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Articles 1 - 30 of 271

Full-Text Articles in European History

Casualties Of War? Refining The Civilian-Military Dichotomy In World War I, Eric Grube Apr 2019

Casualties Of War? Refining The Civilian-Military Dichotomy In World War I, Eric Grube

Madison Historical Review

Throughout the First World War, newspapers around the world mocked the British state for its lavish spending on captured German officers kept at Donington Hall, a refurbished English estate. Why was this camp such a controversial space of perceived decadence? I argue that its comforts seemed to linger from an earlier era, one in which military men exuded genteel civility as integral to their supposedly heroic service. The British state essentially enabled such treatment, and the public decried this space for sustaining the anachronism of aristocratic privilege in the face of a globalized total war. However, the German inmates expected ...


Raphaël Lemkin’S Derivation Of Genocide From His Analysis Of Nazi-Occupied Europe, Raffael Scheck Apr 2019

Raphaël Lemkin’S Derivation Of Genocide From His Analysis Of Nazi-Occupied Europe, Raffael Scheck

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The breadth and complexity of Lemkin’s definition of “genocide” results from several influences during the time he developed the concept. One of them is a belief that Nazi Germany was engineering a demographic revolution that would leave Germany predominant in Europe regardless of the outcome of the military conflict. This notion facilitated the assumption of a coherent cynical motivation behind disparate policies, laws, and decrees. Second, Lemkin’s daily work for the U.S. Government reinforced his focus on economic and legal matters and helps to explain why they occupy such a prominent place in his book Axis Rule ...


The Mass Murder Of The European Jews And The Concept Of ‘Genocide’ In The Nuremberg Trials: Reassessing Raphaël Lemkin’S Impact, Alexa Stiller Apr 2019

The Mass Murder Of The European Jews And The Concept Of ‘Genocide’ In The Nuremberg Trials: Reassessing Raphaël Lemkin’S Impact, Alexa Stiller

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Nuremberg’s prosecutors prominently used Lemkin’s genocide concept. They also dealt in detail with the mass murder of Europe’s Jews. However, for them ‘genocide’ and the Holocaust were not congruent. They used different definitions of Lemkin’s concept and interpreted the relationship between the mass murder of the European Jews and the entire mass violence of the Nazis differently. Lemkin had little influence on the application of his concept in the Nuremberg trials between 1945 and 1949. The implementation of the 1948 United Nations Genocide Convention put an end to the broad use of the original concept from ...


The Failure Of Soft Law To Provide An Equitable Framework For Restitution Of Nazi-Looted Art, Michael J. Birnkrant Jan 2019

The Failure Of Soft Law To Provide An Equitable Framework For Restitution Of Nazi-Looted Art, Michael J. Birnkrant

Washington University Global Studies Law Review

It is estimated that over 20% of the art in Europe was looted by the Nazi regime during World War II. Many pieces were taken by force from Jewish art dealers, and much of the property taken during this period of Nazi spoliation was never returned. Heirs of looted art are still filing claims for restitution in various courts, but the current global patchwork of statutes of limitations and the availability of the “good faith purchaser defense” in many jurisdictions can render proceedings confusing and unjust.

This note explores the current state of the law regarding repatriation of Nazi-looted art ...


Evolving Conceptions Of Sovereignty As Applied To Membership In International Organizations, Luke C. Radice Jan 2019

Evolving Conceptions Of Sovereignty As Applied To Membership In International Organizations, Luke C. Radice

CMC Senior Theses

In the current international climate, both nations and individuals increasingly question both the validity and necessity of international organizations. This paper seeks to answer some of those questions, and to determine why countries choose to surrender significant portions of the national power that they are afforded under traditional perceptions of “Westphalian sovereignty”. This question is answered through an analysis of historical political thought on the concept of Sovereignty, then is applied to two case studies: the United Nations and the European Union, in which the benefits and downsides of surrendering sovereignty are discussed. Ultimately, this thesis concludes that the concept ...


