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Full-Text Articles in European History

Coins, David B. Hollander Jun 2016

Coins, David B. Hollander

History Publications

The Roman monetary system initially relie don bronze bullion (aes rude) but in the late fourth century BCE Rome began to cast heavy bronze coins (aes grave) and bars (aes signatum). By around 300 BCE the Romans had adopted Greek-syle silver coinage and they soon came to use lighter and more convenient fiduciary bronze coins.


Lawyers, Friends, And Money: Portfolios Of Power In The Late Republic, David B. Hollander Jan 2016

Lawyers, Friends, And Money: Portfolios Of Power In The Late Republic, David B. Hollander

History Publications

Rome’s transformation from a regional force in Latium into a Mediterranean superpower (4th to 1st centuries BCE) was accompanied by an accelerated change of economic realities. The persistent influx of vast natural and monetary resources from abroad deeply altered the basis of Rome’s military. As income skyrocketed, the exercise of political influence at Rome became increasingly intertwined with issues of personal finance. Despite claims for frugality, the political power of senatorial families was always determined through the accumulation of wealth. By the 1st century BCE, the competition of these families for rank and recognition was dramatically wrapped up ...


Everyday Magic In Early Modern Europe, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2016

Everyday Magic In Early Modern Europe, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Kathryn Edwards begins her introduction to this well-conceived volume by noting the “explosion of research on magical practices and the attitudes about them in late medieval and early modern Europe” (1) over the last several decades. Witchcraft has continued to be the fiery epicenter of this explosion, despite scholarship’s increasing recognition that occasional eruptions of witch-hunting were surrounded by a vast and typically much more benign “magical universe” (the phrase is from Stephen Wilson’s 2003 book of the same title, frequently cited throughout this volume). The scholars Edwards has assembled each probe various areas of that universe, in ...


Religion, The Supernatural And Visual Culture In Early Modern Europe: An Album Amicorum For Charles Zika, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2016

Religion, The Supernatural And Visual Culture In Early Modern Europe: An Album Amicorum For Charles Zika, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This volume developed from a 2009 conference held in honor of Charles Zika at the University of Melbourne, where he spent most of his long career. In addition to an introductory essay by the editors, which provides a brief intellectual biography of Zika and establishes the major themes of the volume, there are seventeen contributions. Befitting Zika’s own interdisciplinarity and pioneering work incorporating visual records into historical analysis, most of the contributors are historians, many of whom draw in some way on art or other visual material, while four are art historians who situate their analysis within particular historical ...


Review Of "Inquisitorien-Handbücher: Papsturkunden Und Juristische Gutachten Aus Dem 13. Jahrhundert", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2016

Review Of "Inquisitorien-Handbücher: Papsturkunden Und Juristische Gutachten Aus Dem 13. Jahrhundert", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This dissertation from the University of Würzburg stakes out some carefully defined territory in the crowded field of heresy and inquisitorial studies. It does so by returning to some of the most frequently studied sources in this field: the early handbooks through which papal inquisitors established the legal and procedural framework of their new (in the thirteenth century) office. Scholars of inquisition going back to Célestin Douais and Henry Charles Lea in the nineteenth century, and indeed as far back as Franciscus Pegna in the sixteenth century, have worked with these texts. Bivolarov, however, identifies an area that he finds ...


Witch/Witchcraft And Sorcerer/Sorcery, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2015

Witch/Witchcraft And Sorcerer/Sorcery, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The academic study of religion has been an interdisciplinary endeavor since its inception at the end of the nineteenth century. Much of the theoretical vocabulary that is needed to study religion has been imported from adjacent disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, historiography, theology, philology, literary studies, psychology, philosophy, cultural studies, and political sciences. It is the strength of the academic study of religion to bring these approaches into conversation with one another. The Vocabulary for the Study of Religion provides an excellent platform to sustain this conversation. Written by experts with a background in a variety of disciplines, over 400 ...


