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Full-Text Articles in European History

Mapping Manuscript Migrations: Building And Using A Linked Open Data Environment For Medieval And Renaissance Manuscript Studies, Lynn Ransom Apr 2020

Mapping Manuscript Migrations: Building And Using A Linked Open Data Environment For Medieval And Renaissance Manuscript Studies, Lynn Ransom

Digital Initiatives Symposium

“Mapping Manuscript Migrations” is a digital humanities project that brings together three distinct data sets about the histories of more than 215,000 medieval and Renaissance manuscripts for browsing, searching, and visualization. Four leading institutions from Great Britain, France, Finland, and the United States collaborated on this project, pooling their expertise in Semantic Web technologies and medieval manuscript curation and research, as well as contributing their own data from the three contrasting datasets. The Schoenberg Database of Manuscripts at the University of Pennsylvania, the Medieval Manuscripts Catalogue at the University of Oxford, and the Bibale database from the Institut de ...


Law And The Supernatural: A Transition Of Modernity In Britain, 1650-1850, John Blessing Nov 2019

Law And The Supernatural: A Transition Of Modernity In Britain, 1650-1850, John Blessing

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

When studying the supernatural in British history, the focus tends to be guided toward what and why the people in a society believed. This is for good reason, as understanding both what and why people believed in the supernatural is done in an attempt to understand the historical perspective of that given period. One concept that is narrowly discussed, however, is using British law to guide this discovery. As is in many cases, law is oftentimes a reflection of a societies norms and desires, and the courts are meant to uphold these beliefs. The supernatural is no different, yet this ...


Material Culture In Victorian Occult, Samantha Cragg Nov 2019

Material Culture In Victorian Occult, Samantha Cragg

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Material Culture in the Victorian Occult.

Key words: Occult, Victorian, Material culture, Objects, Spiritual, Nineteenth Century, Modernity.

Author: Samantha Cragg. Sncrag8764@ung.edu

Phillip Guerty. Phillip.Guertry@ung.edu

Oral Presentation

History field

This paper looks at the intersection of the belief in the supernatural and consumer culture in the context of an increasingly urban and modern Victorian Britain. Although developing initially in a rural context, folk superstitions quickly spread and thrived in the new city cultures that were rapidly developing at the time. These spiritualistic traditions then became entrenched in both rural and urban settings. At the same time ...


Teaching The Principles Of Research Through The Creation Of Digital Content, Melodie H. Eichbauer Oct 2019

Teaching The Principles Of Research Through The Creation Of Digital Content, Melodie H. Eichbauer

Florida Statewide Symposium: Best Practices in Undergraduate Research

This presentation highlights the outcomes of a series of student internships that resulted in the production of successively more complex content videos for my undergraduate survey EUH 2021 Medieval European History. The production of the videos mirrored the research process and those creating the videos thought about and worked through the steps that a research project takes. Students enrolled in the course, which explores the period c.400 and c.1400 A.D., oftentimes have a difficult time with how to conceptualize the information, how to navigate the information, and how to delve into the information. The students engaged in ...


From Complaisance To Collaboration: Analyzing Citizens’ Motives Near Concentration And Extermination Camps During The Holocaust, Jordan Green Jun 2019

From Complaisance To Collaboration: Analyzing Citizens’ Motives Near Concentration And Extermination Camps During The Holocaust, Jordan Green

MAD-RUSH Undergraduate Research Conference

The role of local peoples near concentration camps, extermination camps, and mass shooting sites in Europe during World War II is a widely unexplored area of the Holocaust. Although locals both knew of these sites and their purposes, many chose to be complaisant while others collaborated with the Nazi regime. Therefore, non-persecuted Germans and occupied peoples near the camps played a substantial role in the atrocities committed during the Holocaust. These civilians’ actions, or lack thereof, in response to the crimes against humanity before their eyes were driven by three main factors: economic gain, antisemitism, and fear. Regardless of motive ...


How Dumbledore Saved Europe: A Comparison Of Fascist Rhetoric In European History And In The Harry Potter Franchises, Emma Pederson, Natalie Rice Jun 2019

How Dumbledore Saved Europe: A Comparison Of Fascist Rhetoric In European History And In The Harry Potter Franchises, Emma Pederson, Natalie Rice

MAD-RUSH Undergraduate Research Conference

In recent years, the popularity of the Harry Potter franchise has seen a resurgence with the release of the first two Fantastic Beasts films and accompanying screenplays. As parallels have been drawn between Voldemort’s Death Eaters and Nazis, it is time to examine the relationship between Gellert Grindelwald and real-life fascists. Through such a comparison, we can see common rhetoric in both real and fictional fascism.