Judicializing History: Mass Crimes Trials And The Historian As Expert Witness In West Germany, Cambodia, And Bangladesh, Rebecca Gidley, Mathew Turner Dec 2018

Judicializing History: Mass Crimes Trials And The Historian As Expert Witness In West Germany, Cambodia, And Bangladesh, Rebecca Gidley, Mathew Turner

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Henry Rousso warned that the engagement of historians as expert witnesses in trials, particularly highly politicized proceedings of mass crimes, risks a judicialization of history. This article tests Rousso’s argument through analysis of three quite different case studies: the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial; the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia; and the International Crimes Tribunal in Bangladesh. It argues that Rousso’s objections misrepresent the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial, while failing to account for the engagement of historical expertise in mass atrocity trials beyond Europe. Paradoxically, Rousso’s criticisms are less suited to the European context that represents his purview ...


Nineteen Minutes Of Horror: Insights From The Scorpions Execution Video, Iva Vukušić Oct 2018

Nineteen Minutes Of Horror: Insights From The Scorpions Execution Video, Iva Vukušić

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

After the fall of Srebrenica in summer of 1995, the Scorpions unit, dispatched to support the Bosnian Serb Army as it took over the enclave, shot six men in Trnovo. The men, three of whom were underage, were some of thousands of Bosnian Muslims that fell into the hands of Bosnian Serb troops, and that were executed in the days and weeks following July 11th. A member of the unit filmed the execution. Fragments of the video were first shown during the Slobodan Milosevic trial, and multiple times in the years after, in the courtrooms in The Hague and Belgrade ...


The Politics Of Wounds, Jonathan Nash Aug 2018

The Politics Of Wounds, Jonathan Nash

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

What configuration of strategies and discourses enable the white male and settler body politic to render itself as simultaneously wounded and invulnerable? I contextualize this question by reading the discursive continuities between Euro-America’s War on Terror post-9/11 and Algeria’s War for Independence. By interrogating political-philosophical responses to September 11, 2001 beside American rhetoric of a wounded nation, I argue that white nationalism, as a mode of settler colonialism, appropriates the discourses of political wounding to imagine and legitimize a narrative of white hurt and white victimhood; in effect, reproducing and hardening the borders of the nation-state. Additionally ...


The Nuremberg Trials Project At Harvard Law School: Making History Accessible To All, Judith A. Haran Jun 2018

The Nuremberg Trials Project At Harvard Law School: Making History Accessible To All, Judith A. Haran

Journal of Contemporary Archival Studies

This article is primarily a case study of the Nuremberg Trials Project at the Harvard Law School Library in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It begins with an historical note about the war crimes trials and their documentary record, including the fate of the several tons of trial documents that were distributed in 1949. The second part of the article is a description of the Harvard Law School Nuremberg project, including its history, goals, logistical considerations, digitization process and challenges, and resulting impact. The structure and function of the project website is described, followed by a description of a typical user experience, the ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender May 2018

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Dorothy Moser Medlin Papers - Accession 1049, Dorothy Moser Medlin Jan 2018

Dorothy Moser Medlin Papers - Accession 1049, Dorothy Moser Medlin

Manuscript Collection

(The Dorothy Moser Medlin Papers are currently in processing.)

This collection contains most of the records of Dorothy Medlin’s work and correspondence and also includes reference materials, notes, microfilm, photographic negatives related both to her professional and personal life. Additions include a FLES Handbook, co-authored by Dorothy Medlin and a decorative mirror belonging to Dorothy Medlin.

Major series in this collection include: some original 18th century writings and ephemera and primary source material of André Morellet, extensive collection of secondary material on André Morellet's writings and translations, Winthrop related files, literary manuscripts and notes by Dorothy Medlin (1966-2011 ...


