look At The Influence Of The Roman Military On Romanian History And Heritage, Colleen Ann Lovely Jun 2016

The Romanization Of Romania: A Look At The Influence Of The Roman Military On Romanian History And Heritage, Colleen Ann Lovely

Honors Theses

This thesis looks at the Roman military and how it was the driving force which spread Roman culture. The Roman military stabilized regions, providing protection and security for regions to develop culturally and economically. Roman soldiers brought with them their native cultures, languages, and religions, which spread through their interactions and connections with local peoples and the communities in which they were stationed. This thesis looks at that impact on the Halmyris Fortress and at the great province of Dacia. The effects this “Romanization” of the region influenced the culture, language, and heritage of the later Romanian state. Within this ...


The German Rocket Jet And The Nuclear Programs Of World War Ii, Max Lutze Jun 2016

The German Rocket Jet And The Nuclear Programs Of World War Ii, Max Lutze

Honors Theses

German military technology in World War II was among the best of the major warring powers and in many cases it was the groundwork for postwar innovations that permanently changed global warfare. Three of the most important projects undertaken, which were not only German initiatives and therefore perhaps among the most valuable programs for both the major Axis and Allied nations, include the rocket, jet, and nuclear programs. In Germany, each of these technologies was given different levels of attention and met with varying degrees of success in their development and application. By the end of the war, both rockets ...


L' Obscurite' Manifestee (A Manifested Obscurity), Roswald Morales Jun 2016

L' Obscurite' Manifestee (A Manifested Obscurity), Roswald Morales

Honors Theses

There are three directors that have revolutionized the world of French cinema by bringing to the forefront topics that make its audiences uncomfortable. Abdellatif Kechiche, director of the film Black Venus (2010), Ousmane Sembène, director of the film Black Girl (1966), and Céline Sciamma, director of the film Girlhood (2014) have become renowned for discussing the portrayal of black women in French society. This is a topic at hand that reveals the devastating truth behind French society in regarding black women during various eras. Black Venus narrates the life of an African woman during the slavery period in Europe. Black ...


German And The European Migrant Crisis: An Exploration Of German National Identity, Sarah Pollack Jun 2016

German And The European Migrant Crisis: An Exploration Of German National Identity, Sarah Pollack

Honors Theses

Since 2014, conflicts in North Africa and the Middle East have brought large inflows of asylum-seekers streaming into Europe. Germany has not only accepted the greatest number of these asylum-seekers, but it has additionally pushed for other European Union member states to accept more asylum-seekers as well, thereby earning an international reputation as a leading proponent of human rights in the European Union. While images of German citizens crowding train stations in Munich and other cities to welcome refugees have dominated news cycles, there is an increasing anti-immigration sentiment in Germany, which at its most extreme has manifested itself in ...


Remember The Holocaust And The Killing Fields: A Comparative Study, Ilan Levine Jun 2016

Remember The Holocaust And The Killing Fields: A Comparative Study, Ilan Levine

Honors Theses

Why is the Holocaust almost universally remembered as the most horrific event in the modern age while the Cambodian genocide is hardly remembered both in and outside of Cambodia? Do the two events share similar aspects despite their differences, and what implication does that have on a wider understanding of both genocides? This thesis explores these questions by examining how the Holocaust and Cambodian genocide (killing fields) have been remembered over time. Examining both shows the respective roads of memorialization that each have taken and reveals where the two catastrophes share major aspects: notably, the tactics used by the perpetrators ...


The Germination Of The German Nation: A Case Study On The Art Of Drawing Political Borders, Maximilian Tirey Jun 2015

The Germination Of The German Nation: A Case Study On The Art Of Drawing Political Borders, Maximilian Tirey

Honors Theses

This thesis explores the unification of Germany in 1871 as a case study for successful political border drawing in the modern age. Germany’s rise from 39 separate kingdoms into a single, stable, economic world power is interesting; it reflects a similar environment currently found in the Middle East and Africa. There, too, many smaller ethnic, religious, cultural, or tribal groups are found within a single country. However, why was Germany able to hold together, while many Middle Eastern and African countries struggle with constant internal strife? The rise of Germany into an industrial world power is best analyzed through ...


