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Articles 1 - 30 of 44

Full-Text Articles in European History

A Thirst For Empire: How Tea Shaped The Modern World, Jane T. Merritt Jul 2018

A Thirst For Empire: How Tea Shaped The Modern World, Jane T. Merritt

History Faculty Publications

(First paragraph) In A Thirst for Empire: How Tea Shaped the Modern World, Erika Rappaport, specialist in British consumer culture, explores the influ- ence of the quintessential English beverage on the rise of mass markets and British identity. Drawing from a variety of research tradi- tions, including recent commodity studies, the author argues that tea was both a product of and a producer of empire. The commercial success of tea created powerful corporate entities with imperial ties, such as the English East India Company and Lipton’s. But, it was the practice of drinking tea that defined and transformed “Britishness ...


Constructing An Early Modern Queen: Posturing, Mimicry, And The Rhetoric Of Authority, Megan K. Mize Jul 2018

Constructing An Early Modern Queen: Posturing, Mimicry, And The Rhetoric Of Authority, Megan K. Mize

English Theses & Dissertations

As the illegitimate daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, a woman executed for treason, Elizabeth Tudor stood at the center of discourses that often sought to contain or even destroy her. Early on, Elizabeth understood that constant re-invention, performance, and mimicry were key strategies for survival. When she finally ascended the throne in 1558, Elizabeth continued to use these rhetorical methods to retain her autonomy, as far as possible, garnering public support and the loyalty of her court. Although Elizabeth has long been acknowledged as a historical icon and has received considerable scholarly attention, particularly from feminist and feminist-leaning ...


Race, Gender And The Body In British Immigration Control: Subject To Examination, Brett Bebber Jan 2018

Race, Gender And The Body In British Immigration Control: Subject To Examination, Brett Bebber

History Faculty Publications

Evan Smith and Marinella Marmo’s new book, Race, Gender and the Body in British Immigration Control: Subject to Examination, finally gives full attention to a fascinating but often forgotten moment in the history of British immigration control: the virginity tests of South Asian migrants in the 1970s.


Confrontations With Colonialism: Resistance, Revivalism And Reform Under British Rule In Sri Lanka 1796-1920, Vol 1, C. R. De Silva Jan 2018

Confrontations With Colonialism: Resistance, Revivalism And Reform Under British Rule In Sri Lanka 1796-1920, Vol 1, C. R. De Silva

History Faculty Publications

(First paragraph) In one of the most challenging and thought-provoking history books published in Sri Lanka in the last decade, P. V. J. Jayasekera has used a wide variety of sources to challenge a number of existing interpretations relating to Sri Lanka under British colonial rule in the nineteenth century. While the book is based partly on his own doctoral dissertation completed in 1970, in Jayasekera’s own words “The scope and the foci of the original study have been substantially changed” (p. ix) in view of new theoretical approaches in the study of colonial history and the debates on ...


Quotidian Intimidation And Mussolini's Special Tribunal In Istria And The Eastern Borderlands, Maura Hametz Jan 2018

Quotidian Intimidation And Mussolini's Special Tribunal In Istria And The Eastern Borderlands, Maura Hametz

History Faculty Publications

The article examines the Special Tribunal for the Defense of the State's use of the "no grounds to proceed" ruling to intimidate anti-fascists and extend the fascist government's power in the Adriatic borderlands. It demonstrates how the Tribunal's judges used their sentencing prerogatives to support repression in Istria and cloak persecution in the mantel of legal action in defense of the state.


Juristische Und Epische Verfremdung. Fritz Bauers Kritik Am Frankfurter Auschwitz-Prozess (1963–1965) Und Peter Weiss’ Dramatische Prozessbearbeitung Die Ermittlung. Oratorium In 11 Gesängen (1965), Kerstin Steitz Jan 2017

Juristische Und Epische Verfremdung. Fritz Bauers Kritik Am Frankfurter Auschwitz-Prozess (1963–1965) Und Peter Weiss’ Dramatische Prozessbearbeitung Die Ermittlung. Oratorium In 11 Gesängen (1965), Kerstin Steitz

World Languages and Cultures Faculty Publications

Beginning with the influences of Schiller's humanist ideals on Hessian Attorney General Fritz Bauer's expectations of the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial as legal working through of the past, this article compares the Holocaust narrative created by the West German criminal trial to Peter Weiss's reworking of the transcripts Die Ermittlung. Oratorium in 11 Gesangen. The article aims to show that literature is able to convey and commemorate aspects of the Holocaust that German criminal law misrepresents and omits.


