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Articles 1 - 30 of 47

Full-Text Articles in European History

La Modernité Tunisienne Dévoilée : Une Étude Autour De La Femme Célibataire, Madison Wagner Jan 2019

La Modernité Tunisienne Dévoilée : Une Étude Autour De La Femme Célibataire, Madison Wagner

Scripps Senior Theses

This thesis explains recent accounts of discrimination and cutbacks in reproductive health spaces in Tunisia. Complicating dominant analyses, which attribute these events to the post-revolution political atmosphere which has allowed the proliferation of islamic extremism, I interpret these instances as a manifestation of a deeply rooted stigma against sexually active single women. I trace this stigma’s inception to the contradictory way that Habib Bourguiba conceptualized modernity after independence, and the responsibility he assigned to Tunisian women to embody that modernity. This responsibility remains salient today, and is putting Tunisian women in an increasingly untenable and vulnerable position.

After independence ...


Camino A La Interseccionalidad: Una Aproximación Al Desarrollo De Ideas Feministas En La España Contemporánea, Kierra Mitchell Jan 2019

Camino A La Interseccionalidad: Una Aproximación Al Desarrollo De Ideas Feministas En La España Contemporánea, Kierra Mitchell

Scripps Senior Theses

Esta tesis utiliza la interseccionalidad como lente para hacer un análisis de los textos culturales y activistas para explicar cómo se manifiestan las ideas feministas en estos dos períodos cruciales de avance del feminismo en España: el primer cuarto del siglo veinte y las primeras décadas del siglo veintiuno. La interseccionalidad sirve como una prisma de análisis que permite entender los sistemas hegemónicos de poder. Esta tesis analiza ejemplos de textos y demandas que ilustran las preocupaciones y aparatos ideológicos que sustentan diferentes aproximaciones al feminismo en estas dos épocas. Un interés específico, en especial en la segunda parte, es ...


The Chronicle Of William Pelhisson: A Microcosm Of Early Thirteenth Century Papal Inquisition, Emily Petillon Jan 2019

The Chronicle Of William Pelhisson: A Microcosm Of Early Thirteenth Century Papal Inquisition, Emily Petillon

Scripps Senior Theses

This study will use Pelhisson’s account of the Toulouse inquisition of 1230-1238 as a case study into the causes of the inquisition, the mindset of the Dominicans who carried it out, and the institutionalization of the inquisition process.


Trading Spaces: An Analysis Of Gendered Spaces Before, During, And After The French Revolution Of 1789 And The Mexican Revolution Of 1910, Kevin Kilroy Jan 2019

Trading Spaces: An Analysis Of Gendered Spaces Before, During, And After The French Revolution Of 1789 And The Mexican Revolution Of 1910, Kevin Kilroy

Scripps Senior Theses

This thesis investigates the affects of the French Revolution of 1789 and the Mexican Revolution of 1910 on gender roles in their respective societies. Women that contributed to political discourse challenged separations of public and private spheres, which dictated order in the late and postrevolutionary periods of France and Mexico. Given the deliberate acts by both postrevolutionary governments to send women to the periphery of their respective societies, it is vital to revisit the examples of female influence that shaped the early French and Mexican Revolutions. The understanding that comes from a detailed analysis of the parameters of gendered spaces ...


Evolving Conceptions Of Sovereignty As Applied To Membership In International Organizations, Luke C. Radice Jan 2019

Evolving Conceptions Of Sovereignty As Applied To Membership In International Organizations, Luke C. Radice

CMC Senior Theses

In the current international climate, both nations and individuals increasingly question both the validity and necessity of international organizations. This paper seeks to answer some of those questions, and to determine why countries choose to surrender significant portions of the national power that they are afforded under traditional perceptions of “Westphalian sovereignty”. This question is answered through an analysis of historical political thought on the concept of Sovereignty, then is applied to two case studies: the United Nations and the European Union, in which the benefits and downsides of surrendering sovereignty are discussed. Ultimately, this thesis concludes that the concept ...