Risky Business: Traders In The Roman World, David B. Hollander Jan 2015

Risky Business: Traders In The Roman World, David B. Hollander

History Publications

There has been tremendous growth in the study of the Roman economy since M. I. Finley penned his rather gloomy "Further Thoughts" on the topic in 1984. The sheer amount of material now available is both impressive and intimidating. Generally speaking, the New Institutional Economics approach, which views institutions as the primary determinants of economic performance because of their effect on transaction costs, has come to dominate Roman economic history. This is a positive development, but attempts to answer macroeconomic questions, such as the nature and extent of growth in the Roman economy, sometimes obscure the role of the individual ...


Reformers On Sorcery And Superstition, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2015

Reformers On Sorcery And Superstition, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The Observant Movement was a widespread effort to reform religious life across Europe. It took root around 1400, and for a century and more thereafter it inspired or shaped much that became central to European religion and culture. The Observants produced many of the leading religious figures of the later Middle Ages—Catherine of Siena, Bernardino of Siena and Savonarola in Italy, Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros in Spain, and in Germany Martin Luther himself. This volume provides scholars with a current, synthetic introduction to the Observant Movement. Its essays also seek collectively to expand the horizons of our study of ...


Superstition And Dissimulation: Discerning False Religion In The Fifteenth Century, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2015

Superstition And Dissimulation: Discerning False Religion In The Fifteenth Century, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Most religions claim special access to the truth and often depict those who do not accept their revelation or doctrine as living in error.1 As Christianity emerged in the late ancient world and certainly as it developed an increasingly centralized clerical hierarchy in medieval Europe, it became particularly exercised by issues of dissimulation and deceit.2 What interests the historian is how this concern shifted over time. From antiquity onwards, fear of false religion and religious falsity (which are not necessarily the same thing) had lurked in charges of paganism, heresy, apostasy, Judaizing, sorcery, and superstition. Many of these ...


The English Sailor As Compared With The Landsman: Beliefs, Folklore & Religion, 1570-1625 And Beyond, Thomas Horton Apr 2014

The English Sailor As Compared With The Landsman: Beliefs, Folklore & Religion, 1570-1625 And Beyond, Thomas Horton

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

My research aims to construct the world of a subculture in early modern England that has drifted through history without a sizable splash of real examination. What I found quickly turned into a sociological cross-examination between these two archetypes of the English villager and a man inside the maritime community. Questions arouse that brought about the age old debate of nature versus nurture. The English mariner held on to an exotic school of superstitions that were sometimes older than Christianity. Through the many journals and historical writings I read, one thing eventually became clear: the English sailor was defined by ...


Reivew Of "Des Teufels Lug Und Trug: Nikolaus Magni Von Jauer, Ein Reformtheologe Des 15. Jahrhunderts Gegen Aberglaube Und Götzendienst", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2014

Reivew Of "Des Teufels Lug Und Trug: Nikolaus Magni Von Jauer, Ein Reformtheologe Des 15. Jahrhunderts Gegen Aberglaube Und Götzendienst", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Late medieval superstition has received a fair amount of attention recently. In 2010, Euan Cameron’s expansive Enchanted Europe: Superstition, Reason, and Religion, 1250–1750 considered it at some length before moving on to later periods, and in 2013 my own Fearful Spirits, Reasoned Follies: The Boundaries of Superstition in Late Medieval Europe dealt with it exclusively. Krzysztof Bracha’s detailed study of a single late medieval author and a major (arguably the major) late medieval treatise on superstition is both the latest and also earliest important study in this area. The book is a German translation and updating of ...


Faust's Begehren: Revisiting The History Of Political Economy In Faust Ii, William H. Carter Jan 2014

Faust's Begehren: Revisiting The History Of Political Economy In Faust Ii, William H. Carter

World Languages and Cultures Publications

Since The Publication of Faust II, commentators interested in economic aspects of the text have focused primarily on three of its five acts. Bernd Mahl, whose work on Goethe’s economic knowledge remains a standard reference, writes that the topics most frequently addressed following its publication are the creation of paper money in act 1, Faust’s renewed activity in act 4, and the commercial ventures of Faust and Mephistopheles in act 5.1 More recent investigations have generally continued this trend.2 Given this lengthy history of interpretation, what is one to make of the second and third acts ...


