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Articles 1 - 30 of 264

Full-Text Articles in European History

“Against The Good Widdow No Harme We Doe Know:” Examining Aristocratic And Gentry Widows’ Roles And Influence In England From 1500-1650, Alyson D. Alvarez Aug 2019

“Against The Good Widdow No Harme We Doe Know:” Examining Aristocratic And Gentry Widows’ Roles And Influence In England From 1500-1650, Alyson D. Alvarez

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research, Department of History

This dissertation explores how English aristocratic and gentry women utilized their widowhoods to actively craft their personal image as well as influence and alter their communities. Free from the common law principles of coverture, English widows gained new legal autonomy. Additionally, many affluent women received substantial inheritances at the deaths of their husbands thus providing them with the financial freedom.

While widowhood offered English women new independence, it was also accompanied by a multitude of expectations. Sixteenth and seventeenth century authors and scholars developed and perpetuated specific conduct deemed appropriate for widows. The behaviors for created for widowed women contributed ...


Curating Care: Creativity, Women’S Work, And The Carers Uk Archive, Alice Hall, Hannah Tweed Jul 2019

Curating Care: Creativity, Women’S Work, And The Carers Uk Archive, Alice Hall, Hannah Tweed

Journal of Contemporary Archival Studies

This article analyses the previously unexplored archives of the British charity, Carers UK, and its predecessor organizations, from its formation in 1965 to the present day. We argue that the archive is a valuable resource for social, political, and economic histories of care in the home, women’s work, feminist campaigns, and charitable organizations in the UK and beyond. It gives voice to traditionally silenced populations of carers through a strikingly diverse range of letters, edited collections of fiction, minutes of meetings, video diaries, newsletters, and anthologies of creative writing. As a case study, the Carers UK archive provides an ...


Arrival Of The Fittest: German Pows In Ontario During The Second World War, Jordyn Bailey Jul 2019

Arrival Of The Fittest: German Pows In Ontario During The Second World War, Jordyn Bailey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Over 35,000,000 soldiers, sailors and aviators, statistically one in three combatants, were taken prisoner during the Second World War. Some 35,000 of these prisoners were members of the German army, navy and air force, imprisoned in twenty-five internment compounds and 300 small, isolated labour camps across Canada. Once on Canadian soil, German POWs were treated with remarkable hospitality in lieu of their status as the “Nazi” enemy. Canada’s excellent treatment of German POWs was a product of many things: a desire to adhere to the Geneva Convention; concern for the well-being of Canadian and other Allied ...


Cuckoldry And The “Gone For A Soldier” Narrative: Infidelity And Performance Among Eighteenth-Century English Plebeians, Elias Hubbard May 2019

Cuckoldry And The “Gone For A Soldier” Narrative: Infidelity And Performance Among Eighteenth-Century English Plebeians, Elias Hubbard

Lawrence University Honors Projects

This project addresses existing historical arguments about the role of performance in eighteenth-century English plebeian infidelity cases, identifying some of the cultural scripts available to married men and women from popular texts in order to better understand cases of infidelity in contemporary plebeian marriages. The thesis seeks to clarify the effect of infidelity on a plebeian individual’s social standing and relationships, and to draw conclusions about the nature of plebeian infidelity, marriage, and gender in England through the long eighteenth century.

While examining contemporary public texts of cuckoldry, I address how homosocial behavior appears in narratives of cuckoldry, how ...


