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Articles 1 - 30 of 753

Full-Text Articles in European History

Blood, Meth, And Tears: The Super Soldiers Of World War Ii, Nicholas Racine Jun 2019

Blood, Meth, And Tears: The Super Soldiers Of World War Ii, Nicholas Racine

MAD-RUSH Undergraduate Research Conference

Day and night, soldiers in World War II were physically and mentally strained by fatigue and psychiatric distress. Consequently, many soldiers were left exhausted and demoralized. War efforts hinged on soldiers succeeding in missions, thus a fast-acting solution was needed. Development of the psychostimulant drugs Benzedrine and Pervitin in the 1920s and 30s spurred enthusiasm among scientists, the media, the public, and various governments. Potent and powerful, these drugs exert effects that promote wakefulness, elevated mood, and improved field performance. Governments quickly began researching use of stimulants to improve their war efforts. By the early 40s, both drugs had millions ...


Cuckoldry And The “Gone For A Soldier” Narrative: Infidelity And Performance Among Eighteenth-Century English Plebeians, Elias Hubbard May 2019

Cuckoldry And The “Gone For A Soldier” Narrative: Infidelity And Performance Among Eighteenth-Century English Plebeians, Elias Hubbard

Lawrence University Honors Projects

This project addresses existing historical arguments about the role of performance in eighteenth-century English plebeian infidelity cases, identifying some of the cultural scripts available to married men and women from popular texts in order to better understand cases of infidelity in contemporary plebeian marriages. The thesis seeks to clarify the effect of infidelity on a plebeian individual’s social standing and relationships, and to draw conclusions about the nature of plebeian infidelity, marriage, and gender in England through the long eighteenth century.

While examining contemporary public texts of cuckoldry, I address how homosocial behavior appears in narratives of cuckoldry, how ...


Charles De Gaulle And The “Forever Abandoned”: Conceptualizations Of Empire And French Identity, Julien Herpers May 2019

Charles De Gaulle And The “Forever Abandoned”: Conceptualizations Of Empire And French Identity, Julien Herpers

Student Honors Theses By Year

No abstract provided.


Analysis Considering The Significance Of The Use Of Naval Blockades During The Napoleonic Wars, John J. Janora May 2019

Analysis Considering The Significance Of The Use Of Naval Blockades During The Napoleonic Wars, John J. Janora

The Exposition

During the course of the 18th and 19th centuries the British Navy took an age old method of manipulating and dominating an enemy, the naval blockade, and perfected it. The blockade was going to be used by a generation of admirals, captains, and crews in a way that would cause pain, financially, physically and psychologically, on a large swath of the western world, much of it specifically centered on ensuring that Napoleon and his aggressively expansionist France would pay too dear a price if they tried to move off of the European mainland. The British Navy and their continued use ...


The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning May 2019

The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

An examination of Tolkien’s conception of history, the crisis of unpreparedness preceding the Second World War, and a relating of the story of Churchill’s warnings and eventual ascension to the position of Prime Minister. This study will compare the historical perspective of Tolkien, as represented in his fictional works, with the turmoil that transpired during the early days of WWII. Mostly, it will demonstrate how Tolkien’s view of history manifested itself within the context of the very perilous realities leading up to WWII. Nonetheless, a larger portrait of the nation of Great Britain, Winston Churchill, and their ...


The Knights Templar: The Course Of God And Gold, Aaron Wozniak May 2019

The Knights Templar: The Course Of God And Gold, Aaron Wozniak

Young Historians Conference

The creation and expansion of the Knights Templar exemplifies the power of religious organizations during the time of the Crusades. However, it is the dissolution of the Templars that makes the order’s existence stand out among other knight orders. While the legal accounts of King Philip IV condemn the Templars for heresy, modern scholars and the political context suggest the possibility of exploiting the order for its significant financial holdings. This paper follows the history of the Templar order, from its creation to its demise, to evaluate how the Templars drifted far enough from their initial mission to provide ...


