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History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

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Articles 121 - 136 of 136

Full-Text Articles in European History

Lodestone And Earth: The Study Of Magnetism And Terrestrial Magnetism In Great Britain, C 1750-1830 , Robinson Mclaughry Yost Jan 1997

Lodestone And Earth: The Study Of Magnetism And Terrestrial Magnetism In Great Britain, C 1750-1830 , Robinson Mclaughry Yost

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates a neglected area in the history of the physical sciences--the history of the study of magnetism. Examining the study of magnetism and terrestrial magnetism in Great Britain from the 1750s to the 1830s allows for discussing the changing motives, methods, and results of magnetic and geomagnetic studies. The changes in magnetic studies are comparable to dramatic transformations in other areas of experimental physics, including the studies of heat, light, and electricity;With the publication of De Magnete, William Gilbert intimately linked the earth's magnetism to magnetism by arguing the earth was a giant magnet. Though subsequent ...


A Frightful, But Not Necessarily Fatal, Madness: Rabies In Eighteenth-Century England And English North America , John Douglas Blaisdell Jan 1995

A Frightful, But Not Necessarily Fatal, Madness: Rabies In Eighteenth-Century England And English North America , John Douglas Blaisdell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the numerous medical beliefs and attitudes toward rabies in eighteenth-century England and English North America. It also attempts to explain the reasons behind some of these beliefs;The beliefs as to causation generally change with the changes in medical theories. As the established medical profession moves away from the beliefs in disease as a result of general body dysfunction and toward disease as a result of the dysfunction of one or more of the organs of the body the beliefs about rabies change accordingly. Rabies was no longer seen as a result of the dysfunction of the ...


Thompson Document 01: An Introduction To The Henrietta Thompson Collection, Henrietta Thompson Dec 1992

Thompson Document 01: An Introduction To The Henrietta Thompson Collection, Henrietta Thompson

Henrietta Thompson Papers

A very brief introduction to the Henrietta Thompson collection.


Jewish Preaching And The Language Of Science: The Sermons Of Azariah Figo, David B. Ruderman Jan 1992

Jewish Preaching And The Language Of Science: The Sermons Of Azariah Figo, David B. Ruderman

Departmental Papers (History)

The age in which the preachers of the Italian ghettos delivered their sermons was also the great age of scientific discovery in Europe. Far removed both geographically and culturally from the cramped but ornate synagogues of Venice, Ferrara, or Mantua, Galileo peered through his famous telescope, Vesalius performed his revolutionary anatomical experiments, and Bacon and Descartes reflected deeply on the new methods of fathoming the natural world from their own distinctive perspectives. Beyond the walls ostensibly separating Jews from the social and cultural life of their Christian contemporaries, a revolution was taking place in astronomy, in physics, and in the ...


Science, Practice And Politics: German Agricultural Experiment Stations In The Nineteenth Century , Mark Russell Finlay Jan 1992

Science, Practice And Politics: German Agricultural Experiment Stations In The Nineteenth Century , Mark Russell Finlay

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the origins, scientific research, and impact of German agricultural experiment stations in the nineteenth century. At the time, German experiment stations held a commanding status in chemistry and life sciences research, German agricultural scientists established themselves an important scientific community, and German stations contributed to their nation's economic and industrial prominence;The dissertation emphasizes conflicts among the stations' three major constituencies. Profit-minded agriculturists were among the first to promote agricultural science. Generally speaking, they expected agricultural science to serve their immediate and practical interests, though they also employed a rhetoric of economic development and national ...


Pox Britannica: Smallpox Inoculation In Britain, 1721-1830, Deborah Christian Brunton Jan 1990

Pox Britannica: Smallpox Inoculation In Britain, 1721-1830, Deborah Christian Brunton

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Inoculation has an important place in the history of medicine: not only was it the first form of preventive medicine but its history spans the so-called eighteenth century 'medical revolution'. A study of the myriad of pamphlets, books and articles on the controversial practice casts new light on these fundamental changes in the medical profession and medical practice. Whereas historians have associated the abandonment of old humoural theories and individualised therapy in favour of standardised techniques with the emergence of new institutions in the second half of the century, inoculation suggests that changes began as early as the 1720s. Though ...


"If I Had My Health ": Ideas About Illness And Healing In The Lisle Letters, Margaret T. Mitchell Jan 1990

"If I Had My Health ": Ideas About Illness And Healing In The Lisle Letters, Margaret T. Mitchell

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Johannes Buxtorf I And The Circumcision Incident Of 1619, Stephen G. Burnett Jan 1989

Johannes Buxtorf I And The Circumcision Incident Of 1619, Stephen G. Burnett

Faculty Publications, Classics and Religious Studies Department

Johannes Buxtorf I has frequently been portrayed in the scholarly literature as a vigorous proponent of missions to the Jews and an implacable foe of their religion. The circumcision incident of 1619 casts a slightly different light upon Buxtorf and his relations with the Jews. While Buxtorf made his religious objections to Jewish circumcision clear, his opinion of the event and the city council's reaction to it differed markedly. Differing views of what constituted "appropriate" behavior for Christians toward Jews lie at the heart of this unhappy incident.