Art Of The Weimar Republic And The Premonitions Of Fascism, Leshan Xiao Jan 2018

Art Of The Weimar Republic And The Premonitions Of Fascism, Leshan Xiao

CMC Senior Theses

Founded in 1918 following the carnage of World War One until the Nazi takeover of 1933, the Weimar Republic is widely renowned as a bastion of freedom and democracy that existed only briefly between the reigns of two authoritarian regimes. The Weimar period witnessed an unprecedented prosperity of art and culture, with tremendous advancements in the fields of literature, the visual arts, and film. However, the remnants of the old Empire persisted within the new Republic, and new fascist factions rose to prominence within German society. Artists that lived through the era, both liberal and conservative, observed and provided their ...


The Two Conversions Of John Newton: Politics & Christianity In The British Abolitionist Movement, Megan Keller Jan 2018

The Two Conversions Of John Newton: Politics & Christianity In The British Abolitionist Movement, Megan Keller

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis interrogated the relationship between abolition and the evangelical revival in Britain through the life of John Newton. Newton, though not representative of every abolitionist, was a vital figure in the movement. His influence on Hannah More and William Wilberforce along with his contributions to the Parliamentary hearings made him a key aspect of its success. How he came to fulfill that role was a long and complex journey, both in terms of his religion and his understanding of slavery. He began his life under the spiritual direction of his pious, Dissenting mother, became an atheist by nineteen, and ...


Dividing Germany, Accepting An Invitation To Empire: The Life, Death, And Historical Significance Of George Kennan's "Program A", John Gleb Sep 2017

Dividing Germany, Accepting An Invitation To Empire: The Life, Death, And Historical Significance Of George Kennan's "Program A", John Gleb

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

This paper will attempt to reinterpret the early Cold War moment in Euro-American relations that gave rise to and ultimately destroyed George Kennan’s plan to reunify and neutralize Germany—the so-called “Program A” of 1948–49. Kennan envisioned his Program as the first and decisive step towards creating a “free European community” capable of acting as a non-aligned “third force,” thus ending the Cold War on the Continent. But before it could be presented to the United States’ European allies, Britain and France, some of the plan’s principal features were leaked to the New York Times. These features ...


The Dangers Of Corporate Champions: The East India Company's Devastating Impact On Britain, Richard Newman Jan 2017

The Dangers Of Corporate Champions: The East India Company's Devastating Impact On Britain, Richard Newman

CMC Senior Theses

This paper argues against the common historical belief that the British East India Company’s actions benefited the British Public. While many recent historical works argue that the Company had detrimental effects on India, the common consensus believes that the Company’s actions while pillaging India benefited Britain through economic treasures and access to luxuries.

In the first section of the text, the author describes the British East India Company’s corruption, propaganda, and lobbying efforts to enrich individual members of the Company and protect personal and corporate profits. The next section describes the Company’s impact on Britain and ...


Fashion And Court-Building In The Sixteenth-Century Florentine Ducal Court: Politics, Agency, And Paleopathology In The Wardrobes Of Eleonora Di Toledo And Giovanna D'Austria, Leah Rachel Jeffers Jan 2017

Fashion And Court-Building In The Sixteenth-Century Florentine Ducal Court: Politics, Agency, And Paleopathology In The Wardrobes Of Eleonora Di Toledo And Giovanna D'Austria, Leah Rachel Jeffers

Scripps Senior Theses

Fashion in the Renaissance became intensely political, highly gendered, and anatomized (i.e. emphasizing human anatomy rather than masking it). Court culture placed a particular emphasis on the body of the courtier, as skills such as dancing and dressing fashionably became crucial to political success in states throughout Europe. In sixteenth-century Florence, the Medici attempted to install a duchy in what was at the time a republican city (with strong republican heritage). Florentine fears of foreign domination and resentment towards non-republican forms of government made the Medici’s task nearly impossible. Fashion became a primary pillar of the Medicean political ...


