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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in European History

Media In Action: From Exorcism To Mesmerism, Stephan Gregory Sep 2015

Media In Action: From Exorcism To Mesmerism, Stephan Gregory

communication +1

In the Bavaria of 1775, the popular exorcist practices performed by the catholic priest Johann Joseph Gassner were discredited and superseded by the enlightened, scientific’ system of Franz Anton Mesmer's “Animal Magnetism”. As the article argues, this replacement could happen so easily because–below the apparent ideological differences–both procedures were based on the same idea of technical functioning, they relied on the same principle of operation. Gassnerism as well as Mesmerism revolved around the idea of communication, and in both cases this communication’ was not about conveying a message, a meaning, it was a about mediating between two ...


Sex On The Brain: The Rise And Fall Of German Sexual Science, Kevin S. Amidon Sep 2015

Sex On The Brain: The Rise And Fall Of German Sexual Science, Kevin S. Amidon

Kevin S. Amidon

Throughout the nineteenth century, German medical, scientific and legal scholars found themselves puzzled and engaged by the diverse forms of human sexuality. Psychiatrists like Richard von Krafft-Ebing who were interested in explaining deviance encountered scientifically trained advocates for emancipation like Magnus Hirschfeld, and the result was the new – if unstable – discipline of sexual science. Because they based arguments for social intervention on knowledge of nature and the body, the field's proponents – like the advocates of eugenics and racial hygiene – argued that they were biologists. After 1900, this mutual biological engagement of sexual science and eugenics revealed itself in overlapping ...


“Diesmal Fehlt Die Biologie!” Max Horkheimer, Richard Thurnwald, And The Biological Prehistory Of German Sozialforschung, Kevin S. Amidon Sep 2015

“Diesmal Fehlt Die Biologie!” Max Horkheimer, Richard Thurnwald, And The Biological Prehistory Of German Sozialforschung, Kevin S. Amidon

Kevin S. Amidon

In his early writings Max Horkheimer explored the issues surrounding biological explanation in Kantian and neo-Kantian philosophy. After he became director of the Institut für Sozialforschung in 1930, he continued to explore the relationships between biology, materialism, philosophy, and social theory. This interest was reflected both in his editorial policy for the Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung and in his own scholarly development that led to the development of critical theory in the later 1930s and the anti-Semitism research of the 1940s. Horkheimer's interests and ambitions also generated resistance from other social scientists. The Berlin ethnologist Richard Thurnwald, along with his ...


Adolf Meyer-Abich, Holism, And The Negotiation Of Theoretical Biology, Kevin S. Amidon Aug 2015

Adolf Meyer-Abich, Holism, And The Negotiation Of Theoretical Biology, Kevin S. Amidon

Kevin S. Amidon

Adolf Meyer-Abich (1893–1971; known as Adolf Meyer before 1938) spent his career as one of the most vigorous and varied advocates in the biological sciences. Primarily a philosophical proponent of holistic thought in biology, he also sought through collaboration with empirically oriented colleagues in biology, medicine, and even physics (including C. J. van der Klaauw, Karl K¨otschau, Hans B¨oker, Jakob von Uexk¨ull, and Pascual Jordan) to develop arguments against mechanistic and reductionistic positions in the life sciences, and to integrate them into a newly disciplinary theoretical biology. He participated in major publishing efforts including the founding ...


“Kabbalistic Pharmacopeia: Wellbeing In The Atlantic Jewish World”, Aviva Ben-Ur May 2015

“Kabbalistic Pharmacopeia: Wellbeing In The Atlantic Jewish World”, Aviva Ben-Ur

Aviva Ben-Ur

This article describes and analyzes a rare manuscript bearing the lead title Ta‘alumot Hokhmah and purchased at auction in 2013. The document was composed by many hands and in many lands, largely in Portuguese and Dutch, with significant portions in French and Italian, and a smattering of Spanish, English, German, and Yiddish. Most manifestly, it is a receipt book, a compendium of medical, culinary, and housekeeping recipes, sometimes mingled with kabbalistic directives; it also incorporates memoirs and biographical annotations. The multiple layers of text collectively represent the transmission of knowledge within a single family and mark the major transitions ...


The Rhetoric Of Nineteenth Century British Anti-Vaccinators: An Interdisciplinary Movement Of Medicine, Religion, Class, And Popular Culture, Madison P. Walter May 2015

The Rhetoric Of Nineteenth Century British Anti-Vaccinators: An Interdisciplinary Movement Of Medicine, Religion, Class, And Popular Culture, Madison P. Walter

Student Scholarship

Since the introduction of vaccination in 1796 by Edward Jenner, there has been a continuous debate regarding the practice of vaccination. The debate initially focused on ethical and religious opposition to vaccination, but quickly turned towards politics following the passing of compulsory vaccination laws in England in 1853. This politically charged debate regarding compulsion is what remains in the forefront of the minds of anti-vaccinators today. Does the government have the right to force vaccination upon its citizens?

This project is not an examination of ethics or the role of the government, and therefore does not seek to answer this ...