The Presbyterian Enlightenment: The Confluence Of Evangelical And Enlightenment Thought In British America, Brandon S. Durbin Jan 2018

The Presbyterian Enlightenment: The Confluence Of Evangelical And Enlightenment Thought In British America, Brandon S. Durbin

Masters Theses

Eighteenth-Century British American Presbyterian ministers incorporated covenantal theology, ideas from the Scottish Enlightenment, and resistance theory in their sermons. The sermons of Presbyterian ministers strongly indicate the intermixing of enlightenment and evangelical ideas. Congregants heard and read these sermons, spreading these ideas to the average colonist. This combination helps explain why American Presbyterians were so apt to resist British rule during the American Revolution. Protestant covenantal theology, derived from Protestant reformers like John Calvin and John Knox, emphasized virtue and duty. This covenant affected both the people and their rulers. When rulers failed to uphold their covenant with God, the ...


Syllabus Cpo 3103 (Rvbb): Politics Of Western Europe (Summer B 2018) Dec 2017

Syllabus Cpo 3103 (Rvbb): Politics Of Western Europe (Summer B 2018)

Dr. Lukas K. Danner

No abstract provided.


The Pedagogical Needs Of Children And Adults Living In The Calais Jungle Refugee Camp: Existential Issues And Perspectives Of Volunteer Teachers And Workers, Theresa C. Bodon, Nancy K. Votteler Sep 2017

The Pedagogical Needs Of Children And Adults Living In The Calais Jungle Refugee Camp: Existential Issues And Perspectives Of Volunteer Teachers And Workers, Theresa C. Bodon, Nancy K. Votteler

FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education

This study aimed at examining the pedagogical needs and challenges of children and young adults living in a refugee camp in France known as the Calais Jungle. Through the researchers’ observations and interviews with volunteer teachers and workers at the camp, insights into their perspectives shed light on the pedagogical needs of refugees. Also, utilizing Paulo Freire’s philosophical stance, this study provides a contextual approach to the educational practices and ideological viewpoints represented within unregulated refugee camp settings.


Parchment As Power: The Effects Of Pre-Revolutionary Treaties On Native Americans From The Colonial Period To Present, Katie Wilkinson Sep 2017

Parchment As Power: The Effects Of Pre-Revolutionary Treaties On Native Americans From The Colonial Period To Present, Katie Wilkinson

The Purdue Historian

In colonial America, there was one resource that settlers were thirsty for and only Native Americans could provide: land. Europeans were interested in gaining possession of Native land via whatever methods would place the fertile soil into their greedy palms the fastest. As a result, they turned to a familiar practice to establish ownership – the written word, more specifically treaties. Unfortunately, the Europeans had fundamentally different thoughts concerning land than the Natives and it resulted in great forfeitures for tribes. While Native Americans were often tricked into land cessions, this was not always the case. Some of the reasons behind ...


Living Within The Margins: The Constitutional Culture Of Irish Life Law And Literature, Meghan Keator Jun 2017

Living Within The Margins: The Constitutional Culture Of Irish Life Law And Literature, Meghan Keator

Honors Theses

Serving as a stepping stone to asserting independence from British authority and oppression, the Bunreacht Na hÉireann, Ireland’s modern constitution, allowed the nation and its people finally to shape themselves by their own legal standards, customs, and norms. Yet, after years of oppression from forced British standards, Ireland began the search for its own distinct voice as a newly liberated, competitive country. This thesis explores how the Irish Constitution contributes to shaping a homogenous society that promotes normative views and behaviors that damagingly marginalize minority groups–who differ from such social standards. By examining the specific language, diction, order ...