Euthanasie Und Menschenversuche Im Dritten Reich, Mit Einer Ethischen Analyse Der Menschenversuche, Max J. Roehmholdt Jun 2015

Euthanasie Und Menschenversuche Im Dritten Reich, Mit Einer Ethischen Analyse Der Menschenversuche, Max J. Roehmholdt

Honors Theses

The idea in Nazi-Germany of a “pure” Germany culminated in the systematic murder of millions of people, and within that, the crimes against humanity of euthanasia and human experimentation. The memories of child and adult euthanasia pervade society even today. This project looks at the development of Nazi-euthanasia and the memoirs and films about it, which leave lasting impressions by engraining in audience member’s minds the real facts about euthanasia and euthanasia institutions. The victims of euthanasia were often used in Nazi human experimentation, a product of the Nazi pursuit of scientific advancement. This project also examines these human ...


Henry Viii And The Irish Political Nation: An Assessment Of Tudor Imperial Kingship In 16th Century Ireland, Emily Schwartz Jun 2015

Henry Viii And The Irish Political Nation: An Assessment Of Tudor Imperial Kingship In 16th Century Ireland, Emily Schwartz

Honors Theses

Ireland in the 16th century was by far the most self-governed domain under the authority of King Henry VIII. Within Ireland there were two distinct groups of people, the Gaelic Irish and the Anglo-Irish, whose cultural differences divided the island into two distinct political nations. The majority of Ireland was dominated by Gaelic Irish lordships. Gaelic Irish lords recognized the English king as their overlord, but followed Gaelic customs and laws within their lordships. The small sphere of English influence in Ireland was reduced even more by the political hegemony of the Anglo-Irish magnates. The most powerful magnate, the 9th ...


Russian Military Intervention In The Caucasus, Chelsea Mickel Jun 2015

Russian Military Intervention In The Caucasus, Chelsea Mickel

Honors Theses

My research focuses on Russia's foreign policy interests and actions in the context of the post-soviet space and its relations with western nations and organizations. I used three case studies: the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict, the Russo- Georgian War, and the Crimean Crisis. The Russian government has pursued intervention in these areas for various reasons. The most prominent of these reasons are ethnicity, religion, irredentism, great power politics, and economics. The Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict centers on the Eastern Orthodox Armenian enclave in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan, a nation otherwise consisting of a majority of Turkic Sunni Muslims. The Russo-Georgian War was ...


Jewish Women In The Ghettos, Concentration Camps, And Partisans During The Holocaust, Sara Vicks Jun 2014

Jewish Women In The Ghettos, Concentration Camps, And Partisans During The Holocaust, Sara Vicks

Honors Theses

Men like, Primo Levi, Viktor Frankl, and Elie Wiesel, have provided us with valuable insight on the suffering of the Jewish people during the Holocaust. Only until recently, was there a disproportion of female memoirs of the Holocaust beyond the story Anne Frank. The purpose of this study was to research the Jewish women’s experience in the ghettos, the concentration camps, and the partisans to add to a broader understanding of the Holocaust and its female victims. The hostile environment for Jewish males after Hitler’s rise to power led to a complete role reversal for Jewish men and ...


Breaking The Back: The Continuous Battle Over The Bank Of England 1694-1715, Brendan Callanan Jun 2014

Breaking The Back: The Continuous Battle Over The Bank Of England 1694-1715, Brendan Callanan

Honors Theses

England during the seventeenth century experienced unprecedented political and economic transformation. The rise and fall of the British monarchy, the subsequent political ascendance of Parliament and centralization of the state, sustained economic and commercial growth, and incessant wars abroad during the latter years of the century, contributed to a volatile political climate during the final years of the 1600s that contrasted greatly with the landscape earlier in the century. Specifically, said developments especially affected England’s landed aristocracy. Their cherished ideology of order suffered significant setbacks as both the expanded reach of the state and the new economic ideology that ...


More Catholic Than The Pope: An Analysis Of Polish Devotion To The Catholic Church Under Communism, Kathryn Burns Jun 2013

More Catholic Than The Pope: An Analysis Of Polish Devotion To The Catholic Church Under Communism, Kathryn Burns

Honors Theses

Poland is home to arguably the most loyal and devout Catholics in Europe. A brief examination of the country’s history indicates that Polish society has been subjected to a variety of politically, religiously, and socially oppressive forces that have continually tested the strength of allegiance to the Catholic Church. Through the partition period, the Nazi and Soviet invasions during World War II, and the institution of communist power following the close of World War II, the Polish people met religious hostility that threatened to permanently sever Polish faith to the Catholic Church. However, despite attempts to break Polish allegiance ...