The 1936 Nazi Olympic Games; The First Truly Modern Olympiad, Quinn Glosniak Jan 2017

The 1936 Nazi Olympic Games; The First Truly Modern Olympiad, Quinn Glosniak

CMC Senior Theses

Revived in 1896 by the Frenchman Pierre de Coubertin, the Olympic Games have come to represent the ultimate international celebration of sport, culture, and the human spirit. The grandiose festival of the current day evolved into its mature form throughout the course of the twentieth century. However, no Olympiad altered the Olympic Movement as radically as the Berlin Olympics of 1936. Through the examination of key secondary sources and primary sources like, International Olympic Committee (IOC) records, personal testimonies, and newspaper articles, this thesis examines how and why the 1936 Nazi Olympics fundamentally altered the Olympic Movement and forced the ...


The Development Of An English Antislavery Identity In The Eighteenth Century, John Gilbert Hyatt Jan 2016

The Development Of An English Antislavery Identity In The Eighteenth Century, John Gilbert Hyatt

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis explores the growth of antislavery sentiment in the English-speaking world during the eighteenth century. I examine the institutional processes, transatlantic discourses, and ideological schema with which individuals and groups reformulated their identities as a means of extricating themselves from slavery's various social, economic, and ethical implications. I argue that abolitionism in England is best understood as the cumulative outcome to a series of identity reconstructions, and that a Histoire des Mentalités, as drawn from the Annales School, is an apt methodology for unmasking the structural underpinnings of an antislavery identity.


Beer And Brewing In German Culture: Bridging The Gaps Within Steam, John D. Sundquist Sep 2015

Beer And Brewing In German Culture: Bridging The Gaps Within Steam, John D. Sundquist

The STEAM Journal

A university-level course on science, history, and culture of beer and brewing offers students from a wide range of disciplines a unique opportunity to learn from each other. They gain an appreciation for STEAM and the interaction of a number of disciplines while examining a subject of growing interest. This paper provides a brief description of such a course and includes specific examples of ways in which students explore science, engineering, humanities and the arts, as these areas of research come together in the study of beer and brewing.


Climbing The Mountain Of Conflict: Margaret Thatcher's Falklands Crisis, Benjamin F. Waldman Jan 2015

Climbing The Mountain Of Conflict: Margaret Thatcher's Falklands Crisis, Benjamin F. Waldman

CMC Senior Theses

Early in her Prime Ministership, Margaret Thatcher fought an unlikely diversionary war far from home for the ownership of the Falkland Islands. The Islands lie off of Argentina’s coast about 8,000 miles from London, but have been subject to Britain’s rule since 1836. In April 1982, hoping to distract from domestic political and economic turmoil, Argentina’s military dictatorship ordered a surprise invasion of the Islands. Thatcher, Britain’s first female Prime Minister, responded in full force. By early May, a British fleet reached the Islands. By June, despite American efforts to stop a war between its ...


Le Nationalisme Et L'Identité Nationale Dans La Préservation Des Jardins Historiques: Vaux-Le-Vicomte, Le Potager Du Roi, Et Champ De Bataille, Mikayla E. Raymond Jan 2015

Le Nationalisme Et L'Identité Nationale Dans La Préservation Des Jardins Historiques: Vaux-Le-Vicomte, Le Potager Du Roi, Et Champ De Bataille, Mikayla E. Raymond

Scripps Senior Theses

Cette thèse analyse la relation entre la préservation des jardins historiques et l’identité nationale. Pour les français, leurs jardins historiques sont une source de fierté. Cette thèse va analyser comment cette place d’importance dans la narrative nationale peut influencer la préservation des jardins historiques. Les trois sites de Vaux le Vicomte, le Potager du Roi à Versailles, et Champ de Bataille servent de mieux comprendre le rôle de l’histoire dans les efforts de préservation. Vaux le Vicomte illustre l’importance de la préservation sur comment nous percevons les sites historiques. Cette site était en tres mauvais état ...