Review Of Faust. Zweyter Theil - Paralipomena: Studienausgabe, William H. Carter Jan 2014

Review Of Faust. Zweyter Theil - Paralipomena: Studienausgabe, William H. Carter

World Languages and Cultures Publications

In 2011, Reclam published a two-volume Studienausgabe of Faust I and II (based on the Ausgabe letzter Hand), edited and with commentary by Ulrich Gaier. The following year, Edition Isele published Gaier’s Lesarten von Goethes “Faust.” These three volumes were originally published in 1999 as part of a box set titled Faust-Dichtungen (Reclam). The Studienausgabe and Lesarten von Goethes “Faust,” as Gaier explains in the preface to the latter, are revised and expanded versions of the second and third volumes of his Faust-Dichtungen (9). The publication history of these texts does not take away from their contribution to Faust ...


Seizing The Stake: Female Martyrdom In England During The Reformation, Douglas Winkey Jan 2014

Seizing The Stake: Female Martyrdom In England During The Reformation, Douglas Winkey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study will examine the complicated relationship between female religious expression and society during the sixteenth century Reformation. Luther originally formulated Protestant society in a way where women would be located in the home and away from the dangerous, but religiously critical, concept of martyrdom. Even in England, where society was different from that of Germany, women were still expected to behave subserviently to men in matters of religion and chose to reject outside forms of control of their faith. John Foxe wrote extensively on the women in question and his book formed a model for examining and discussion Reformation ...


Review Of "Magie: Rezeptions- Und Diskursgeschichtliche Analysen Von Der Antike Bis Zur Neuzeit", Michael D. Bailey Jul 2013

Review Of "Magie: Rezeptions- Und Diskursgeschichtliche Analysen Von Der Antike Bis Zur Neuzeit", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

What is one to make of a seven-hundred-page book that, by its own admission, only addresses the “tip of the iceberg” of its chosen topic (615)? Certainly, the topic is enormous: nothing less than the twenty-five-hundred-year history of conceptions of magic in Western culture, from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Otto writes from the perspective of religious studies, and he reacts in particular to the century-long effort by modern scholars of religion to define magic in some coherent and appropriately wissenschaftlich way. In the first hundred pages of his book, Otto examines the “academic discourse of magic,” focusing ...


Magie: Rezeptions- Und Diskursgeschichtliche Analysen Von Der Antike Bis Zur Neuzeit, Michael D. Bailey Jul 2013

Magie: Rezeptions- Und Diskursgeschichtliche Analysen Von Der Antike Bis Zur Neuzeit, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

What is one to make of a seven-hundred-page book that, by its own admission, only addresses the “tip of the iceberg” of its chosen topic (615)? Certainly, the topic is enormous: nothing less than the twenty-five-hundred-year history of conceptions of magic in Western culture, from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Otto writes from the perspective of religious studies, and he reacts in particular to the century-long effort by modern scholars of religion to define magic in some coherent and appropriately wissenschaftlich way. In the first hundred pages of his book, Otto examines the “academic discourse of magic,” focusing ...


Intersexes And Mixed Races: Visuality, Narrative, And ‘Bastard’ Identity In Early Twentieth-Century Germany, Kevin S. Amidon Jan 2013

Intersexes And Mixed Races: Visuality, Narrative, And ‘Bastard’ Identity In Early Twentieth-Century Germany, Kevin S. Amidon

World Languages and Cultures Publications

1he founding of the German Empire in 1871, and the resulting constellation of intra-European and colonial conflicts, generated a wide range of new concerns about rhe characteristics and determinants of "Germanness." Scholars, politicians, medical authorities, legal professionals, and artists explored and debated standards of inclusion and exclusion as they propagated both intellectual and institutional ways to develop and mainrain standards for what qualified as German. \VolfLepenies argues char rhe result was a tenuous relationship between the newly scare-defined German political sphere and the other fluid means of establishing rhe Germanness of those who inhabited rhe new state. "At rimes, it ...


Essex’S International Agenda In 1595 And His Device Of The Indian Prince, Linda Shenk Jan 2013

Essex’S International Agenda In 1595 And His Device Of The Indian Prince, Linda Shenk

English Publications

In the fall of 1595, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, was poised to attain political greatness, and he knew it. The international political climate had become sufficiently precarious that a statesman with Essex‘s particular expertise in foreign intelligence and military matters possessed skills well-tailored to address England’s current crises. Spain was once again preparing to invade, this time with an armada greater than in 1588; relations with England’s key ally France were cooling; and the financial and military advantages of asserting a presence in the New World were becoming increasingly evident. Aware of this moment as opportune ...