A House Divided: The Development Of The Ideological Divide Of American Jewry And Its Influence On The American Response To Nazi Germany 1933-1943, Daniel Gross Jun 2013

A House Divided: The Development Of The Ideological Divide Of American Jewry And Its Influence On The American Response To Nazi Germany 1933-1943, Daniel Gross

Honors Theses

This thesis examines the response from the different American Jewish groups during Hitler’s rise to power and the subsequent Holocaust, and how the ideological divide that formed between Zionists and non-Zionists ultimately shaped the ultimately limited their ability to exert political influence toward policies to aid European Jewry. The main groups that were analyzed were the American Jewish Committee, the Joint Distribution Committee, B’nai B’rith, the American Jewish Congress, the World Jewish Congress, and the Zionist Organization of America. For purposes of analysis and clarity, the groups can be divided along the lines of extreme Zionist, which ...


Irish Travellers And The Transformative Nature Of Media Representation, Aisling Kearns Jun 2013

Irish Travellers And The Transformative Nature Of Media Representation, Aisling Kearns

Honors Theses

The Travellers, a nomadic group of people indigenous to Ireland, have long been marginalized in Irish society as a result of discrimination. The Travellers themselves have had a history of working to keep themselves separate from the settled Irish, essentially maintaining their own ethnic identity. Traveller culture has undergone a number of changes since the 1960s, a period of increasing urbanization and economic transformation in Ireland. With the changes in both Traveller culture and Irish society as a whole, there has been a corresponding shift to a more positive relationship between the media (newspapers, documentaries, and commercial films and television ...


Lessons From Florence: The Savonarolan Movement, Joseph Kiernan Jun 2013

Lessons From Florence: The Savonarolan Movement, Joseph Kiernan

Honors Theses

This thesis examines the life of Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), a Renaissance preacher from Ferrara, Italy. From his early beginnings as a student of theology, to his years spent preaching from the pulpit in the Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral in Florence, this paper shows how his life transformed into one driven by the Will of God. The thesis is divided into three sections. The first section covers the early life of Savonarola and how hatred for the materialistic and sinful world, along with the teachings of his grandfather, drove him towards religion. The second section focuses on Savonarola executing the ...


Mary Tudor And The Politics Of Gender, Melissa E. Procton Jun 2013

Mary Tudor And The Politics Of Gender, Melissa E. Procton

Honors Theses

Gender played a distinct role in Mary Tudor’s accession and reign as England’s first sole female monarch from 1553-1558. In order to understand how a female heir was molded for queenship and ultimately went forth to lead a nation, this study examines the following aspects of Mary Tudor’s life: her early education, Tudor political culture, affinity connections formed during her brother Edward VI’s reign, political training for queenship, and the fundamental issue of gender verses religion for Protestants during her reign. This thesis aims to examine how gender shaped Mary Tudor’s political training and ultimate ...


Automobiles Autarky And Authority: The Effects Of Nazi Centralized Economic Planning 1932-1942, Andrew Stinchfield Jun 2013

Automobiles Autarky And Authority: The Effects Of Nazi Centralized Economic Planning 1932-1942, Andrew Stinchfield

Honors Theses

This thesis examines the benefits and drawbacks of Nazi centralized economic planning. From an entirely political and economical standpoint, Hitler and the National Socialists’ highly regulated and restrictive policies were initially beneficial for Germany because they created a centralized economic vision and improved national morale. The liberal ideology of the Weimar Republic resulted in major class divisions within the nation, where laissez-faire economics left middle-citizens marginalized and at the mercy of profit-seeking big businesses. The Wall Street Crash of 1929 exposed the weaknesses of liberalism and resulted in a massive rise in political resentment. The regime accumulated power because their ...


The Great European Empires: British And Roman Rule, Edward A. Tomlinson Jun 2013

The Great European Empires: British And Roman Rule, Edward A. Tomlinson

Honors Theses

The greatest European imperial forces ever to exist were Rome and Britain. They controlled much of their known world and subjugated many foreign peoples to their rule. Rome ruled lands from India to the Atlantic Ocean, while Britain had colonies across the entire globe. The British Empire was at the height of its power in the Nineteenth Century, nearly 1200 years after the city of Rome was sacked by invading barbarian tribes. Even with more than a millennia passing between the fall of one empire and the rise of the other; they still shared many similarities in their manner of ...