"We Germans Fear God, And Nothing Else In The World!" Military Policy In Wilhelmine Germany, 1890-1914, Cavender Sutton May 2019

"We Germans Fear God, And Nothing Else In The World!" Military Policy In Wilhelmine Germany, 1890-1914, Cavender Sutton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Throughout the Second Reich’s short life, military affairs were synonymous with those of the state. Indeed, it was the zeal and blood of Prussian soldiers that allowed the creation of a unified German empire. After solidifying itself as a major power, things grew more complicated as the Reich found itself increasingly surrounded by hostile rivals. To the west, French humiliation over their catastrophic defeat in 1870-71 continued to fester while, in the east, Russian sympathies for the new empire waned. The finalization of a Franco-Russian alliance in 1894 meant Germany faced formidable adversaries along her eastern and western borders ...


"I Deny Your Authority To Try My Conscience:" Conscription And Conscientious Objectors In Britain During The Great War, Albert William Wetter May 2019

"I Deny Your Authority To Try My Conscience:" Conscription And Conscientious Objectors In Britain During The Great War, Albert William Wetter

Honors Projects

During the Great War, the Military Service Act was introduced on January 27, 1916 and redefined British citizenship. Moreover, some men objected to the state’s military service mandate, adamant that compliance violated their conscience. This thesis investigates how the introduction of conscription reshaped British society, dismantled the “sacred principle” of volunteerism, and replaced it with conscription, resulting in political and popular debates, which altered the individual’s relationship with the state. British society transformed from a polity defined by the tenets of Liberalism and a free-will social contract to a society where citizenship was correlated to duty to the ...


The Battle Of The Ourcq River, Earl Jacob Starbuck May 2019

The Battle Of The Ourcq River, Earl Jacob Starbuck

Masters Theses

An account of the Battle of the Ourcq River, 28 July-6 August, 1918, World War One.


Casualties Of War? Refining The Civilian-Military Dichotomy In World War I, Eric Grube Apr 2019

Casualties Of War? Refining The Civilian-Military Dichotomy In World War I, Eric Grube

Madison Historical Review

Throughout the First World War, newspapers around the world mocked the British state for its lavish spending on captured German officers kept at Donington Hall, a refurbished English estate. Why was this camp such a controversial space of perceived decadence? I argue that its comforts seemed to linger from an earlier era, one in which military men exuded genteel civility as integral to their supposedly heroic service. The British state essentially enabled such treatment, and the public decried this space for sustaining the anachronism of aristocratic privilege in the face of a globalized total war. However, the German inmates expected ...


The German East African Campaign, Marcello Cavalli Apr 2019

The German East African Campaign, Marcello Cavalli

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

During World War One, General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck led the German army against the combined Allied forces in East Africa. Even though they were significantly outnumbered and lacked the resources of Britain, General Lettow-Vorbeck never surrendered until two weeks after the armistice was signed in Europe in 1918. General Lettow-Vorbeck and his forces were able to remain undefeated in the East African Campaign due to the strong bond of respect among the troops, an in-depth knowledge of the area, and the significance that the German Empire placed on the campaign itself. The British on the other hand were led ...


Investigation Of Chlorine Gas, Phosgene Gas, And Mustard Gas: Development, Use, Effects, And Treatments With A Focus On World War I, Kyle Zaremba Apr 2019

Investigation Of Chlorine Gas, Phosgene Gas, And Mustard Gas: Development, Use, Effects, And Treatments With A Focus On World War I, Kyle Zaremba

Honors Projects

The German attack in Ypres on April 22, 1915 ushered in a new era of warfare. For the first time in military history, large amounts of weaponized gas were being deployed. The first attack utilized chlorine gas while subsequent attacks used phosgene gas, mustard gas, or a combination of them. Scientific and medical communities scrambled to combat the new threat, leading to great advancements in the understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment relating to chemical gas attacks. New ways to bypass chlorine gas, phosgene gas, and mustard gas effects were proposed and tested and already existing medical interventions proved useful ...