Film Review: The Impure: An Abolitionist Documentary Film Of The 19th Century Traffic In Jewish Women, Caroline Norma May 2019

Film Review: The Impure: An Abolitionist Documentary Film Of The 19th Century Traffic In Jewish Women, Caroline Norma

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Russia's Empress-Navigator: Transforming Modes Of Monarchy During The Reign Of Anna Ivanovna, 1730-40., Jacob S. Bell Apr 2019

Russia's Empress-Navigator: Transforming Modes Of Monarchy During The Reign Of Anna Ivanovna, 1730-40., Jacob S. Bell

Madison Historical Review

The eighteenth century was a markedly volatile period in the history of Russia, seeing its development and international emergence as a European-styled empire. In narratives of this time of change, historians tend to view the century in two parts: the reign of Peter I (r. 1682-1725), who purportedly spurned Russia into modernization, and Catherine II (r. 1762-96), the German princess-turned-empress who presided over the culmination of Russia’s transformation. Yet, dismissal of nearly forty years of Russia’s history does a severe disservice to the sovereigns and governments that molded and crafted the process of change. Specifically, Empress Anna Ivanovna ...


Margaret Fison, 1817-1866: Mid-Victorian Reformer, David M. Fahey Apr 2019

Margaret Fison, 1817-1866: Mid-Victorian Reformer, David M. Fahey

International Social Science Review

This article explores the life of Margaret Fison, an English social reformer who championed workingmen and women and criticized the upper and middle classes for their indifference to working-class problems. Fisom's combined anti-Catholic evangelical Protestantism with her mid-Victorian enthusiasm for science and social reform. As well as being a writer, Fison was an activist who took to the field as an organizer for the related causes of health and temperance. Her life illustrated what a young widow from a provincial town could achieve. Her early death at age forty-eight helps explain her undeserved obscurity. This papers use of her ...


Englands Happie Queene: Female Rulers In Early English History, Emily Benes Apr 2019

Englands Happie Queene: Female Rulers In Early English History, Emily Benes

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This paper examines the historical records and later literature surrounding three early mythic and historical British queens: Albina, mythic founder of Albion; Cordelia, pre-Roman queen regnant in British legend; and Boudica, the British leader of a first-century CE rebellion against the Romans. My work focuses on who these queens were, what powers they were given, and the mythos around them. I examine when they appear in the historical record and when their stories are expanded upon, and how those stories were influenced by the political culture of England through the early seventeenth century. In particular, I examine English attitudes toward ...


Jumping Through Hoops: The Rise And Demise Of The Hoop Petticoat In The Eighteenth Century, Charlotte Engel Apr 2019

Jumping Through Hoops: The Rise And Demise Of The Hoop Petticoat In The Eighteenth Century, Charlotte Engel

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis looks at eighteenth-century hooped petticoats and society's attitudes towards them in the hope of learning more about what made these garments so popular. It examines their change over time, satirical commentary on these garments, and who was wearing them throughout society.


Mary Stuart: Turbulence In Politics & Religion, Latayzia Harris, Kyle Thompson Apr 2019

Mary Stuart: Turbulence In Politics & Religion, Latayzia Harris, Kyle Thompson

Posters

Mary Stuart’s upbringing played a large part in her political and religious positions, as well as her position as a female ruler in a land dominated by the whims of men. Mary is often portrayed as a passionate woman whose life was dominated by her emotions. At 6 days old Mary inherited the throne to Scotland, a highly contested re­gion located directly above the ever-expanding realm of England. Mary spent much of her time in France, being raised as the Dauphiness to strengthen the ties of Catholic monarchs. Historians like John Guy and Antonia Frasier frame this as ...


Interpretations Of Bloody Mary's Use Of Religion And Politics, Morgan Myers, Kyle Thompson Apr 2019

Interpretations Of Bloody Mary's Use Of Religion And Politics, Morgan Myers, Kyle Thompson

Posters

This paper looks at the political style of Mary Tudor and examines how her upbringing and gender influenced her policies and ultimately whether she was an effective leader. Religion was paramount during her reign, and heavily affected Mary’s policies. Her actions resulted in the nickname, “Bloody Mary”; this paper discusses if this is a valid name for her and overall how the Protestant Reformation impacted her time as queen. I will examine the extent to which Mary was influenced by men in her life and how they and her gender impacted her reign. David Loades wrote, “The Reign of ...


