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Full-Text Articles in European History

The British Smuggling Dilemma: 1698-1784, Bree Rosenberger Jun 2020

The British Smuggling Dilemma: 1698-1784, Bree Rosenberger

International ResearchScape Journal

By the late 17th century, Great Britain had a major smuggling problem, initially in illegally exported wool but later imported teas and French brandies. The problem grew to its peak in the mid 18th century and caused enormous financial loss to the government. This paper analyzes, among other contemporary documents, the 1767 account from Sir Stephen T. Janssen to argue that the problem was created by high taxes on teas and politically-motivated attempts by the crown to popularize gin. Even during time of war, smuggling between Great Britain and France continued. Adept tactics, aid from local townspeople, and notorious violence ...


Red Sea, White Tides, And Blue Horizons, John P. Devine Jun 2020

Red Sea, White Tides, And Blue Horizons, John P. Devine

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Eric Hobsbawm, in his effort to explain the fundamental divide which produced the Second World War, convincingly argues that “the crucial lines in this civil war were not drawn between capitalism as such and communist social revolution, but between ideological families: on the one hand the descendants of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment and the great revolutions including, obviously the Russian revolution’, on the other hand, its opponents.” This thesis argues that the American Civil War was a “great revolution” that represented a crucial transformative point in the formation of these two waring factions. The struggle was especially influential on the theory ...


Bones, Burials, And The Riddle Of Truth: Reconstructing The Past Through What Has Been Left Behind, Jelena M. Begonja Jun 2020

Bones, Burials, And The Riddle Of Truth: Reconstructing The Past Through What Has Been Left Behind, Jelena M. Begonja

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Mortuary archaeology is known to be the study of human remains and burials. The primary focus of this work has been to study all of the elements associated in burials to learn more about the burial practices and rituals in a group’s culture, however, there is much more potential in studying burial sites than just learning about a group’s burial rituals and practices. This thesis will demonstrate that it is indeed possible to make different inferences about the rest of people’s daily lives, and the truth, based from materials found in studying burials alone. For some groups ...


Darkness In The Parlor: Prostitution And Narratives Of Urban Exploration In London’S West End, Aiden Evans Jun 2020

Darkness In The Parlor: Prostitution And Narratives Of Urban Exploration In London’S West End, Aiden Evans

The Forum: Journal of History

Prostitution in London’s West End came to constitute a multidimensional transgression for middle-class observers during the late-Victorian period, contesting traditional distinctions between West and East, middle-class and working-class, and public and private life. First, through the use of Late Victorian urban exploration narratives, I will show that urban explorers applied a rigid conceptual framework to identify the working-class prostitutes occupying London’s affluent West-End. Rooted in class-based hierarchies, these systems of identification presumed that working-class prostitutes were categorically distinct, visible, and undisguisable in London’s West End. Moreover, I argue that this conceptual framework reveals the authors’ binary understandings ...


Freedom’S Paradoxes: A Case Study Of The Slave Schooner Julita, Lucy Wickstrom Jun 2020

Freedom’S Paradoxes: A Case Study Of The Slave Schooner Julita, Lucy Wickstrom

The Forum: Journal of History

After Great Britain abolished the slave trade in 1807, the British Royal Navy committed one-fifth of its manpower to the cause of capturing other nations’ illegal slave ships. This effort to enforce abolition liberated 250,000 displaced Africans over the course of the nineteenth century and brought the crews that had carried them before officials to have their cases tried. Because of the careful documentation of these cases by the Mixed Commissions, there is a wealth of primary sources detailing the circumstances of these captures and the human beings claimed as cargo. This paper utilizes a case study of one ...


Urban Palimpsests: Studying Enlightenment Influences In The Post-Earthquake Rebuilding Of Lima And Lisbon, 1746–1765, Emily Chung Jun 2020

Urban Palimpsests: Studying Enlightenment Influences In The Post-Earthquake Rebuilding Of Lima And Lisbon, 1746–1765, Emily Chung

The Forum: Journal of History

Urban renewal has long existed as a vessel for the assertion of authority, embodying hierarchy, policy, and culture in the most tangible way with architecture and civic landscaping shaped to accommodate the upper strata of society. Particularly interesting to study through this lens is the latter half of the eighteenth century which marks the turning point between royal absolutism and the emergence of competing forms of power in the European Empire, through the growth of the Enlightenment movement. This paper offers a comparison of two imperial cities, Lima and Lisbon, which due to similarly tragic earthquakes, were provided the opportunity ...