Ms-238: Prisoner Of War Letters From World Wars I And Ii, Kelly A. Murphy Apr 2019

Ms-238: Prisoner Of War Letters From World Wars I And Ii, Kelly A. Murphy

All Finding Aids

This collection consists of various correspondence between POWs and their families, including 86 letters, 174 postcards, and about eight package slips during both world wars. Most of this correspondence was authored by the prisoners and sent to their families from camps in Europe, although it contains some correspondence from camps in Asia and Africa. The collection also contains correspondence from prisoners in concentration camps, such as Auschwitz, and from interned civilians in France and Germany. Because these letters were the main way to contact family members, most of the POW correspondence contain thoughts of homesickness and loneliness along with updates ...


Ms-236: Bernard Peace Wwi Photograph Album, Kelly A. Murphy Feb 2019

Ms-236: Bernard Peace Wwi Photograph Album, Kelly A. Murphy

All Finding Aids

The album contains 200 photographs that depict everyday life and people in Baghdad and northeast India, including entire pages dedicated to “Arabs” and pictures of men and women in bazaars and drawing water. Other photographs are of notable events, including the “Dedication of British [Army] Cemetery” or the arrival of the “First Aeroplane from England to India.” There are also pictures of various landmarks, such as mosques, religious pilgrimage sites, historic cities and palaces, and natural wonders, from Iraq, India, and France. Included on the front cover is two photos pasted together to create a panorama of the “Signing of ...


War Poetry: Impacts On British Understanding Of World War One, Holly Fleshman Jan 2019

War Poetry: Impacts On British Understanding Of World War One, Holly Fleshman

All Undergraduate Projects

The military and technological innovations deployed during World War I ushered in a new phase of modern warfare. Newly developed technologies and weapons created an environment which no one had seen before, and as a result, an entire generation of soldiers and their families had to learn to cope with new conditions of shell shock. For many of those affected, poetry offered an outlet to express their thoughts, feelings and experiences. For Great Britain, the work of Rupert Brooke, Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen and Robert Graves have been highly recognized, both at the time and in the present. Newspaper articles ...


James L. Hogan Collection, University Archives And Special Collections, Prescott Memorial Library, Louisiana Tech University Jan 2019

James L. Hogan Collection, University Archives And Special Collections, Prescott Memorial Library, Louisiana Tech University

Manuscript Finding Aids

Afrika Korps pattern eagle and swastika. This artifact was given to American civilian camp employee, James L. Hogan by German POW Robert Kopriwa. Also, includes a book entitled The Brothers Karamazov written by Fyodor Dostoyevsky and published by Random House in 1943.


75th Anniversary Of D-Day, Boise Public Library Jan 2019

75th Anniversary Of D-Day, Boise Public Library

History

Resources and Photographs of a display of government documents from Boise Public Library, Boise ID.


Running Wires: Digital History In The Classroom And The Field, Ian A. Isherwood, Amy E. Lucadamo, R.C. Miessler Oct 2018

Running Wires: Digital History In The Classroom And The Field, Ian A. Isherwood, Amy E. Lucadamo, R.C. Miessler

Musselman Library Staff Publications

The First World War Letters of H.J.C. Peirs is a digital history project that publishes the letters of a British World War I officer 100 years to the day they were written. By telling the story of one person, we have aimed to humanize a dehumanizing war and supported the effort to commemorate the centennial of the conflict. While the project was conceived with pedagogy in mind, it has grown beyond the letters and crossed boundaries: from the analog to the digital, from the classroom to the public, and from the archives to the field.


Nineteen Minutes Of Horror: Insights From The Scorpions Execution Video, Iva Vukušić Oct 2018

Nineteen Minutes Of Horror: Insights From The Scorpions Execution Video, Iva Vukušić

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

After the fall of Srebrenica in summer of 1995, the Scorpions unit, dispatched to support the Bosnian Serb Army as it took over the enclave, shot six men in Trnovo. The men, three of whom were underage, were some of thousands of Bosnian Muslims that fell into the hands of Bosnian Serb troops, and that were executed in the days and weeks following July 11th. A member of the unit filmed the execution. Fragments of the video were first shown during the Slobodan Milosevic trial, and multiple times in the years after, in the courtrooms in The Hague and Belgrade ...