Railroads And Aspects Of Social Change In Senegal, 1878-1933, Paul Edward Pheffer Jan 1975

Railroads And Aspects Of Social Change In Senegal, 1878-1933, Paul Edward Pheffer

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In a dissertation, or any research subject for that matter, there are generally both narrow and broader queries that can be pursued on a given theme. The narrow theme in this case concerns the "motives for French railroad-building in Senegal." Unfortunately, despite prolonged searches through archival sources available in Senegal, it soon became obvious that there were simply too many missing particulars to be able to complete this story well. Even while searching out the missing information gaps for the narrow theme, however, it also proved possible to gather abundant material for the broader theme of the social impact of ...


Contributions Of Peter Pallas To Science And Exploration In Russia, Robert C. Parker Jul 1973

Contributions Of Peter Pallas To Science And Exploration In Russia, Robert C. Parker

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis presents an account of a prominent eighteenth-century European naturalist, Peter Pallas (1741-1811), in the setting to which he contributed his scientific talents—the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. A complete outline of Pallas' life is presented for purposes of continuity, but the heart of the thesis is presented in chapters four and five, which combined, relate the major features of Pallas' career in Russia. These two chapters are set against pertinent background material, most of which is involved with the institution itself which supported Pallas. The St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences is surveyed in its origin and development ...


0064: Marshall University Oral History Collection, Marshall University Special Collections Jan 1973

0064: Marshall University Oral History Collection, Marshall University Special Collections

Guides to Manuscript Collections

Tape recordings and transcripts of oral interviews with residents in the West Virginia-Ohio-Kentucky Tri-State region regarding such topics as farming, schools, health care, folk customs, and many others related to life in this Appalachian region.


The Reconciliation Of Science And Religion In Symbolo-Fideism, Shirley Brown Moon Jan 1968

The Reconciliation Of Science And Religion In Symbolo-Fideism, Shirley Brown Moon

Wayne State University Dissertations

From the publication in 1859 of On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection, religion was in open warfare against science. By the end of the century the war was not going well for religion. Biology, anthropology, archeology, the "higher criticism" united in an attack on Christian premises, while "applied science" — technology-provided, the materialistic comforts which made Christian promises utopian and unnecessary. The reaction of some Protestant and Catholic leaders to this threat from science was a retreat into funda­mentalism. Others hastened to show that the recent discoveries were not really in conflict with religious truths at ...


3. The Second Industrial Revolution, Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold L. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart Jan 1958

3. The Second Industrial Revolution, Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold L. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart

Section XIV: The Industrial Revolution, Classical Economics, and Economic Liberalism

There is abundant evidence for the opinion that after about 1850 the Industrial Revolution entered upon a new phase in its development. Inventions occurred at a more rapid pace than ever before in history. (Between 1850 and 1914 there were more than fifty times as many patents issued in the Unites States as during the preceding sixty years.) Increasingly these inventions were the work of scientists and engineers working in the research laboratory rather than of self-taught craftsmen, as had often been the case in the eighteenth century. [excerpt]


4. The Spread Of The Industrial Revolution, Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold L. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart Jan 1958

4. The Spread Of The Industrial Revolution, Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold L. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart

Section XIV: The Industrial Revolution, Classical Economics, and Economic Liberalism

During much of the nineteenth century Great Britain strove with notable success to maintain her position as the world's leading industrial, commercial, and financial power. Her factories continued turning out textiles, machinery, and many other goods which were exported to all parts of the world. Her merchant marine continued to be the largest of any country. London was the financial capital of the world. Britain had adopted the gold standard in 1821; most western European nations and many others eventually followed her lead. The English pound was everywhere acceptable as international exchange. By 1850, when half of all Englishmen ...


4. Roger Bacon And Medieval Science, Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold A. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart Jan 1958

4. Roger Bacon And Medieval Science, Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold A. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart

Section IV: The Medieval Ferment

Throughout the Middle Ages there was little interest in theoretical science as such. Not since the Greeks had nature been considered a sufficient object in and of itself for most of the study that we would call scientific. The Middle Ages ' concern with nature was not its primary concern. The medievalist was interested in nature either as a mirror of the supernatural or as something which could be used in reaching the supernatural. The reappearance of Aristotle's thought and the development of those practical and technical interests which grew up around the problems of trade and industry demanded a ...


War Weapons As An Index Of Contemporary Knowledge Of The Nature And Significance Of Craniocerebral Trauma: Some Notes On Striking Weapons Designed Primarily To Produce Injury To The Head, Cyril B. Courville Jul 1948

War Weapons As An Index Of Contemporary Knowledge Of The Nature And Significance Of Craniocerebral Trauma: Some Notes On Striking Weapons Designed Primarily To Produce Injury To The Head, Cyril B. Courville

Medical Arts and Sciences: A Scientific Journal of the College of Medical Evangelists

No abstract provided.