Making History: How Art Museums In The French Revolution Crafted A National Identity, 1789-1799, Anna E. Sido Jan 2015

Making History: How Art Museums In The French Revolution Crafted A National Identity, 1789-1799, Anna E. Sido

Scripps Senior Theses

This paper compares two art museums, both created during the French Revolution, that fostered national unity by promoting a cultural identity. By analyzing the use of preexisting architecture from the ancien régime, innovative displays of art and redefinitions of the museum visitor as an Enlightened citizen, this thesis explores the application of eighteenth-century philosophy to the formation of two museums. The first is the Musée Central des Arts in the Louvre and the second is the Musée des Monuments Français, both housed in buildings taken over by the Revolutionary government and present the seized property of the royal family and ...


Appeals For “One Million Belgian Children”: Understanding The Success Of The Commission For Relief In Belgium Through The Mudd Family Papers, Brian David Key Jan 2015

Appeals For “One Million Belgian Children”: Understanding The Success Of The Commission For Relief In Belgium Through The Mudd Family Papers, Brian David Key

CMC Senior Theses

In response to the German occupation of Belgium in World War I, future U.S. president Herbert Hoover and a handful of his colleagues in the mining engineer industry founded the Commission for Relief in Belgium (CRB). The CRB engineered one of the greatest relief movements in history partly on account of its successful public appeals; nevertheless, the success of these appeals has never been fully explained due to a remarkable dearth of scholarship on the topic. This paper seeks to fill in the gap by analyzing salient documents in the Mudd Family Papers, located in Honnold/Mudd Library’s ...


Managing Free Trade In Early Modern Europe: Institutions, Information, And The Free Port Of Livorno, Corey Tazzara Sep 2014

Managing Free Trade In Early Modern Europe: Institutions, Information, And The Free Port Of Livorno, Corey Tazzara

Scripps Faculty Publications and Research

In November 1644, the ship captain Sebastiane Ferro arrived at the Tuscan port of Livomo with a cargo of wine. Even before requesting the pratica of the portentry for the purpose of trade-he asked to receive the exemptions of Livomo, "to be sure that in corning onto land he not be molested either in his person or in his goods for civil debts contracted in foreign states." Technically, these exemptions were restricted to inhabitants of the city. Nonetheless, the Customs Office routinely granted them even to temporary visitors of what was Europe's premier free port, and in this case ...


The Efficacy Of Mathematics Education, Eric Geimer Feb 2014

The Efficacy Of Mathematics Education, Eric Geimer

The STEAM Journal

Evidence supports the notion that mathematics education in the United States is inadequate. There is also evidence that mathematics education deficiencies extend internationally. The worldwide mathematics education deficit appears large enough that improving student performance in this educational problem area could yield great economic benefit. To improve the efficacy of mathematics education, education’s root problems must first be understood. Often supposed educational root problems are considered and contrasted against potential deficiencies of mathematics methodologies and curricula that are based on mainstream educational philosophies. The educational philosophies utilized to form early-grade mathematics methodologies and related curricula are judged to be ...


The Grand Strategy: A Study On Hannibal’S Stratagem During The Second Punic War, John T. Medin Iv Jan 2014

The Grand Strategy: A Study On Hannibal’S Stratagem During The Second Punic War, John T. Medin Iv

CMC Senior Theses

In this paper I sought to determine whether or not Hannibal Barca had a grand strategy to deal with the Romans during the Second Punic War. If Hannibal did have a strategy, I would try to determine what his strategy was and if it was actually feasible. I approached this question by looking into the background leading up to the Second Punic War, the primary sources explanation of Hannibal’s strategy during the Second Punic War, the logistical feasibility of the plan, and Hannibal’s movements throughout Italy during the war. In conclusion I decided that Hannibal did have a ...


Holes In The Historical Record: The Politics Of Torture In Great Britain, The United States, And Argentina, 1869-1977, Lynsey Chediak Jan 2014

Holes In The Historical Record: The Politics Of Torture In Great Britain, The United States, And Argentina, 1869-1977, Lynsey Chediak

CMC Senior Theses

While many politicians gain national or international acclaim, domestic political activists are rarely remembered for their dedication and, similarly, their sufferings. More specifically, the acts of female political activists, and the harsh punishments they endure following government pushback, are not appreciated or acknowledged by popular histories.