Interweaving Visual Language Of The Spiritual And The Secular: Goya, Spanish Spiritualism, And The Sublime, Stirling Cushman Goulart Apr 2016

Interweaving Visual Language Of The Spiritual And The Secular: Goya, Spanish Spiritualism, And The Sublime, Stirling Cushman Goulart

Institute for the Humanities Theses

This thesis explores how Francisco Goya adapted traditional methods of representing religious subjects to create a modern visual language that addressed contemporary themes while maintaining continuity with the past and Spanish identity. The methods used to investigate this topic center on primary and secondary literary sources along with visual comparisons and analysis of selected works. Through this method, it is established that Goya formed a modern innovation of traditional religious style in order to confront and discuss secular and current social issues.


Preliminary Report On The 2014 Field Season Of The American Excavations At Morgantina: Contrada Agnese Project (Cap), Alex Walthall, Randall Souza, Jared Benton Jan 2016

Preliminary Report On The 2014 Field Season Of The American Excavations At Morgantina: Contrada Agnese Project (Cap), Alex Walthall, Randall Souza, Jared Benton

Art Faculty Publications

This article provides a preliminary report on the 2014 excavations carried out by the American Excavations at Morgantina (Sicily): Contrada Agnese Project (CAP). The 2014 season was the second year of this multiyear research and excavation project aimed at investigating both the urban planning of the city and the lives of its residents, with a specific focus on the periods of occupation and cultural transformation from the third to first century BCE. During the second season, three trenches were excavated in the area corresponding to Lot One of the urban insula W13/14S. This preliminary report presents the significant stratigraphic ...


Map Key And Documentary Sources, Imtiaz Habib Jan 2016

Map Key And Documentary Sources, Imtiaz Habib

English Faculty Publications

The Map Key (see pages 164–65) offers a partial representation of the locations of black people in Elizabethan London derived from documentary sources and superimposed on [Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg], Londinum feracissimi Angliae Regni metropolis ([Cologne], [1574]), hand-colored and letterpress text in Latin on back from 1635 edition; Folger Shakespeare Library Shelfmark: MAP L85c no.27. This map is used by permission of the Folger Shakespeare Library under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. All locations are approximate. For the locations that exceed the borders of the map, arrows indicate approximate direction. The numbered entries of ...


Employee Opportunism In Two Early Modern British Trading Companies, Robert Franklin Unger Oct 2015

Employee Opportunism In Two Early Modern British Trading Companies, Robert Franklin Unger

History Theses & Dissertations

The English East India Company and the Hudson’s Bay Company were the most prominent of a score or more of seventeenth and eighteenth century joint stock European trading companies whose merchants conducted their trading activities around the globe. The extraordinary distances and length of time that separated the London directorate committees of both companies from their distant employees was perhaps their greatest managerial challenge. Neither company could directly supervise their employees at their remote trading concessions, whether it was India and the East Indies for the East India Company or sub-arctic North America for the Hudson’s Bay Company ...


Melancholic Mirages: Jules Verne's Vision Of A Saharan Sea, Peter Schulman Jan 2015

Melancholic Mirages: Jules Verne's Vision Of A Saharan Sea, Peter Schulman

World Languages and Cultures Faculty Publications

L’invasion de la mer (The Invasion of the Sea), Verne’s last novel to be published during his lifetime, would appear to be a paradoxical vision of French colonial involvement as it chronicles the attempts of the French army occupying Tunisia and Algeria to capture Tuareg leaders bent on pushing the French out of the Maghreb on the one hand, and thwarting an environmentally disastrous French project on the other. L’Invasion de la mer (The Invasion of the Sea) is a complex, if not melancholic vision of the limits of French expansionism, however. The real-life French army geographer ...


