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Full-Text Articles in European History

The Unwavering Movement: Integrating Reason Into British Penal Code 1730-1823, Rebecca M. Good Dec 2019

The Unwavering Movement: Integrating Reason Into British Penal Code 1730-1823, Rebecca M. Good

International ResearchScape Journal

Between the early 16th and 18th centuries, English attitude towards crime and correction were based on the strong held belief that faith and religion were the only cure to immorality. Lawmakers began to threaten citizens with capital punishment for menial crimes such as petty theft and begging. Resulting of a moral panic, lawmakers turned to the deterrence to dissuade citizens from partaking in criminal activity. The list of crimes punishable by death in England rose from 50 offenses in 1688 to over 220 in 1815. This article explains the origins of the Bloody Code and how Enlightenment-Era thought ...


Freemasons: Patrons Of The Enlightenment Arts, Jacob Money May 2019

Freemasons: Patrons Of The Enlightenment Arts, Jacob Money

Honors Projects

The Enlightenment is known as a time of great advances in science, political theory and individual rights. What is often not given proper consideration are the advances made in the fine arts. Out of this time period came the Hudson River Valley School of painting, a return to Greco-Roman architecture, and the explosion in popularity of the performing arts. In each of these cases, the historically secretive organization known as the Freemasons had a role in the patronage of these artists, architects and composers. Most people are aware of the Masons through popular media and although countless conspiracy theories surround ...


The Women Of Brave New World: Aldous Huxley And The Gendered Agenda Of Eugenics, Jessica Eylem Apr 2018

The Women Of Brave New World: Aldous Huxley And The Gendered Agenda Of Eugenics, Jessica Eylem

Ray Browne Conference on Cultural and Critical Studies

Eugenics is the belief that the human race can rid of unwanted characteristics by using science. As this belief became more widely known through the Nazi’s raise to power and their use of ideologies maintained by fear, scholars began to take note of its rise in academic circles and the followers behind it. Authors began incorporating these ideas into their novels as a way of commenting on the future of our world if eugenic practices continued. In this article, I discuss how the concept of eugenics is used in dystopian novels, especially during the interwar period. It explores Aldous ...


Neither “Headache” Nor “Illness:” The False Narrative Of Syphilis And Its Origin In Europe, Michael W. Horton Jun 2014

Neither “Headache” Nor “Illness:” The False Narrative Of Syphilis And Its Origin In Europe, Michael W. Horton

HIST 4800 Early America in the Atlantic World (Herndon)

In this paper I argue that the master narrative of the origin of syphilis in Europe, known as the Columbian Theory does not hold up to historical review since it does not contain enough concrete evidence for we as historians to be comfortable with as the master narrative. To form my argument I use the writings of Girolamo Fracastoro, an Italian physician known for coining the term “syphilis,” as the basis when I review the journal of Christopher Columbus. I review his journal, which chronicles the first voyage to the Americas, to see if there is any connection between the ...


New World Propaganda: Pigafetta's Journal, World Maps, And New European Ideologies, 1525-1556, Megan Sympson May 2014

New World Propaganda: Pigafetta's Journal, World Maps, And New European Ideologies, 1525-1556, Megan Sympson

HIST 4800 Early America in the Atlantic World (Herndon)

Once Europeans discovered the New World, cartographers of the time began to map the Americas based on either their own experiences or accounts of others who visited the new land. These maps did not simply serve as navigational tools, but also were used as decorative objects containing elements of propaganda intended to shape opinions of the New World in the Old. In this paper, I examine Antonio Pigafetta’s journal, documenting the voyage of Magellen in 1519-22, and the world maps created after his journal was published. Six world maps by Diogo Ribeiro, Jean Rotz, Guillaume Brouscon, Sebastian Cabot, Pierre ...