Book Review: The History Of A Forgotten German Camp: Nazi Ideology And Genocide In Szmalcówka, Darren J. O'Brien May 2017

Book Review: The History Of A Forgotten German Camp: Nazi Ideology And Genocide In Szmalcówka, Darren J. O'Brien

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Civil War Or Genocide? The United Nations Commission Of Experts’ Misunderstanding Of The Third Balkan War Of The 1990s, Matthew G. Morley Jan 2017

Civil War Or Genocide? The United Nations Commission Of Experts’ Misunderstanding Of The Third Balkan War Of The 1990s, Matthew G. Morley

Grand Valley Journal of History

When the country of Yugoslavia disintegrated into war, the United Nations created a research commission, the Yugoslav Commission of Experts, to document war crimes. This commission, led by Cherif M. Bassiouni, depicted the conflict as a perpetual problem with historical roots and also as having victims on both sides, which presented a legal-definitional paradox to the Security Council, requiring litigation of principles, categorization of conflicts, and discussion of further involvement - if applicable. This paper traces the essentialist understandings of the Commission of Experts and the International Human Rights Law Institute – two groups that otherwise had good intentions to bring about ...


East West Street: Personal Stories About Life And Law, Philippe Sands Jan 2017

East West Street: Personal Stories About Life And Law, Philippe Sands

Washington University Global Studies Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Extermination Of Peaceful Soviet Citizens: Aron Trainin And International Law, Michelle Jean Penn Jan 2017

The Extermination Of Peaceful Soviet Citizens: Aron Trainin And International Law, Michelle Jean Penn

History Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines the life and work of Soviet Jewish lawyer Aron Trainin, placing him in conversation with his better-known contemporaries, the founder of the concept of genocide Raphael Lemkin, and human rights advocate Hersch Lauterpacht. Together these three legal minds—who differed widely in temperament and approaches to law but possessed similar backgrounds as Jewish lawyers from the eastern European borderlands, developed concepts foundations to the Nuremberg Tribunal and, subsequently, modern international criminal law. By situating Trainin’s work with Lemkin’s and Lauterpacht’s, this dissertation acknowledges the central role Trainin played in the development of international criminal ...


Examining The Efficacy Of French Asylum Policies And Refugee Integration Effects, Roberto Cordero Jan 2017

Examining The Efficacy Of French Asylum Policies And Refugee Integration Effects, Roberto Cordero

Honors Undergraduate Theses

This Thesis investigates the French asylum seeker legal framework and refugee integration effects based on evidence in government data, non-governmental organizations, and external sources. Specifically, the policies of the protected rights of asylum seekers from history to modern day in relation to its efficiency and respect to human rights. Despite the development of past models through reforms, some shortcomings and discrepancies still exist that adversely affect asylum rights and responsibility sharing among EU nations. A potential system that benefits the applicant in addition to the host country is possible by implementing a model that takes into consideration asylum preferences, socioeconomics ...


Setting Precedents For A Nation On Trial: Selection Of Defendants For The International Military Tribunal At Nuremberg, Delia Root Nov 2016

Setting Precedents For A Nation On Trial: Selection Of Defendants For The International Military Tribunal At Nuremberg, Delia Root

Honors College Theses

The International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg, commonly known as the Nuremberg Trials, is credited with indictment of the major Nazi war criminals of the Second World War. But, were all of the individuals who were indicted in 1945 actually major war criminals? Or, were they minor war criminals who happened to be more well-known? Through the use of historical and legal means, my research looks to why the twenty-four defendants were chosen to be indicted in an era which hosts scores of persons who could be labelled major war criminals. Reasons including the groups that these defendants were connected with ...


Book Review: Genocide On The Drina River, Iva Vukušić Oct 2016

Book Review: Genocide On The Drina River, Iva Vukušić

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Editors' Introduction, Melanie O'Brien, Joann Digeorgio-Lutz, Lior Zylberman, Christian Gudehus, Douglas Irvin-Erickson, Randle Defalco, Hilary Earl Jun 2016

Editors' Introduction, Melanie O'Brien, Joann Digeorgio-Lutz, Lior Zylberman, Christian Gudehus, Douglas Irvin-Erickson, Randle Defalco, Hilary Earl

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


The German Rocket Jet And The Nuclear Programs Of World War Ii, Max Lutze Jun 2016

The German Rocket Jet And The Nuclear Programs Of World War Ii, Max Lutze

Honors Theses

German military technology in World War II was among the best of the major warring powers and in many cases it was the groundwork for postwar innovations that permanently changed global warfare. Three of the most important projects undertaken, which were not only German initiatives and therefore perhaps among the most valuable programs for both the major Axis and Allied nations, include the rocket, jet, and nuclear programs. In Germany, each of these technologies was given different levels of attention and met with varying degrees of success in their development and application. By the end of the war, both rockets ...