Religion, Politics, And The "Virgin Queen", Ellen Long, Kyle Thompson Apr 2019

Religion, Politics, And The "Virgin Queen", Ellen Long, Kyle Thompson

Posters

This paper will analyze Elizabeth I’s political style and the effects on it by both religion and influential men in the “Virgin Queen’s” council. Her relationships with Mary Tudor and Mary, Queen of Scots, and their religion, affected her politics and how her Protestantism clashed with these two Catholic monarchs. Comparing Mary Tudor’s forceful assertion of Catholicism in her reign to Elizabeth’s approach to Protestant dissenters will demon­strate religion’s role in their politics. I will also analyze the aspect of religion on Elizabeth’s and Mary Stuart’s dual claims to the English throne ...


"The Celebrated Madame Campan": Educating Republican Mothers À La Française In Nineteenth-Century America, Lydia Heaton Apr 2019

"The Celebrated Madame Campan": Educating Republican Mothers À La Française In Nineteenth-Century America, Lydia Heaton

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Marie Antoinette’s former lady-in-waiting and founder of an internationally acclaimed boarding school for girls, Madame Campan (1752-1822) taught both Napoleon Bonaparte’s stepdaughter and President James Monroe’s eldest daughter. She also published a popular memoir of Marie Antoinette’s life and several educational tracts. While Campan has been largely forgotten today, she is more closely connected to the development of American ideas about female education and republican motherhood than has yet been represented in the historiographical record. The French headmistress carefully crafted an educational system that proved to be influential on the development of American institutional education for ...


Trading Spaces: An Analysis Of Gendered Spaces Before, During, And After The French Revolution Of 1789 And The Mexican Revolution Of 1910, Kevin Kilroy Jan 2019

Trading Spaces: An Analysis Of Gendered Spaces Before, During, And After The French Revolution Of 1789 And The Mexican Revolution Of 1910, Kevin Kilroy

Scripps Senior Theses

This thesis investigates the affects of the French Revolution of 1789 and the Mexican Revolution of 1910 on gender roles in their respective societies. Women that contributed to political discourse challenged separations of public and private spheres, which dictated order in the late and postrevolutionary periods of France and Mexico. Given the deliberate acts by both postrevolutionary governments to send women to the periphery of their respective societies, it is vital to revisit the examples of female influence that shaped the early French and Mexican Revolutions. The understanding that comes from a detailed analysis of the parameters of gendered spaces ...


Queen Louise Of Prussia: Gender, Power, And Queenship During The Sattelzeit Era, Samantha Sproviero Jan 2019

Queen Louise Of Prussia: Gender, Power, And Queenship During The Sattelzeit Era, Samantha Sproviero

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Louise of Meckelburg-Strelitz was born on March 10, 1776 and died just thirty-four years later. In her short time as the queen consort of Prussia, she would give birth to nine children, command her own dragoons, negotiate with Napoleon, and eventually become a complex and celebrated German historical figure. Immensely popular in life, her early death was considered a national tragedy, and commemorations of her life only solidified her role as a new type of Prussian queen. Using Louise as a case study, this work will examine how the role of queen changed, not only in Prussia, but also between ...


Mara Bojic, Marija Maracic Jan 2019

Mara Bojic, Marija Maracic

SICANJE

No abstract provided.


Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2018 Annual Report, Michael S. Nassaney Jan 2019

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2018 Annual Report, Michael S. Nassaney

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Western Michigan University (WMU) hosted its 43rd annual archaeological field school this past July and August under the auspices of the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project. The Project is a long-term, multidisciplinary, community-based partnership between the City of Niles and WMU that investigates and interprets colonialism and the fur trade in the region.

We selected the theme “Technology Then and Now,” to focus our activities in 2019. We recognize that technology is not only important in the 21st century, but has defined humanity since our earliest ancestors crafted simple tools to assist them in their survival. Most of the archaeological ...