In And Outside City Walls: Medieval Jewish Communities And Rulership In German Cities, Zoë Schwartz May 2020

In And Outside City Walls: Medieval Jewish Communities And Rulership In German Cities, Zoë Schwartz

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

As one would expect, Jewish life within the German Kingdom in the high middle ages (1000-1300 CE) was fraught with instability. The micro-history of specific Jewish communities has been undertaken by historians in the past, but the Jewish experience within multiple cities has yet to be compared. Due to the diversity of German city authority structures, the restrictions and privileges put upon the community were diverse. How these laws effect the daily life of the Jewish community was subject to the gentile authority of bishops, for those inhabiting bishop-cities, or the Emperor directly, for those living in free imperial states ...


Tinderbox: Danish-Russian Relations, 1989-2019, Maddy Ghose May 2020

Tinderbox: Danish-Russian Relations, 1989-2019, Maddy Ghose

Master's Theses

This thesis documents and analyzes the major trends of the military, political, economic, and cultural relationships between Denmark and Russia from 1989 to 2019. I document the relationship from the Danish perspective, using primary sources, with the aim to conduct analysis of Danish politicians’ speeches and activities during this period. The outcome is a comprehensive image of the Danish-Russian bilateral relationship at the present time. This relationship has fluctuated widely during the time period under study. Shared economic development interests in the 1990s contributed to a positive relationship; controversy surrounding the war in Chechnya and an assertive Danish prime minister ...


The Poetry Of History: Irish National Imagination Through Mythology And Materiality, Ryan Fay May 2020

The Poetry Of History: Irish National Imagination Through Mythology And Materiality, Ryan Fay

English Honors Theses

The thesis culminates in the twentieth century and yet it begins with the Ulster Cycle, a period of Irish mythological history that occurred around the first century common era. Indeed, since the time frame was before the arrival of the Gaels, Normans, or Christianity, the extent of this mythology’s relevance today is whatever extent it is conceptualized as “Irish.” As such, the first chapter locks onto an aspect that could feasibly transcend time and resonate with modern Irish society: gender. Of course, the epistemological dynamics of gender[1] in the first-century common era are vastly different than the twentieth ...


Veni, Vidi, Vendidi: The Economics Of Cultural Change In The Roman West, Alexander Reed May 2020

Veni, Vidi, Vendidi: The Economics Of Cultural Change In The Roman West, Alexander Reed

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

The cultural shift which occurred in the Roman West during the final century BC and first century AD marks a watershed moment in European history, as the inhabitants of Rome's vast imperial holdings began to abandon their old ways of life in favor of a new set of Greco-Roman customs and values, an event of indelible influence upon the languages, legal systems, and cultural traditions which arose following the collapse of the central government in 476. Numerous theories have been put forward to explain this dramatic shift in the cultural landscape of the period, from suggestions that the common ...


Anti-Semitism In Slovakia After The Velvet Revolution Of 1989, Peter Salner May 2020

Anti-Semitism In Slovakia After The Velvet Revolution Of 1989, Peter Salner

Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe

This study discusses anti-Semitism in Slovakia after the Velvet Revolution of 1989. The introductory section presents an overview of the most destructive manifestations of anti-Semitism during 1918-1920, the Holocaust, and the Communist era (1948-1989). Anti-Semitism in Slovakia is less aggressive than in many other countries of the European Union. Physical violence is especially rare, and even the defacement of Jewish sites (particularly cemeteries) is typically motivated by vandalism, rather than by anti-Semitism. The most frequent expression of prejudice against Jews takes the form of verbal insults. These are predominantly used by children, who hear them from their families. Children (and ...