Gellert Grindelwald and Albus Dumbledore have not only a Nazi-like goal of racial purity, but employ Nazi-like language to defend themselves. Related fascist rhetoric is woven throughout other European history, particularly in the ...


Blood, Meth, And Tears: The Super Soldiers Of World War Ii, Nicholas Racine Jun 2019

Blood, Meth, And Tears: The Super Soldiers Of World War Ii, Nicholas Racine

MAD-RUSH Undergraduate Research Conference

Day and night, soldiers in World War II were physically and mentally strained by fatigue and psychiatric distress. Consequently, many soldiers were left exhausted and demoralized. War efforts hinged on soldiers succeeding in missions, thus a fast-acting solution was needed. Development of the psychostimulant drugs Benzedrine and Pervitin in the 1920s and 30s spurred enthusiasm among scientists, the media, the public, and various governments. Potent and powerful, these drugs exert effects that promote wakefulness, elevated mood, and improved field performance. Governments quickly began researching use of stimulants to improve their war efforts. By the early 40s, both drugs had millions ...


Gaming In Britain 1900-1939: ‘I Have Got A Good Following. I Have Now A Duke And An Earl. In Fact I Have The Cream Of Society.’, Seamus M G Murphy Dr May 2019

Gaming In Britain 1900-1939: ‘I Have Got A Good Following. I Have Now A Duke And An Earl. In Fact I Have The Cream Of Society.’, Seamus M G Murphy Dr

International Conference on Gambling & Risk Taking

Gaming, the organisation of Banker’s games for profit, in Britain prior to the Second World War has largely been ignored by academics and historians. There has been an assumption that gaming was conducted at such a small scale that it was either not worthy of research, or, that there was not enough evidence to support specific analysis.

This paper will attempt to dispel the above academic myth utilising contemporary press coverage and archive material which will illustrate a vibrant, but illegal gaming industry. In fact, gaming during this period formulated in the minds of the authorities the need for ...


The Change And Stability Of Moral Discourses And Practices Of Gambling And Tobacco Smoking In Finland, Sweden, And Germany, Riitta Matilainen May 2019

The Change And Stability Of Moral Discourses And Practices Of Gambling And Tobacco Smoking In Finland, Sweden, And Germany, Riitta Matilainen

International Conference on Gambling & Risk Taking

The presentation deals with comparative research on two morally-laden consumption phenomena (gambling and tobacco smoking) that have been differently morally (re)-framed in the course of the 20th century and in the 2000s. Whereas the prevalence of tobacco smoking in Western countries has dropped dramatically over the last few decades and tobacco smoking has become a deprecated consumption habit closely linked to lower-educated classes gambling has been tamed, legalized and made acceptable to all the classes and both men and women and gained in popularity. The roles of these two phenomena have changed: gambling has become almost ubiquitous whereas smoking ...


Turning Herbage Into Money: The Economic Inducement And Scientific Legacy Of 18th And 19th Century Livestock Improvement In England, Ann M. Ramsey May 2019

Turning Herbage Into Money: The Economic Inducement And Scientific Legacy Of 18th And 19th Century Livestock Improvement In England, Ann M. Ramsey

Young Historians Conference

This paper traces the development and legacy of livestock improvement by selective breeding in 18th and 19th century England, focusing on the contributions and economic motivations of Robert Bakewell (1725-1795). Bakewell notably impacted the English livestock industry by popularizing selective inbreeding techniques, amplifying preferred characteristics like proportions of edible meat to develop his own breeds of sheep and cattle. His efforts, seemingly motivated by economic hopes alone, influenced the work of Central European sheep breeders. They applied more scientific language to selective breeding, adding to an accumulating body of knowledge that would establish the context for Gregor Mendel and Charles ...


Liberté, Égalité, Santé: The Evolution Of Medicine In Revolution-Era France, Jasmine Yu May 2019

Liberté, Égalité, Santé: The Evolution Of Medicine In Revolution-Era France, Jasmine Yu

Young Historians Conference

Modern practice of medicine is reliably grounded in thorough observation and experimental study before application in a clinical setting. Yet before the universality of verifiable scientific justification, theoretical—and generally fallacious—models for the workings of the human body predominated, including the philosophy of the four elemental humors introduced by Hippocrates and Galen. In France, the decline of humorism’s supremacy did not occur until the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the same time period during which the long-standing convention of absolute monarchy was violently eradicated by the French Revolution. How, if at all, was the ending of humoral ...