"Do You Bant?" William Banting And Bantingism: A Cultural History Of A Victorian Anti-Fat Aesthetic, Jaime Michelle Miller Jul 2014

"Do You Bant?" William Banting And Bantingism: A Cultural History Of A Victorian Anti-Fat Aesthetic, Jaime Michelle Miller

English Theses & Dissertations

In the second half of the nineteenth century, a retired Victorian undertaker named William Banting (1796-1878) dramatically altered attitudes toward fat by initiating the profoundly consequential idea of the diet as a saleable commodity capable of marking identity within particular social and racial contexts and connecting obesity with degeneracy, illness, and evil. His work Letter on Corpulence Addressed to the General Public self-published in 1863 describes how, with physician William Harvey, Banting reduced his weight by nearly fifty pounds by following a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. Banting and his dieting phenomenon transformed the English cultural consciousness of fatness, and created a ...


Preliminary Report On The 2013 Field Season Of The American Excavations At Morgantina: Contrada Agnese Project (Cap), Alex Walthall, Randall Souza, Jared Benton, James F. Huemoeller Jan 2014

Preliminary Report On The 2013 Field Season Of The American Excavations At Morgantina: Contrada Agnese Project (Cap), Alex Walthall, Randall Souza, Jared Benton, James F. Huemoeller

Art Faculty Publications

This article provides a preliminary report on the 2013 excavations carried out by the American Excavations at Morgantina (Sicily): Contrada Agnese Project (CAP). The 2013 season marked the start of this multiyear research and excavation project aimed at investigating both the urban planning of the city and the lives of its residents, with a specific focus on the periods of occupation and cultural transformation from the third to first century BCE. During the first season, three trenches were excavated in two parts of the ancient city. Their locations were chosen, in part, based on the results of a geophysical survey ...


Introduction: Memory And Reflection, Annette Finley-Croswhite Jan 2014

Introduction: Memory And Reflection, Annette Finley-Croswhite

OUR Journal: ODU Undergraduate Research Journal

During the spring semester of 2014, Old Dominion University offered a Study Abroad course called “Paris/Auschwitz” that I designed with funding from the Curt C. and Else Silberman Foundation and the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Over spring break, I led a group of eighteen students to France and Poland to study sites of Holocaust memory along with faculty team member, Dr. Brett Bebber. Dr. Bebber and I are both professors in the Department of History. The Study Abroad course was part of my attempt to create more Holocaust courses at Old ...


Sites Of Memory, Tonya Schmehl, Sherry Dixon Jan 2014

Sites Of Memory, Tonya Schmehl, Sherry Dixon

OUR Journal: ODU Undergraduate Research Journal

Photo Essay.


Auschwitz As A Site Of Memory, Emma Needham Jan 2014

Auschwitz As A Site Of Memory, Emma Needham

OUR Journal: ODU Undergraduate Research Journal

Auschwitz is known as the most substantial site of the Holocaust namely because Auschwitz-Birkenau was the largest concentration camp in Europe, and it is estimated that about 960,000 Jews and 125,000 others were murdered there.1 Not only was the process of creating the memorial at Auschwitz filled with controversies, but the site also remains questionable today with regards to dark tourism, or thanatourism, “the tourism of death.”2 For some, the thought of traveling to a place subsumed in death and despair sounds troubling as the consumption of dark tourism involves a process of “confronting, understanding and ...


Auschwitz-Birkenau: A Memorial, Nichole Delasalas Jan 2014

Auschwitz-Birkenau: A Memorial, Nichole Delasalas

OUR Journal: ODU Undergraduate Research Journal

In the 1940s, Nazi Germany was an unstoppable force spreading throughout Europe. Hitler’s agenda was to take control of Europe and make it part of his pure Aryan race. As a result of his actions and his “final solution”, many people suffered. The concentration camp of Auschwitz I was created out of an old Polish military compound for three main reasons. The first was to incarcerate real and perceived enemies of the Nazi regime and the German occupation authorities in Poland for an indefinite amount of time.1 The second was to have available a supply of forced labor ...