“Peace For Our Time”: Past And Present Receptions Of Neville Chamberlain’S Speech And The Munich Agreement, Erica L. Uszak Apr 2020

“Peace For Our Time”: Past And Present Receptions Of Neville Chamberlain’S Speech And The Munich Agreement, Erica L. Uszak

Student Publications

This paper covers British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's role in the Munich Agreement, as well as his September 30th speech in London, and explains how Chamberlain's attempt to negotiate "peace" with Hitler was received by the public. This paper examines three major newspapers: The London Times, The Manchester Guardian, and The New York Times, to see whether the press interpreted Chamberlain's negotiation with Hitler as a success or a failure. The paper also builds off of the newspapers' coverage to explain how Chamberlain and his policy of appeasement have been perceived through present-day.


The Impact Of American Economic Aid On Post-World War Ii Germany, Gabriella Barber, Emily T. Carlstrom Apr 2020

The Impact Of American Economic Aid On Post-World War Ii Germany, Gabriella Barber, Emily T. Carlstrom

Senior Theses

This paper examines the state of Germany immediately after World War II, describing how the American government intervened in West German reconstruction. It analyzes three specific German companies that overcame hardship in the 1940s and 50s and have become powerhouses today. Additionally, an overview of the current German economy shows how the country is positioned as a world leader.

Research was conducted using literary print sources, scholarly internet databases, and a formal interview with Klaus Becker, Honorary Consul to Germany. He is a German-American businessman who has held roles in several non-political associations, including President of the Charlotte World Trade ...


Brexit, A Brief Historical Analysis, Amy E. Cantrell Apr 2020

Brexit, A Brief Historical Analysis, Amy E. Cantrell

Student Publications

This paper will specifically examine the historical impact of decolonization, integration and immigration on the 2020 Brexit decision. The research will identify key events that have contributed to a rise in British Euroscepticism which has continuously served as backdrop for British isolationism and anti-immigrant thought. A study of the increased movement of people attributed to mass mobilization following decolonization and integration will play a key role in highlighting the effects Brexit will have both on Britain and on an international platform. Emphasis will be placed on the implications this history and resulting policies will have on the economic prosperity and ...


From Leaflets To Tweets: A Rhetorical Analysis Of The Propaganda Tools Used By The Nazi Party And Donald Trump, Tj Coleman Apr 2020

From Leaflets To Tweets: A Rhetorical Analysis Of The Propaganda Tools Used By The Nazi Party And Donald Trump, Tj Coleman

Geifman Prize in Holocaust Studies

Since the day he announced his campaign for President, people have been comparing Donald Trump to a Nazi. I, like many of us, have long believed that comparison to be overly simplistic, though not completely without merit. In this essay I analyze that comparison through an examination of the rhetoric and tactics of exclusion used by both Donald Trump and his campaign and the Nazi Party. Though there are substantive differences in some rhetorical tactics, there are also some frightening similarities. It is my hope that an honest and even handed understanding of how our current political moment compares to ...


The Architecture Of Violence: The Reign Of Terror And The Character Of Bloodshed, Aidan Turek Apr 2020

The Architecture Of Violence: The Reign Of Terror And The Character Of Bloodshed, Aidan Turek

Senior Theses and Projects

Revolutions are pivotal event in political history, compressing far-reaching social changes into the space of a few years. The French is the best understood revolution, and yet political scientists have focused more on the causes of revolution, its initial phase, and the consequences. This scholarship ignores the Reign of Terror, and revolutionary violence more broadly, despite the central importance of violence in shaping the course of revolutions. This thesis breaks down the Reign of Terror as an exemplary phase of violence via three broad ecumenical theoretical approaches, and in so doing makes vital connection between social and political developments on ...


The Interwoven Existences Of Official Catholicism And Magical Practice In The Lived Religiosity Of A Transylvanian Hungarian Village, Cecília Sándor Mar 2020

The Interwoven Existences Of Official Catholicism And Magical Practice In The Lived Religiosity Of A Transylvanian Hungarian Village, Cecília Sándor

Journal of Global Catholicism

During the last five years I have been doing field research in a Transylvanian Hungarian village, Sânsimion (Hu: Csíkszentsimon). I present my research on this religiously homogenous, Catholic community’s worldview. Based on interviews conducted with members of the village’s various age groups, I map religious and magical knowledge passed down through the generations, using the theoretical frame of collective memory and religious transmission. Second, I highlight two different but coexisting “constructions of reality” in this rural community. By “constructions of reality,” I mean interpretations of reality expressed in narrative discourses and local magical practices that are closely and ...