Aristocracy And Agriculture: How Vergil’S "Georgics" Inspired A Wave Of Agrarianism And Imperialism, Isabel M. Lickey May 2019

Aristocracy And Agriculture: How Vergil’S "Georgics" Inspired A Wave Of Agrarianism And Imperialism, Isabel M. Lickey

Young Historians Conference

Georgics, written by Vergil in 29 B.C., though on its surface about labor and agricultural, uncovered deeper thought about the politics of its time period. When a prominent English poet, John Dryden, translated the Georgics in 1697, it had a profound effect upon English society. It soared to popularity, and introduced the field of agrarian science to the upper class, while at the same time inspiring a wave of similar agricultural poems. At the same, time, the ideas extolled in the Georgics about the necessity of labour to make land purposeful helped justify British colonization of America. Though Georgics ...


The Knights Templar: The Course Of God And Gold, Aaron Wozniak May 2019

The Knights Templar: The Course Of God And Gold, Aaron Wozniak

Young Historians Conference

The creation and expansion of the Knights Templar exemplifies the power of religious organizations during the time of the Crusades. However, it is the dissolution of the Templars that makes the order’s existence stand out among other knight orders. While the legal accounts of King Philip IV condemn the Templars for heresy, modern scholars and the political context suggest the possibility of exploiting the order for its significant financial holdings. This paper follows the history of the Templar order, from its creation to its demise, to evaluate how the Templars drifted far enough from their initial mission to provide ...


Robespierre: A Self-Destructed Revolutionary, Sophie M. Johnson May 2019

Robespierre: A Self-Destructed Revolutionary, Sophie M. Johnson

Young Historians Conference

The French Revolution’s infamously radical Reign of Terror rallied revolutionaries and quelled dissenters, all under the justification that the “republic of virtue” mandated protection. The Terror’s enigmatic Jacobin figurehead, Maximilien Robespierre, undeniably embodied the Enlightenment, egalitarian thought that provoked the revolution in 1789. Nonetheless, his resolute view of virtue and tyrannical tendencies debased a 1792 republic already overcome by factionalism and unnecessary bloodshed. His extreme rhetoric and public unpopularity only further blackened his image, raising the question of his legitimacy to his colleagues and fellow Jacobins. This paper asserts that while Robespierre acted in the name of the ...


“I Should Like To Say A Word Or Two About Your Empire”: Victor Hugo Le Grand, Napoléon Iii Le Petit, And The Historiographical Battlefield Of The French Second Empire, Madeleine Adriance May 2019

“I Should Like To Say A Word Or Two About Your Empire”: Victor Hugo Le Grand, Napoléon Iii Le Petit, And The Historiographical Battlefield Of The French Second Empire, Madeleine Adriance

Young Historians Conference

The lapping of waves, the soft calls of seabirds, and the cool breeze buffeting patches of wildflowers are sounds typically uncommon to the battlefield. Yet it was indeed a vicious war the famous author Victor Hugo waged from his exile on Guernsey Island against Napoléon III, the lesser-known nephew of the infamous Napoléon Bonaparte and emperor of the Second Empire. Throughout Napoléon’s reign and after, Hugo argued through his writings that the emperor was the antithesis of republican virtues. What would be Napoléon’s counterattack? Despite making largely successful efforts to influence his image with the working class, Napoléon ...


Translation Wars: The Influence Of Semantics And Translation On The More-Tyndale Polemic, Annika H. Marshall May 2019

Translation Wars: The Influence Of Semantics And Translation On The More-Tyndale Polemic, Annika H. Marshall

Young Historians Conference

The More-Tyndale polemic was one of many debates during the Protestant Reformation, a time of great religious change and conflict. Because of this, many scholars who examine the lengthy debate view it as a pure reflection of the typical Reformation arguments of the century, and assume it to be a debate of ubiquitous opposing religious ideals. This paper, however, argues that while many of these Reformation topics were present, the polemic was primarily fueled by clash over semantics and the topic of Biblical translation. Through this unique approach to a classic debate, one may better understand Christian theology’s inherent ...


The German East African Campaign, Marcello Cavalli Apr 2019

The German East African Campaign, Marcello Cavalli

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

During World War One, General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck led the German army against the combined Allied forces in East Africa. Even though they were significantly outnumbered and lacked the resources of Britain, General Lettow-Vorbeck never surrendered until two weeks after the armistice was signed in Europe in 1918. General Lettow-Vorbeck and his forces were able to remain undefeated in the East African Campaign due to the strong bond of respect among the troops, an in-depth knowledge of the area, and the significance that the German Empire placed on the campaign itself. The British on the other hand were led ...