Curation, Erika K. Hartley, Miro Dunham Jan 2019

Curation, Erika K. Hartley, Miro Dunham

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Table of Contents

  • Preserving the Past for the Future
  • Common Curation Challenges
  • Fort St. Joseph Collection
  • Did You Know?
  • Collection Challenges
  • Fort St. Joseph Curatorial Fellowship
  • How You Can Help


"Politics, Money, And Distrust: French-American Alliances In The International Campaign For Women’S Equal Rights, 1925–1930.”, Sara L. Kimble Dec 2018

"Politics, Money, And Distrust: French-American Alliances In The International Campaign For Women’S Equal Rights, 1925–1930.”, Sara L. Kimble

Sara L Kimble

No abstract provided.


British Family Structure: Expressions Of Power And Conceptions Of Family, Chloe Chaplin, Kathy Callahan Dr. Nov 2018

British Family Structure: Expressions Of Power And Conceptions Of Family, Chloe Chaplin, Kathy Callahan Dr.

Posters-at-the-Capitol

The goal of this research is to examine family structure in early modern Scotland and England though the use of written communication. The primary focus will be on aristocratic families with a secondary look at upper-middle class families. This is due primarily to availability of records, and also why I will mainly be using written correspondence rather than secondary analyses, as this field is still relatively new. By exploring the development of key familial relationships (e.g. parent-child, husband-wife, and in-law interactions) through private correspondence, larger insights can be drawn about gender and the nuclear family. Also, these central relationships ...


100 Kilometers To Freedom: Women's Stories Of Escape During The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, Cameron Mitchell Nov 2018

100 Kilometers To Freedom: Women's Stories Of Escape During The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, Cameron Mitchell

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

“100 Kilometers to Freedom: Women’s Stories of Escape During the 1956 Hungarian Revolution” looks at the way people fled Hungary after the uprising against the Soviet rulers, specifically through the lens of Hungarian women. The paper follows the process of escape through resettlement and analyzes the various ways people escaped and resettled. In this paper I argue that, though escape routes and methods were wildly varied and resettlement went differently for everyone, those fleeing were often motivated to do so for political reasons.

This paper relies on a variety of primary source materials, including a collection of oral histories ...


Fashion Under The Swastika: An Analysis Of Women's Fashion During The Third Reich, Ayrika Johnson Jul 2018

Fashion Under The Swastika: An Analysis Of Women's Fashion During The Third Reich, Ayrika Johnson

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

This paper works to demonstrate women's fashion in Germany during WWII and how it was impacted by Nazi culture. Within Hitler's Germany, there was a desire to create a uniform community separate from the rest of the world, and greater than all others. Fashion is one way to analyze how the Nazis tried to accomplish this goal. The paper relies on speeches, magazines, and their fashion pages, and advertisement clippings to uncover the social, economic, and political factors at play. By using fashion as a means of expressing cultural, societal, economic, and political goals, the desires of the ...


From Fallen Women To Founding Mothers: How Petty Criminals Became Pioneers On The Australian Frontier 1788-1828, Katherine Spencer May 2018

From Fallen Women To Founding Mothers: How Petty Criminals Became Pioneers On The Australian Frontier 1788-1828, Katherine Spencer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Historians have often portrayed female convicts transported to the Australian colonies as victims of circumstance, exploited by Britain's outdated legal system, colonial authorities, and even their male counterparts. This research paper will seek to move away from the victimhood narrative that plagues the historical record of convict women and instead analyze female convict agency. Contrary to the current research on the subject, convict women in the Australian penal colonies had agency to improve their lives given their unique circumstances. Despite poor conditions, discrimination, and their image as unredeemable “fallen women” among English society, convict women were resourceful, resilient, and ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender May 2018

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


The Juridical Communities Of Apulia: Communal Identity And Municipal Belonging In The Aragonese Kingdom Of Naples, Vincenzo Selleri May 2018

The Juridical Communities Of Apulia: Communal Identity And Municipal Belonging In The Aragonese Kingdom Of Naples, Vincenzo Selleri

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study intends to make a contribution to the debate concerning Jewish citizenship in Renaissance Europe by suggesting that de jure status does not provide sufficient information on the municipal belonging of individuals and groups. Citizenship in Renaissance Italy was an equivocal concept. Political rights were usually granted on the basis of wealth and “respectability” (measured in terms of lineage, and education). Jews, women, the poor, and “debased” groups may have not enjoyed such rights; nonetheless they were part of the social, economic, and cultural life of the Renaissance city.