Rockin' The Church: Vernacular Catholic Musical Practices, Kinga Povedak Mar 2020

Rockin' The Church: Vernacular Catholic Musical Practices, Kinga Povedak

Journal of Global Catholicism

This article focuses on the unique dimensions of lived or vernacular Catholicism through the analysis of contemporary congregational music in Hungary. Looking at the musical lives of Hungarian Roman Catholics from the late 1960s to contemporary times can provide us with new understandings of the theological contents and aesthetics, as well as the vernacular religiosity of the community. Christian popular music appeared behind the Iron Curtain relatively early, in 1967 when the first “beat mass” was created and introduced at Budapest. The early Christian popular music sounded astonishingly similar to the songs of the American Folk Mass Movement of the ...


Longings, Letters And Prayers: Visitor's Books At Hungarian Marian Shrines, Krisztina Frauhammer Mar 2020

Longings, Letters And Prayers: Visitor's Books At Hungarian Marian Shrines, Krisztina Frauhammer

Journal of Global Catholicism

The following study seeks to show the flow of contemporary rituals associated with pilgrimage shrines. I will consider how visitor’s books placed on display at shrine churches are being utilized in the modern context by pilgrims and tourists alike. Requests, words of thanksgiving, and testimony are coupled with an honest, reflexive style that lends to the formation of these individualized prayers. These prayers are original, specific and peculiar as they follow patterns that are informal in nature. These prayers allow pilgrims to initiate contact with the Transcendent through the act and practice of writing. An idiosyncratic form of sacred ...


Introduction: Consumer Contexts And Divine Presences In Hungarian Catholicism, Marc Roscoe Loustau Mar 2020

Introduction: Consumer Contexts And Divine Presences In Hungarian Catholicism, Marc Roscoe Loustau

Journal of Global Catholicism

Introduction to Hungarian Catholicism: Living Faith Across Diverse Social and Intellectual Contexts, highlighting both the specific contributions of the articles to the study of Hungarian Catholicism and situating them within the broad sweep of Hungarian and Catholic Studies.


Overview And Acknowledgements, Mathew Schmalz Mar 2020

Overview And Acknowledgements, Mathew Schmalz

Journal of Global Catholicism

Overview of Hungarian Catholicism: Living Faith Across Diverse Social and Intellectual Context, highlighting the articles' contribution to the study of Global Catholicism.


La Princesse Adrosis Fille De L'Empereur Hadrien: Sainte Et Martyre, Laila Fares Mar 2020

La Princesse Adrosis Fille De L'Empereur Hadrien: Sainte Et Martyre, Laila Fares

Showcase of Faculty Scholarly & Creative Activity

Le présent ouvrage est l’ensemble de leçons hebdomadaires que j’enseignai il y a quatorze ans. Le vif intérêt que témoignèrent mes étudiants à la princesse Adrosis m’avait encouragé à poursuivre l’histoire en prose, au-delà du petit poème que j’avais composé en 2003 au jour de sa fête célébrée au synexaire copte le 18 Hathor. Les questions de compréhension et de réflexion qui suivent chaque leçon peuvent servir dans un but didactique ou ludique. Vous pouvez en faire une activité de loisir ou d’enseignement pour l’édification et le développement spirituel de vos étudiants. L ...


The Unwavering Movement: Integrating Reason Into British Penal Code 1730-1823, Rebecca M. Good Dec 2019

The Unwavering Movement: Integrating Reason Into British Penal Code 1730-1823, Rebecca M. Good

International ResearchScape Journal

Between the early 16th and 18th centuries, English attitude towards crime and correction were based on the strong held belief that faith and religion were the only cure to immorality. Lawmakers began to threaten citizens with capital punishment for menial crimes such as petty theft and begging. Resulting of a moral panic, lawmakers turned to the deterrence to dissuade citizens from partaking in criminal activity. The list of crimes punishable by death in England rose from 50 offenses in 1688 to over 220 in 1815. This article explains the origins of the Bloody Code and how Enlightenment-Era thought ...