Bonding Images: Photography And Film As Acts Of Perpetration, Christophe Busch Oct 2018

Bonding Images: Photography And Film As Acts Of Perpetration, Christophe Busch

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Historical and contemporary cases of collective violence show an incremental use of photography and film to capture and disseminate violent acts. Recording cruelty during conflict seems to be a highly ritualised practice that urges the question what communicative and psychological functions these acts have? Why and how does perpetrator photography shape a binding moral world that divides 'us' versus 'them'? These visualising acts are commonly seen as proof of power that desensitises the perpetrators and dehumanises the victims. This contribution focuses on the imagery of the Holocaust, looks into the functions that capturing and sharing cruelty has on the evolution ...


Ms-232: Edward A Frederick Papers, Joy Zanghi Sep 2018

Ms-232: Edward A Frederick Papers, Joy Zanghi

All Finding Aids

This collection is a small collection mostly comprised of postcards written by Edward A. Frederick to his family. The postcards follow Frederick from his training with the Aero Squadron in San Antonio Texas at Kelly Field to his service overseas in the UK and France. The collection also contains photographs, a newspaper clipping, and a ring and pins from the US Aero Squadron. Overall, the postcards and the collection as a whole do not provide much insight or detail about the life of a soldier during WWI.

Special Collections and College Archives Finding Aids are discovery tools used to describe ...


Fashion Under The Swastika: An Analysis Of Women's Fashion During The Third Reich, Ayrika Johnson Jul 2018

Fashion Under The Swastika: An Analysis Of Women's Fashion During The Third Reich, Ayrika Johnson

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

This paper works to demonstrate women's fashion in Germany during WWII and how it was impacted by Nazi culture. Within Hitler's Germany, there was a desire to create a uniform community separate from the rest of the world, and greater than all others. Fashion is one way to analyze how the Nazis tried to accomplish this goal. The paper relies on speeches, magazines, and their fashion pages, and advertisement clippings to uncover the social, economic, and political factors at play. By using fashion as a means of expressing cultural, societal, economic, and political goals, the desires of the ...


The Nuremberg Trials Project At Harvard Law School: Making History Accessible To All, Judith A. Haran Jun 2018

The Nuremberg Trials Project At Harvard Law School: Making History Accessible To All, Judith A. Haran

Journal of Contemporary Archival Studies

This article is primarily a case study of the Nuremberg Trials Project at the Harvard Law School Library in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It begins with an historical note about the war crimes trials and their documentary record, including the fate of the several tons of trial documents that were distributed in 1949. The second part of the article is a description of the Harvard Law School Nuremberg project, including its history, goals, logistical considerations, digitization process and challenges, and resulting impact. The structure and function of the project website is described, followed by a description of a typical user experience, the ...


Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 2: The Central Intelligence Agency, Bert Chapman Jun 2018

Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 2: The Central Intelligence Agency, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Provides an overview of information resources produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) including popular reference works like World Factbook and Chiefs of State and Cabinet Leaders of Foreign Governments. Additional content describes the CIA's origins and development, descriptions of current organizational components, information about it's directors, and the text of historical National Intelligence Estimates (NIE) and the President's Daily Brief covering topics as varied as North Korea, the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and NIE's on Soviet ballistic missile forces and numerous other topics. Features artifacts from the CIA Museum.


The Thirty Years War(S), Logan Kilsdonk May 2018

The Thirty Years War(S), Logan Kilsdonk

Lawrence University Honors Projects

The Thirty Years War, spanning 1618-1648, has been described as the last great war of religion despite pitting Catholics against Catholics and Protestants against Protestants. In addition to religion not playing the role it is supposed to have, a closer look at the motives and goals of the major participants reveals that what we have called a single war is actually much more easily understood as four: The Bohemian Rebellion (1618-1624), Denmark's War with the Emperor (1625-1629), Sweden's War with the Emperor (1630-1648) and France's War with the Habsburgs (1635-1648/59). These four wars are related and ...