Across Great Britain, the United States, and Argentina, three women played crucial roles in advancing reform against unjust government policies. Josephine Butler (1828-1906) was a pivotal character in repealing laws allowing for the government regulation of prostitution, the Contagious Diseases Acts, in Great Britain. Similarly, Alice Paul (1885-1997) was essential in achieving the ratification ...


The Secret Weapons Of World War Ii: An Analysis Of Hitler's Chemical Weapons Policy, Reyn Sp Ono Jan 2014

The Secret Weapons Of World War Ii: An Analysis Of Hitler's Chemical Weapons Policy, Reyn Sp Ono

CMC Senior Theses

Very little historical scholarship specifically analyzes or explores the absence of chemical weapons in World War II. This thesis seeks to fill the gaps in the historical narrative by providing insight into the personal and external factors that influenced Hitler’s chemical weapons policy. This thesis also touches upon the wartime violence perpetrated by both the Axis and the Allies, thereby offering a neutral, unbiased historical account. From 1939-1941, Hitler did not deploy chemical weapons because his blitzkrieg of Europe was progressing successfully – chemical warfare was unnecessary. With the failure of Operation Barbarossa from 1942-1943, Armaments Minister Albert Speer oversaw ...


"Playthings Of A Historical Process": Prostitution In Spanish Society From The Restoration To The Civil War (1874-1939), Ann Kirkpatrick Jan 2014

"Playthings Of A Historical Process": Prostitution In Spanish Society From The Restoration To The Civil War (1874-1939), Ann Kirkpatrick

Scripps Senior Theses

Spain underwent a series of tumultuous social and political changes in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Prostitute women directly experienced these changes as fluctuations in their social and legal status within Spanish society. The years spanning from 1874 to 1931 are known as the Restoration, when the Bourbon monarchy was reinstalled under King Alfonso XII (1857-1885) after the crumbling of the First Spanish Republic (1873-1874). During this time, Spain experienced a period of growing nationalism and urbanization, and prostitution began to be interpreted as a threat to the nation in terms of public health and decency. Between 1923 ...


Susan Bauer's 2003 Theory Of Well-Educated Mind: Could The Classical Approach To Teaching History Work In Southern California History K12 Classrooms?, Tomasz B. Stanek Nov 2013

Susan Bauer's 2003 Theory Of Well-Educated Mind: Could The Classical Approach To Teaching History Work In Southern California History K12 Classrooms?, Tomasz B. Stanek

LUX: A Journal of Transdisciplinary Writing and Research from Claremont Graduate University

The main purpose of this research evolved from the publication of S. W. Bauer Well-educated mind, a study of the significance of new methods of teaching history course. Bauer (2003) argues that the grammarian approach of simple recognition and memorization removes students from reading primary sources. This theory suggests a new methodology for the instructors and students through the three-stage process of grammar, dialectic, and rhetoric preparation with aid of primary sources or “great books list”. This paper supports Bauer’s thesis and provides evidence through extensive interviews that indeed this concept of pedagogy is present in Southern California schools.


Detente Or Razryadka? The Kissinger-Dobrynin Telephone Transcripts And Relaxing American-Soviet Tensions, 1969-1977., Daniel S. Stackhouse Jr. Jan 2013

Detente Or Razryadka? The Kissinger-Dobrynin Telephone Transcripts And Relaxing American-Soviet Tensions, 1969-1977., Daniel S. Stackhouse Jr.

CGU Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation argues that through a secret backchannel, US National Security Adviser and later Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Soviet Ambassador to the US Anatoly Dobrynin formed a relationship which provided the empathy needed to bridge many of the ideological differences between their two countries. It examines transcripts of their telephone conversations from 1969-1977 when the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in detente, or a relaxation of tensions, during the Cold War. The dissertation concludes that the Kissinger-Dobrynin backchannel serves as a case study of the effectiveness of back channels in international diplomacy.