Queen Nanny, A Case Study For Cultural Heritage Tourism: The Archaeology Of Memory And Identity, Lacy Risner Dec 2019

Queen Nanny, A Case Study For Cultural Heritage Tourism: The Archaeology Of Memory And Identity, Lacy Risner

Liberal Arts Capstones

This research project is intended to provide a foundation of knowledge of the Maroon culture in Jamaica, through the legends of one of their most prominent founders, Queen Nanny, as an aid for those who want to educate themselves before approaching community leaders about tourism development. Documentation of Queen Nanny’s life is contested and shrouded in mystery. Yet, that is part of what makes her memory so powerful. The various roles that Queen Nanny is associated with feature her adamant pursuit of an independent life for herself and her Maroons. Whether she is catching bullets or teaching the Maroons ...


Radio Maria Transylvania: National Representation, Prayer, And Intersubjectivity In A Growing Catholic Media Network, Marc Roscoe Loustau Sep 2019

Radio Maria Transylvania: National Representation, Prayer, And Intersubjectivity In A Growing Catholic Media Network, Marc Roscoe Loustau

Journal of Global Catholicism

This article examines the public discourse of a Radio Maria Transylvania, a growing Catholic media network for members of the Hungarian ethnic minority in Romania. I look at two primary narratives: first, accounts about how the network was founded in the mid-2000s. And second, listeners’ prayers to the Virgin Mary published on the media network’s web site. Acts of petitioning powerful others for assistance on behalf of a family are central features of Radio Maria Transylvania’s storytelling–on behalf of a national family in the case of the network’s origin narratives and a natal family in the ...


Introduction: Mediating Catholicisms: Studies In Aesthetics, Authority, And Identity, Eric Hoenes Del Pinal, Marc Roscoe Loustau, Kristin Norget Sep 2019

Introduction: Mediating Catholicisms: Studies In Aesthetics, Authority, And Identity, Eric Hoenes Del Pinal, Marc Roscoe Loustau, Kristin Norget

Journal of Global Catholicism

No abstract provided.


Overview & Acknowledgements, Mathew Schmalz Sep 2019

Overview & Acknowledgements, Mathew Schmalz

Journal of Global Catholicism

No abstract provided.


Recent U.S. And International Assessment Of Baltic Security Developments, Bert Chapman Sep 2019

Recent U.S. And International Assessment Of Baltic Security Developments, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to analyse Baltic security developments from U.S. government and military resources, scholarly journal articles, and multinational public policy research institute assessments. METHODS: The aim is to analyse the content and rhetoric within these resources to learn how those producing these materials view Baltic security developments and their viewpoints on how the U.S. and its allies should respond to these developments focusing on increasing Russian regional assertiveness. RESULTS: The author provides interpretations of Baltic security developments, Russian Baltic policy, and U.S. and NATO responses to these developments in materials produced by ...


Review Of The Promise And Peril Of Credit: What A Forgotten Legend About Jews And Finance Tells Us About The Making Of European Commercial Society, Jared Rubin Sep 2019

Review Of The Promise And Peril Of Credit: What A Forgotten Legend About Jews And Finance Tells Us About The Making Of European Commercial Society, Jared Rubin

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

A review of The Promise and Peril of Credit: What a Forgotten Legend about Jews and Finance Tells Us about the Making of European Commercial Society, by Francesca Trivellato, published by Princeton University Press.


The Baltics And Ukraine: Geopolitical Hotspots, Bert Chapman Aug 2019

The Baltics And Ukraine: Geopolitical Hotspots, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides detailed historical overview and contemporary analysis on why the Baltics and Ukraine are historical and remain contemporary geopolitical hotspots. Provides analysis of cultural economic, environmental, and security factors influencing long-standing contentiousness over these regions. Places emphasis on how Russian behavior and policies influence this contentiousness. Concludes by noting that differences between the U.S. and its allies and conflicts within the U.S. Government may limit the ability of the U.S. to effectively respond to events in these disputed regions.