The House In The Golden Sun: The Van Keerberghen Printing Dynasty, 1552-1629, Lydia Schmidt Apr 2019

The House In The Golden Sun: The Van Keerberghen Printing Dynasty, 1552-1629, Lydia Schmidt

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Despite religious conflict, rampant censorship, and war, the city of Antwerp dominated Early Modern printing. From 1552 to 1629, the van Keerberghen family and their printing house, In the Golden Sun, were at the forefront of the industry. I explore the tumultuous sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Antwerp through the prism of works published by the van Keerberghens, and their responses to the crises they faced.

Peeter van Keerberghen, his son Jan I, and grandson Jan II faced considerable adversity during their careers. Peeter saw eminent printers publicly executed for their works, and was himself persecuted for distribution of forbidden ...


Subjects Of The Portuguese Empire, Matthew Wiltsey Apr 2019

Subjects Of The Portuguese Empire, Matthew Wiltsey

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This essay focuses on the Portuguese empire in the 16th and 17th centuries and its colonial presence in the Indian Ocean. There is disagreement within the historiography over the most important factor that allowed the Portuguese to establish and maintain their empire: military power or the support of indigenous groups. This paper supports the latter and will demonstrate the instrumental role local factions and groups played in cementing Portuguese control in the region for centuries. Regions in the Indian Ocean and beyond will be the focus of this research, most prevalently the city states of the Indian coast, but also ...


The Nineteenth Century British Workhouse: Mission Not Accomplished, Brenda Derin Apr 2019

The Nineteenth Century British Workhouse: Mission Not Accomplished, Brenda Derin

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2020

ABSTRACT:

How to correct poverty in a society is extremely complex. In the nineteenth century, the British struggled to house, feed and care for the unemployed and destitute men, women and children created by the Industrial Revolution. Many in the upper classes considered poverty a moral failure, yet they had little impetus to end it. Poverty, as defined by an inability to provide for one’s needs due to a variety of factors, was seen as necessary, for without it there would be no motivation for the lower classes to work and provide a luxurious life for the wealthy.

Although ...


Greek Music Theory Vs. The Bible, Kearsten M. Kostelnik Apr 2019

Greek Music Theory Vs. The Bible, Kearsten M. Kostelnik

The Research and Scholarship Symposium (2013-2019)

The great philosophers of Ancient Greece have been studied in depth and are known throughout society. Famous Greek philosophers and writers, such as Plato and Pythagoras, formulated theories on musical philosophy — it’s purpose, use, dangers, power, and importance in society. Greek philosophy of music heavily influenced early European society’s view and development of music, it only partially supports Biblical views and principles of music and worship. Pythagoras introduces the theory that music is more than just entertainment with his notion of Music of the Spheres but fails to align with the biblical view of stars and planets as ...


100 Kilometers To Freedom: Women's Stories Of Escape During The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, Cameron Mitchell Nov 2018

100 Kilometers To Freedom: Women's Stories Of Escape During The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, Cameron Mitchell

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

“100 Kilometers to Freedom: Women’s Stories of Escape During the 1956 Hungarian Revolution” looks at the way people fled Hungary after the uprising against the Soviet rulers, specifically through the lens of Hungarian women. The paper follows the process of escape through resettlement and analyzes the various ways people escaped and resettled. In this paper I argue that, though escape routes and methods were wildly varied and resettlement went differently for everyone, those fleeing were often motivated to do so for political reasons.

This paper relies on a variety of primary source materials, including a collection of oral histories ...


Reason Vs. Truth: How The Enlightenment And Romanticism Effected The Victorian Occult, Jessica Brazinski Nov 2018

Reason Vs. Truth: How The Enlightenment And Romanticism Effected The Victorian Occult, Jessica Brazinski

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

“Reason vs. Truth: How the Enlightenment and Romanticism Effected the Victorian Occult.”

By: Jessica Brazinski

Abstract:

This research project is a historical analysis of occult secret societies and organizations during and soon after the reign of Queen Victoria. In particular, this research focuses on the impact of Romanticism and the Enlightenment on the Victorian occult. By examining the founding myths, practices, and core beliefs of these organizations this study found that Enlightenment, Romanticist, and Neoclassical ideas all played a part in the adoption of foreign ideas into these societies. The Freemasons, for instance, were very much influenced by Enlightenment ideas ...


The Truth And Tale Of Lady Jane Grey: An Honest Demeanor In The Midst Of Ruthless Ambition, Sarah Kim Apr 2018

The Truth And Tale Of Lady Jane Grey: An Honest Demeanor In The Midst Of Ruthless Ambition, Sarah Kim

Young Historians Conference

In the midst of the political bloodbath of Tudor England, one individual remains steadfast. Known as the “Nine-Days Queen,” Lady Jane Grey is infamous for her short nine-day reign before she was promptly executed by Queen Mary. Because of Grey’s stance in her unfortunate circumstances as the object of the royal family’s political ambitions, Grey remains a distinguished figure in English history despite her minimal role and influence.