The Scapegoat, Katherine Ludwig Apr 2016

The Scapegoat, Katherine Ludwig

Geifman Prize in Holocaust Studies

This essay responds to a claim made in the aftermath of an Anti-Semitic attack. It discusses the treatment of Jews in Europe around the time of the Holocaust and what may have motivated this treatment.


The Power Of A Secret: Ireland’S Secret Societies Involvement In Irish Nationalism, Sierra M. Harlan Apr 2016

The Power Of A Secret: Ireland’S Secret Societies Involvement In Irish Nationalism, Sierra M. Harlan

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2019

The Irish Republican Brotherhood (I.R.B.) and the Irish Volunteer Force (I.V.F.) altered Irish Nationalist tactics from Parliamentary supported Home Rule to a republican movement for Irish Independence. The actions of these secret societies between the years of 1900 through 1917, before the Irish Revolutionary period,[1] are the reason that Ireland gained independence from United Kingdom in 1921. The change from political negotiations by the ineffective Irish Parliamentary Party to the republican movement would never have happened without the Easter Rising of 1916. The centennial anniversary of this Easter Rising makes The Power of a Secret ...


United In Diversity? The Political Implications Of Intra- Eu Migration, Isabel Monteleone Apr 2016

United In Diversity? The Political Implications Of Intra- Eu Migration, Isabel Monteleone

Senior Theses and Projects

Intra-EU migration is a phenomenon innate to the structure of the European Union. A politico-economic union of twenty-eight countries, the EU does what no other alliance of countries has endeavored before, serving as a unique product of globalization and integration, in every sense of the word. Bound almost entirely by a common currency, the European Union is established in the belief that economic cooperation in Europe can be achieved through the principle of free movement, despite each member states’ individual way of life, language, and political, religious, and cultural ideology.

Since intra-EU migration allows for the possibility of EU integration ...


"To The Devil We Sprang And To The Devil We Shall Go": Memory And History In The Narrative Of British Medieval Constitutionality, Helen W. Tschurr Jan 2016

"To The Devil We Sprang And To The Devil We Shall Go": Memory And History In The Narrative Of British Medieval Constitutionality, Helen W. Tschurr

Summer Research

The British Bill of Rights is arguably one of the most important documents in history; it symbolizes modernity, legal protection for popular sovereignty, and has inspired several political and intellectual revolutions. The Bill of Rights is a physical manifestation of the British constitution and represents a triumph of constitutionality over despotism, the struggle which has defined British history since the Norman Invasion in 1066, and which has been deemed the de facto constitution itself. Because of its unique composition, the British constitution has been a hotly debated historical subject since the Glorious Revolution. Most scholarship on this topic has been ...


Magna Carta Then And Now: A Symbol Of Freedom And Equal Rights For All, Eugene K B Tan, Jack Tsen-Ta Lee Nov 2015

Magna Carta Then And Now: A Symbol Of Freedom And Equal Rights For All, Eugene K B Tan, Jack Tsen-Ta Lee

Jack Tsen-Ta LEE

Magna Carta became applicable to Singapore in 1826 when a court system administering English law was established in the Straits Settlements. This remained the case through Singapore’s evolution from Crown colony to independent republic. The Great Charter only ceased to apply in 1993, when Parliament enacted the Application of English Law Act to clarify which colonial laws were still part of Singapore law. Nonetheless, Magna Carta’s legacy in Singapore continues in a number of ways. Principles such as due process of law and the supremacy of law are cornerstones of the rule of law, vital to the success ...