Carine Dunand, Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462, Michael D. Bailey Oct 2012

Carine Dunand, Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

For more than twenty years, volumes in the Cahiers Lausannois d’Histoire Médiévale have explored the cases and contexts of early European witch trials in and around the western Alps. They have largely focused on the diocese of Lausanne, but in this volume, Carine Dunand looks slightly further afield, to the Chamonix valley in the shadow of Mont Blanc, which was part of the neighboring diocese of Geneva. She follows the same format as other Cahiers volumes, most of which originated as mémoires de licence in the medieval history seminar at the University of Lausanne: about half the book is ...


On The Discursive Construction Of Jewish “Racialization” And “Race Passing:” Jews As “U-Boats” With A Mysterious “Queer Light”, Warren J. Blumenfeld Oct 2012

On The Discursive Construction Of Jewish “Racialization” And “Race Passing:” Jews As “U-Boats” With A Mysterious “Queer Light”, Warren J. Blumenfeld

Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis

The Nazi Gestapo referred to Jews in hiding as “U-Boats” to survive under the Third Reich. Like the seagoing vessels, they traveled a fluid sea. Some navigated below the depths, while others floated on the surface in plain view, artfully (and not so artfully) disguised to conceal their actual identities. The article profiles the author’s family, the Mahlers of Antwerp, Belgium, during the Nazi occupation through an investigation of the historical, theoretical, and discursive categories of “race” and “race passing,” specifically as it relates to European-heritage Jewish people.


Review Of "Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462)", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Review Of "Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462)", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

For more than twenty years, volumes in the Cahiers Lausannois d'Histoire Médiévale have explored the cases and contexts of early European witch trials in and around the western Alps. They have largely focused on the diocese of Lausanne, but in this volume, Carine Dunand looks slightly further afield, to the Chamonix valley in the shadow of Mont Blanc, which was part of the neighboring diocese of Geneva. She follows the same format as other Cahiers volumes, most of which originated as mémoires de licence in the medieval history seminar at the University of Lausanne: about half the book is ...


Review Of "Evening’S Empire: A History Of The Night In Early Modern Europe", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Review Of "Evening’S Empire: A History Of The Night In Early Modern Europe", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

What I admire most about Marcia Hall’s studies of late Cinquecento Italian painting is her straightforward way of relating specific aspects of style, especially color, to the religious and affective goals of a period that needs all the clarity it can get. In this important new study she considers how artists from Rome to Toledo brought the sacred back to sacred art in the aftermath of the Reformation and Council of Trent. Individually they “revolutionized Renaissance painting and laid the groundwork for the modern age” (5), collectively one of the most original attempts to create a new religious art ...


Magic: A Beginner's Guide (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Magic: A Beginner's Guide (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Surveys of the history of magic (and of witchcraft, although this item is decidedly not one of the latter) are thick on the ground, so with each new book, one can fairly ask what new or different elements it offers. The greatest strength of this book is its conceptual breadth. Beyond the standard medieval and early modern history of European magic and its repression, it offers (relatively) lengthy treatment of magic in post-Enlightenment Europe, including coverage of two topics almost never found in more "standard" surveys—stage magic and the modern academic treatment of magic. Covering so much ground in ...


Review Of "Demons Of Urban Reform: Early European Witch Trials And Criminal Justice, 1430-1530", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Review Of "Demons Of Urban Reform: Early European Witch Trials And Criminal Justice, 1430-1530", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

It’s interesting, fascinating, and even entertaining. The book is clearly directed to a broader audience—including, certainly, the burgeoning yoga market—but scholars, while familiar with the figures and issues in Syman’s book, would also find it interesting, if lacking the depth of typical scholarly studies


Peter The Hermit: Straddling The Boundaries Of Lordship, Millennialism, And Heresy, Stanley Perdios Jan 2012

Peter The Hermit: Straddling The Boundaries Of Lordship, Millennialism, And Heresy, Stanley Perdios

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Peter the Hermit: Straddling the Boundaries of Lordship, Millennialism, and Heresy demonstrates how eleventh and early twelfth century wandering preachers established millennial spiritual lordship over their popular movements. Peter the Hermit's Popular Crusade exemplifies this.