Indivisible And Inseparable: The Austro-Hungarian Army And The Question Of Decline And Fall, Kyle D. Woods Jan 2013

Indivisible And Inseparable: The Austro-Hungarian Army And The Question Of Decline And Fall, Kyle D. Woods

CMC Senior Theses

The title of this work is “Indivisible and Inseparable” the motto of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. This motto is just one of many ways in the Austro-Hungarian Empire fought against the centrifugal forces seeking to destroy it. I argue here that the historic theory of decline and fall is misguided as a model for understanding the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and question its usefulness when applied to other nation states and empires as well. I suggest that the Austro-Hungarian military, specifically its condition prior to the First World War, is an ideal lens for exploring the dissolution of the Empire ...


Rape As A Weapon Of War: The Demystification Of The German Wehrmacht During The Second World War, Alisse Baumgarten Jan 2013

Rape As A Weapon Of War: The Demystification Of The German Wehrmacht During The Second World War, Alisse Baumgarten

CMC Senior Theses

The German Armed Forces were originally thought to be completely innocent of all war crimes associated with unethical Nazi racial policies. This has been proven not to be the case. History has adjusted itself to show that Wehrmacht forces were guilty of virtually every war crime except for the sexual violation foreign women. Due to the long-standing assumption that Nazi racial ideology prevented the intermingling of the “Aryan” race with the “unworthy” Eastern European races, this myth was rarely questioned. Given the lack of hard evidence proving that civilian women were raped by invading Wehrmacht troops, a firm conclusion is ...


L'Infirmière Française: Entre La Laïcité Et La Sentimentalité, Melanie R. Williams Apr 2012

L'Infirmière Française: Entre La Laïcité Et La Sentimentalité, Melanie R. Williams

Scripps Senior Theses

Le développement de la profession d’infirmière en France suivait un chemin nébuleux. L’infirmière en Angleterre et aux États-Unis venait facilement, mais la situation en France interdisait un processus similaire. L’avènement de l’infirmière française a eu lieu à travers des batailles idéologiques et physiques sous la Troisième République. Ces luttes montraient les conflits entre l’Église et la République, entre les femmes et les hommes, et celle de la Première Guerre mondiale. La manière dans laquelle chacun de ses batailles se passait se trouve en examinant les trois mouvements de la création de l’infirmière, les évènements ...


Die Frauen, Der Strafvollzug, Und Der Staat: Incarceration And Ideology In Post-Wwii Germany, Andrea Moody Kozak Apr 2012

Die Frauen, Der Strafvollzug, Und Der Staat: Incarceration And Ideology In Post-Wwii Germany, Andrea Moody Kozak

Scripps Senior Theses

This thesis explores how the material reality of Germany's women's prisons has been largely determined by their ideological foundations, and by the historical developments that have produced these ideologies. The German women's prison system is complex and imperfect, yet in many ways very progressive. It is the result of the last sixty years of tumultuous German history, and has been uniquely shaped by the capitalist and communist histories of the once-divided state. In its current state, it seems to have incorporated elements of a supposedly “rational” or individualistic conception of humanity as well as one that is ...


The Gesamtkunstwerk Of A Reunifying Metropolis: Berlin’S Kunsthaus Tacheles, Emma Camille Scheidt Apr 2012

The Gesamtkunstwerk Of A Reunifying Metropolis: Berlin’S Kunsthaus Tacheles, Emma Camille Scheidt

Scripps Senior Theses

After the fall of the Berlin Wall, the city of Berlin was faced with the challenge to reunify in both political and cultural realms. Berlin is noted throughout history as a metropolis that is characterized by flux; the Post-Wende [Post-Wall] era is another remarkable transitional phase in Berlin’s history. During this era, the city was extremely porous and susceptible to cultural forces that could easily define the city’s malleable future. This essay discusses such forces and events that were planned by the city government, as well as an organic grassroots force that was especially significant in the cultural ...