Feminism During The Russian Revolution: A Failure On Multiple Fronts, Helen R. Rossmiller Apr 2018

Feminism During The Russian Revolution: A Failure On Multiple Fronts, Helen R. Rossmiller

Young Historians Conference

Although not always acknowledged for their contributions, women were not only a significant force in the Russian Revolution, they were the impetus behind it. Following the revolution however, feminist ideals were neglected by the new Soviet government and whatever feminist policies or ideals existed were reduced to mere illusion. Female liberation was a central goal for most female revolutionaries; yet, they were unable to accomplish it in a lasting and universal way. Nevertheless, an understanding of the Russian revolution without an acknowledgment of the influence of both aristocratic and working-class women who joined the Revolution would be incomplete. Women such ...


The Influence Of Spanish Mines On Roman Victory In The Second Punic War, Fisher W. Ng Apr 2018

The Influence Of Spanish Mines On Roman Victory In The Second Punic War, Fisher W. Ng

Young Historians Conference

The idea that one factor can win a war seems preposterous, yet Rome’s acquisition of the Spanish mines turned the tides of the Second Punic War in their favor. While most scholars agree Rome’s conquest of the Spanish mines was a step in defeating Carthage, there is no consensus that the mines directly influenced the war. The accounts of ancient Roman historians Titus Livius and Pliny the Elder, as well as Greek historian Diodorus, attest to the unparalleled amount of precious metals the Spanish mines produced--treasure capable of stimulating Roman economy. Modern scholarship agrees controlling precious metals sources ...


The History Of British Art And The Burkean Sublime, Natalie Ware Apr 2018

The History Of British Art And The Burkean Sublime, Natalie Ware

Young Historians Conference

A Philosophical Enquiry into the Beautiful and the Sublime by British philosopher Edmund Burke, published in 1757, proposed a concrete definition of the aesthetics concept of the sublime. This definition solidified the place of the sublime in the minds of British artists and philosophers from the Baroque period onward into the current contemporary art culture. The sublime has periodically been embraced, redefined, or even claimed as fatal to art itself. As British artists have struggled to grapple with the sublime throughout the centuries, the works that they’ve created out of this discourse have become emblems of the sublime controversy ...


"If Only I Could Get A Job Somewhere:" The Emergence Of British Punk, Nina Fletcher Apr 2018

"If Only I Could Get A Job Somewhere:" The Emergence Of British Punk, Nina Fletcher

Young Historians Conference

In the seventies, Great Britain was crippled by a widespread recession during which more than a million people were out of work and the inflation rate rose to above 18 percent, a stark contrast with the generally prosperous economy of the sixties. The conditions of this difficult decade would result in lasting social and cultural developments — including, of course, punk rock in all its loud, cynical, and spiky-haired glory. This paper examines the economic origins of the punk movement and argues that it was, at heart, the unique product of a generation raised in times of hardship and scarce opportunity ...


Galen: The Philosophical Physician, Chloe Sellers Apr 2018

Galen: The Philosophical Physician, Chloe Sellers

Young Historians Conference

Analyzing the works of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, this paper reveals the specific influences each of the three had upon Galen’s medical practice, asserting that the influence of philosophy was ultimately responsible for distinguishing Galen from his contemporaries. Drawing from various primary sources, including Plato’s “The Apology,” Timaeus and The Republic, as well as Aristotle’s Physics, and comparing them to Galen’s works, “The Art of Medicine” and “A Method of Medicine to Glaucon,” numerous similarities are revealed between the works of Galen and those of the philosophical trio. By evaluating these many connections among the works ...


Aristotle's Politics And Slavery In Ancient Athens, Krystyna D. Klucznik Apr 2018

Aristotle's Politics And Slavery In Ancient Athens, Krystyna D. Klucznik

Young Historians Conference

The relationship between Aristotle’s theoretical discussion of slavery in Politics and the reality of slavery in ancient Athens is complex and multifaceted. In tandem with Politics, which was my main primary source, I also drew on multiple pieces of secondary scholarship on both Politics and slavery in Athens to compare the two presentations of slavery. Additionally, I drew on the works of Euripides and Solon. In particular, my paper focuses on the process of manumission, the lack of social mobility afforded to freed slaves, and how slaves were viewed generally. A comparison of these sources reveals that there are ...