Food For The Soul: Feasting And Fasting In The Spanish Middle Ages, Martha Daas Jan 2013

Food For The Soul: Feasting And Fasting In The Spanish Middle Ages, Martha Daas

World Languages and Cultures Faculty Publications

This article examines the concept of "Christian" eating that can be found in a variety of texts from the 13th and 14th centuries. “Christian” eating can be defined as consumption that follows the precepts of the Christian calendar and also the recommendations of the Church. As both fasting and feasting are integral elements of the medieval calendar, this article looks at the depiction of food, its consumption, and its role in religious ritual in texts as varied as the Milagros de Nuestra Señora, the Vidas of Santa Maria Egipciaca and Santa Marta, and the more doctrinally liberal Libro de buen ...


Everyday Life In Fascist Venice, 1929-40, Maura Hametz Jan 2013

Everyday Life In Fascist Venice, 1929-40, Maura Hametz

History Faculty Publications

A review of the book "Everyday Life in Fascist Venice, 1929-40," by Kate Ferris is presented.


Internal Colonization: Russia's Imperial Experience, Austin Jersild Jan 2013

Internal Colonization: Russia's Imperial Experience, Austin Jersild

History Faculty Publications

A review of the book "Internal Colonization: Russia's Imperial Experience," by Alexander Etkind is presented.


Uncertain States: Repatriation And Citizenship In The Northeastern Adriatic, 1918-1921, Maura E. Hametz Jan 2013

Uncertain States: Repatriation And Citizenship In The Northeastern Adriatic, 1918-1921, Maura E. Hametz

History Faculty Publications

From 1918 to 1921, officials of the Italian government operating in the new Adriatic territories inherited from the Habsburg monarchy struggled to meet the needs of local populations in an atmosphere of economic dislocation, political unrest, and increasing ethnic violence. This article examines the evolution of Italian policies and practices relating to border crossings, repatriation, and citizenship in the dynamic period from Armistice to official annexation. Using archival records held in Trieste and Rome, it explores officials treatment of inhabitants of the new borderlands, migrants, and refugees in the transformation of Habsburg lands of the multi-ethnic empire to Italian provinces ...


The Soviet State As Imperial Scavenger: "Catch Up And Surpass" In The Transnational Socialist Bloc, 1950-1960, Austin Jersild Jan 2011

The Soviet State As Imperial Scavenger: "Catch Up And Surpass" In The Transnational Socialist Bloc, 1950-1960, Austin Jersild

History Faculty Publications

THE BIGGEST PRIZE SOUGHT by the Soviet Union in its newly acquired postwar territory was the bomb itself—or initially the defense‐related industries, research specialists, and scientists in the German zone deemed useful to achieving this goal.1 The Soviets similarly made arrangements to benefit from uranium deposits in Jáchymov, Czechoslovakia, from the fall of 1945.2 The effort to develop the bomb, however, was merely the most visible expression of the Soviet state at work in what would eventually become the socialist bloc. The Soviet technical and managerial elite routinely engaged in a similar search for useful forms ...


Whitewash: Nationhood, Empire, And The Formation Of Portuguese Racial Identity, Manuela Mourao Jan 2011

Whitewash: Nationhood, Empire, And The Formation Of Portuguese Racial Identity, Manuela Mourao

English Faculty Publications

This article analyzes the origins and development of Portuguese racial identity as reflected in chronicles of the Portuguese first contacts with Africa and the East and in the context of the nation's cultural history. Starting in the late 1400s with the arrival of Vasco da Gama's ships in India, and continuing well into the sixteenth century with the establishment of commercial outposts along a number of coastal areas in the Indian Ocean, the interaction between the Portuguese and the non-Western world had a significant impact on the cultures of all nations involved and, this article contends, on the ...