Saving Grace On Feathered Wings: Homing Pigeons In The First World War, Brandon R. Katzung Hokanson May 2018

Saving Grace On Feathered Wings: Homing Pigeons In The First World War, Brandon R. Katzung Hokanson

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Soldiers of the First World War came in all shapes and sizes. The humble homing pigeon is one of the more unique and critical examples of such. They served in the armed forces of both the Allies and the Central Powers. Used as a last-ditch form of communication, the homing pigeons were exceptional in the work of sending messages back and forth between the battle lines. Little has been written about their vital role and even less in the rigorous training the birds and their handlers both endured. Understanding their training is critical to understanding how the homing pigeons performed ...


Remembering Agincourt: An Analysis Of King Henry V'S Impact On English National Identity, Nathan C. Harkey May 2018

Remembering Agincourt: An Analysis Of King Henry V'S Impact On English National Identity, Nathan C. Harkey

Tenor of Our Times

King Henry V is one of the best remembered monarchs in English History. Although he died at the untimely age of 36 after only nine years on the throne, his reign saw England's empire in France reach its highest point, an accomplishment that was actualized in the of the Battle of Agincourt. In the six centuries since, both Henry's reign as a whole and the battle itself have impacted the identity of the English nation in many ways. This paper analyzes the influence of these events on those who followed, ranging from the use of heraldry after the ...


The Imperial Legacy: An Examination Of The Trends Of Empire And Genocide From German Southwest Africa To The General Government, Laura Guebert Apr 2018

The Imperial Legacy: An Examination Of The Trends Of Empire And Genocide From German Southwest Africa To The General Government, Laura Guebert

Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal

This project is an examination of correlations between imperial enterprises of the Second German Empire and the Nazi Reich through the lenses of global and imperial critiques. The three primary case studies are German Southwest Africa, the Ober Ost, and Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe, particularly the General Government. This research draws heavily on certain themes and theories developed by leading historians of modern German and Eastern European history, including Timothy Snyder, Ben Kiernan, Shelley Baranowski, Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius, and Christopher Browning. By understanding the shared trends of empire and genocide, it is my aim to bring the actions of the National ...


Failure In 1813: The Decline Of French Light Infantry And Its Effect On Napoleon's German Campaign, Gustave Doll Apr 2018

Failure In 1813: The Decline Of French Light Infantry And Its Effect On Napoleon's German Campaign, Gustave Doll

Cadet Senior Theses in History

Although light infantry held a prominent place within the French corps system, and had proven their professional reputation as valuable and decisive assets in numerous Napoleonic campaigns, they were relegated to a second-class status behind other units during the reconstruction of the Grande Armée. Napoleon’s incessant demands for line-infantry units, as well as a powerful Imperial Guard, led to the creation of ineffective light infantry regiments that were unprepared for the rigors of their tactical and operational duties. Their usual tactical capabilities of skirmishing, reconnaissance, and screening were lost on the newly formed regiments, who were unable to uphold ...


From The Trenches: Cross-Campus Digital History Collaboration, Amy E. Lucadamo, Ian A. Isherwood, R.C. Miessler, Jenna Fleming, Meghan E. O'Donnell Apr 2018

From The Trenches: Cross-Campus Digital History Collaboration, Amy E. Lucadamo, Ian A. Isherwood, R.C. Miessler, Jenna Fleming, Meghan E. O'Donnell

Musselman Library Staff Publications

In September 2015, our team launched The First World War Letters of H.J.C. Peirs (www.jackpeirs.org), a digital history initiative built on collaboration between faculty, students, and library staff. The project is founded on amazing primary source material, but with limited financial support and little dedicated staff time. We leveraged the creativity and hard work of our team members to build a website that is maintained by students and enhanced whenever possible with features and commentary from faculty and staff. Members of #TeamPeirs discussed the evolution of the project, the nature of our collaboration, and the intersection ...