Millennial spiritual lordship accessed millennial undercurrents of medieval society at the time and often the reform movements of the church. Such lordship stood just outside the traditional secular and spiritual lordships of the period. Indeed, a millennial spiritual lord could find himself being accused of heresy, since the energies that drove reform also drove supposed heretical movements. These kinds of lordships also followed patterns ...


Fighting The Cold War In The Virtual Streets: Video Games As A Source Base For Social And Cultural History, Kelly Wenig Sep 2011

Fighting The Cold War In The Virtual Streets: Video Games As A Source Base For Social And Cultural History, Kelly Wenig

History Conference Papers, Presentations and Posters

In 1991, a blond-haired, blue-eyed soldier with an American Flag tattooed on either shoulder brawled with a burly, scarred Soviet ex-wrestler in a Moscow factory. As the two opponents squared off, an aggressive, drunken crowd watched the spectacle with frenzied fervor. For less than 20 seconds, the two combatants engaged in vicious conflict, exchanging punishing blows and bone-crunching body-slams. After one final flurry of violence the soldier slammed the Soviet’s head into the ground. The Soviet remained on the ground, broken and bruised as the American soldier stood triumphantly, confidently over him...


Der Justizmord An Anna Göldi: Neue Recherchen Zum Letzten Hexenprozess In Europa (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2011

Der Justizmord An Anna Göldi: Neue Recherchen Zum Letzten Hexenprozess In Europa (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The story of "Europe's last witch" is dramatic. In 1781 in the Swiss canton of Glarus the young daughter of a high-ranking citizen began to suffer pains and fits, caused, so it was claimed, by pins and needles magically placed in her milk and bread. The middle-aged maidservant of the family was accused and terminated from her position. She fled, but the child continued to suffer and warrants were issued for the maid's arrest. She was returned to Glarus, accused of being in league with Satan, put on trial, and tortured. Authorities enjoined her to perform magical healing ...


Hexen: Wissen Was Stimmt (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2011

Hexen: Wissen Was Stimmt (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

In this slim volume, Rita Voltmer undertakes to survey historical European witchcraft. Unlike most other such surveys, which typically develop a basically [End Page 116] chronological narrative that begins with the origins of various elements of witchcraft beliefs (harmful magic, diabolical pact, sabbath, etc.), follows these ideas through the years of major witch hunting (the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries), and concludes with the decline of trials and eventual intellectual discrediting of much of the witch stereotype in the eighteenth century, she instead organizes her survey around a number of myths and misconceptions about historical witchcraft that have persisted in popular ...


Grimoires: A History Of Magic Books (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jan 2011

Grimoires: A History Of Magic Books (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This “history of magic books” might equally well have been subtitled a “history of magic through books.” Not all forms of magic, obviously. Davies is quick to recognize that large areas of magical practice exist entirely in oral culture. Yet one of the most important points he makes in this book is that “grimoires” are not just rare and expensive tomes available only to elite, learned magicians. At least from the time of the printing revolution, magic books were making their way into the hands of simple cunning folk (the subject of a previous book by Davies), and this trend ...


Review Of Goethes Politisches Denken Und Handeln Im Spiegel Seiner Amtlichen Schriften: Eine Politikwissenschaftliche Analyse, William H. Carter Jan 2011

Review Of Goethes Politisches Denken Und Handeln Im Spiegel Seiner Amtlichen Schriften: Eine Politikwissenschaftliche Analyse, William H. Carter

World Languages and Cultures Publications

Goethe’s Amtliche Schriften document in great detail the many responsibilities he undertook during his public service in Weimar, which began in 1776 and continued for decades following his return from Italy. Whether one is familiar with this side of Goethe or desires to learn more about it, Wolfgang Pollert provides a welcome contribution to this area of Goethe studies, one which still remains largely unexplored. As the title suggests, Pollert’s study is not a literary analysis. While there are a few brief references to Faust, West-östlicher Divan, and the Wilhelm Meister novels, the author concentrates primarily on Goethe ...