The New Bibliopolis: French Book Collectors And The Culture Of Print, 1880-1914, Peter Schulman Jan 2010

The New Bibliopolis: French Book Collectors And The Culture Of Print, 1880-1914, Peter Schulman

World Languages and Cultures Faculty Publications

In an age of the Kindle and e-books, how refreshing and meaningful to read Willa Z. Silverman’s fascinating study, which so eloquently describes a time when printed books not only mattered but were treasured, sought after, and treated almost as lovers at times. Far from being a treatise on monomaniacal, “nebbishy” bookworms, Silverman sheds light on a facet of Belle E´poque history hitherto underdeveloped and introduces us to a colorful, eccentric, artistic, and fanatically driven set of bibliophiles bent on creating a haven for the book, a “bibliopolis,” or as one of Silverman’s subjects, Robert de Montesquiou ...


Review Of Sebag-Montefiore, Hugh, Dunkirk: Fight To The Last Man, James V. Koch May 2009

Review Of Sebag-Montefiore, Hugh, Dunkirk: Fight To The Last Man, James V. Koch

Economics Faculty Publications

(First Paragraph) Hugh Sebag-Montefiore correctly notes that multitudes of books already have been written about the evacuation of the British and French troops from Dunkirk in May and June 1940. He argues, however, that these accounts generally have neglected the crucial role of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in making this escape possible. He agrees that great credit must go to Adm. Bertram Ramsay, the Royal Navy, and almost one thousand small boat owners who actually moved the beleaguered troops from France to England. Nevertheless, he asserts, without the BEF, there would have been no evacuation, or at least a ...


The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold War In The Communist World, Austin Jersild Jan 2009

The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold War In The Communist World, Austin Jersild

History Faculty Publications

A reader of both Russian and Chinese, Lorenz M. Lüthi provides fascinating depth and detail to an unstable Sino-Soviet alliance shaped by strong and ambitious personalities, nationalist sensitivities, cultural misunderstandings, and the perhaps inevitable clash between two societies at very different stages in “socialist” history.


Shades Of Green: The Use Of Force Debate In The German Green Party, 1990--2002, Scott H. Brunstetter Jul 2008

Shades Of Green: The Use Of Force Debate In The German Green Party, 1990--2002, Scott H. Brunstetter

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Utilizing an heuristic model that incorporates aspects from several theoretical perspectives this dissertation examines the German Green Party debate on the use of military force from 1990-2002. From the absolute rejection of any use of force to evict Saddam Hussein during the Gulf War in 1991, the Greens evolved over the course of a decade to support the deployment of German forces to Afghanistan in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. This dissertation argues that this evolution was the result of a conscious will to govern by German political leaders in particular and external shocks—Srebrenica, Kosovo, and ...


The Shepherd Goes To War: Santo Domingo Revisited, Martha Daas Jan 2008

The Shepherd Goes To War: Santo Domingo Revisited, Martha Daas

World Languages and Cultures Faculty Publications

The thirteenth century was witness to a revolution in personal piety and the Camino de Santiago represented this new age. Pilgrimage in the Middle Ages became not only a symbol of devotion, but also a powerful method of active participation in one’s own salvation.1 The importance of this burgeoning individualism is reflected by the miracle tales of a saint who is connected both spiritually and geographically to Santiago and his trail. Like the miracles attributed to the patron saint, the miracles of Santo Domingo de Silos, as they are interpreted by Gonzalo de Berceo, reflect this revolution in ...


Slavery-Era Disclosure And Atlantic Commerce, Keith R. Allen, Jelmer Vos Jan 2008

Slavery-Era Disclosure And Atlantic Commerce, Keith R. Allen, Jelmer Vos

History Faculty Publications

Explores the connections between greater Atlantic Ocean commerce and those northern European businesses that invested in and profited from the slave trade, from the 16th century to 1888, the year that Brazil outlawed slavery - the last country in the Americas to do so. Presents the results of an in-depth case study of the predecessors of the Dutch bank ABN AMRO regarding their financial involvement in the Atlantic slave trade and its extensive commercial network in the Western Hemisphere, which was centered on the Americas.


Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation During The Second World War, Maura E. Hametz Jan 2007

Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation During The Second World War, Maura E. Hametz

History Faculty Publications

Davide Rodogno offers an illuminating appraisal of Fascist Italy’s ambitions, achievements, and failures in the occupation of Mediterranean Europe from 1940 to 1943.