Municipal belonging is better assessed by individuals’ de facto enjoyment ...


Lauretta Vinciarelli In Context: Transatlantic Dialogues In Architecture, Art, Pedagogy, And Theory, 1968-2007, Rebecca Siefert May 2018

Lauretta Vinciarelli In Context: Transatlantic Dialogues In Architecture, Art, Pedagogy, And Theory, 1968-2007, Rebecca Siefert

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation centers on the interdisciplinary work of Italian-born artist, architect, teacher, and theorist Lauretta Vinciarelli (1943-2011), a key yet relatively unknown figure who occupies a historic place in the 1970s revival of architectural drawings, Columbia University’s housing studio, Peter Eisenman’s influential Institute of Architecture and Urban Studies (IAUS) in New York, and architectonic trends in contemporary painting. She was the first woman to have drawings acquired by the Department of Architecture and Design at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA, in 1974), she was among the first women to teach architecture studio courses at Columbia University (hired ...


Interview With Danielle Dybbro, Danielle Dybbro Apr 2018

Interview With Danielle Dybbro, Danielle Dybbro

Madison Historical Review

Interview with Danielle Dybbro, Winner of the 2018 James Madison Award for Excellence in Historical Scholarship


Crossing No Man’S Land: Bridging The Gender Gap Of World War I Through The Works Of Vera Brittain, Danielle R. Dybbro Apr 2018

Crossing No Man’S Land: Bridging The Gender Gap Of World War I Through The Works Of Vera Brittain, Danielle R. Dybbro

Madison Historical Review

Vera Brittain wrote in both her memoir and in a letter to her fiancé that, “women get all the dreariness of war and none of its exhilaration.” She was just beginning her life as a student at Oxford when Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in the summer of 1914, and at the time “the war at first seemed” to be “an infuriating personal interruption rather than [the] worldwide catastrophe” that it would eventually become. Brittain soon interrupted her studies at Oxford by becoming a nurse and eventually became a member of the Voluntary Aid Detachment for the duration of the ...


The Truth And Tale Of Lady Jane Grey: An Honest Demeanor In The Midst Of Ruthless Ambition, Sarah Kim Apr 2018

The Truth And Tale Of Lady Jane Grey: An Honest Demeanor In The Midst Of Ruthless Ambition, Sarah Kim

Young Historians Conference

In the midst of the political bloodbath of Tudor England, one individual remains steadfast. Known as the “Nine-Days Queen,” Lady Jane Grey is infamous for her short nine-day reign before she was promptly executed by Queen Mary. Because of Grey’s stance in her unfortunate circumstances as the object of the royal family’s political ambitions, Grey remains a distinguished figure in English history despite her minimal role and influence.


Feminism During The Russian Revolution: A Failure On Multiple Fronts, Helen R. Rossmiller Apr 2018

Feminism During The Russian Revolution: A Failure On Multiple Fronts, Helen R. Rossmiller

Young Historians Conference

Although not always acknowledged for their contributions, women were not only a significant force in the Russian Revolution, they were the impetus behind it. Following the revolution however, feminist ideals were neglected by the new Soviet government and whatever feminist policies or ideals existed were reduced to mere illusion. Female liberation was a central goal for most female revolutionaries; yet, they were unable to accomplish it in a lasting and universal way. Nevertheless, an understanding of the Russian revolution without an acknowledgment of the influence of both aristocratic and working-class women who joined the Revolution would be incomplete. Women such ...