The Medical Response To The Black Death, Joseph A. Legan May 2015

The Medical Response To The Black Death, Joseph A. Legan

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This paper discusses the medical response to the Black Death in both Europe and the Middle East. The Black Death was caused by a series of bacterial strands collectively known as Yersinia pestis. The Plague originated in the Mongolian Steppes. It was spread westward by the east-west trading system. Once it arrived in the Crimea in 1346, Italian merchants helped spread it throughout the Mediterranean. Medicine in Europe and the Middle East were centered on Galen’s theory of humors. There were many religious explanations for the Plague, but the main medical explanation was the spread of bad air, or ...


Bouts Of Brain Fever: Female Rebellion And The Dubiety Of Illness In Victorian Fiction, Stephanie R. Mason May 2015

Bouts Of Brain Fever: Female Rebellion And The Dubiety Of Illness In Victorian Fiction, Stephanie R. Mason

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In several Victorian novels, a character becomes incapacitated—and bedridden—for a period of time due to an elusive ailment known as brain fever; these mental alterations usually occur in female characters after an unexpected event or a stress-ridden situation. However, the sources of and meanings behind these fits of brain fever are limited to generic descriptions (if the author provides any explanation at all). This apparently intentional absence of information suggests that the illnesses act as symbols, alluding to or attempting to understand relevant social issues of the time. Through an in-depth study of Elizabeth Gaskell’s Mary Barton ...


Disaster And Discourse: Reactions To The 1906 Courrières Colliery Mine Disaster, Jacob Abrams May 2015

Disaster And Discourse: Reactions To The 1906 Courrières Colliery Mine Disaster, Jacob Abrams

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The 1906 Courrières Colliery Mine Disaster is the worst industrial catastrophe ever to have occurred in Europe. Yet, there is little scholarship available on the subject. This thesis examines reactions to the disaster from French coalminers, the French government, and international groups, states, and organizations. What is revealed is the importance of the event to understanding the historical relationships between work and protest, the French state and the labor movement, and the construction of international disaster relief and motivations for charity and giving.


Taming Of Monsters: The Postdramatic Case For Copenhagen, Shaan Y. Sharma May 2015

Taming Of Monsters: The Postdramatic Case For Copenhagen, Shaan Y. Sharma

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Analysis of Michael Frayn's manipulation of perspective in his works, the implications of a postdramatic interpretation of Copenhagen, the production process of the show, and reflections on the performance.


Les Entretiens De Fontenelle: The Rhetorical Strategies Of A Cosmological Dialogue, Mark R. Komanecky Jr. Apr 2015

Les Entretiens De Fontenelle: The Rhetorical Strategies Of A Cosmological Dialogue, Mark R. Komanecky Jr.

Senior Theses and Projects

Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle’s Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds is one of the first major works of the French Enlightenment. First published in 1686, the work is organized as a series of dialogues between a philosopher and a marquise who discuss scientific topics such as heliocentrism and the possibility of extra-terrestrial life. Treating these subjects was a risky affair; less than a century earlier Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake, and fifty years before Fontenelle, Galileo was arrested for “holding, teaching, and defending” heliocentrism. Fontenelle employed several rhetorical and stylistic strategies in the work: he wrote ...


Funding An Escape: The Purchase Of Karl Wolfskehls Library By Salman Schocken And His Help For Franzisca Baruch, Tomke Hinrichs Jan 2015

Funding An Escape: The Purchase Of Karl Wolfskehls Library By Salman Schocken And His Help For Franzisca Baruch, Tomke Hinrichs

Tomke Hinrichs

Salman Schocken (1877–1959) was the owner of a multicorparate enterprise and a “businessman with art in his soul” as Felix Rosenblüth (1887–1978) said. His manner to handle money and his success in different fields of publishing and collecting rare books made it possible, that he could help other people in times of need. This article deals with two specific cases of funding an escape and helping to save people’s life during the growing power of the National Socialists in 1930s. The way in which he has helped and what was needed of him will be discussed in ...


Coelum Britannicum: Inigo Jones And Symbolic Geometry, Rumiko Handa Jan 2015

Coelum Britannicum: Inigo Jones And Symbolic Geometry, Rumiko Handa

Architecture Program: Faculty Scholarly and Creative Activity

Inigo Jones’s interpretation that Stonehenge was a Roman temple of Coelum, the god of the heavens, was published in 1655, 3 years after his death, in The most notable Antiquity of Great Britain, vulgarly called Stone-Heng, on Salisbury Plain, Restored.1 King James I demanded an interpretation in 1620. The task most reasonably fell in the realm of Surveyor of the King’s Works, which Jones had been for the preceding 5 years. According to John Webb, Jones’s assistant since 1628 and executor of Jones’s will, it was Webb who wrote the book based on Jones’s ...


Witch/Witchcraft And Sorcerer/Sorcery, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2015

Witch/Witchcraft And Sorcerer/Sorcery, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The academic study of religion has been an interdisciplinary endeavor since its inception at the end of the nineteenth century. Much of the theoretical vocabulary that is needed to study religion has been imported from adjacent disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, historiography, theology, philology, literary studies, psychology, philosophy, cultural studies, and political sciences. It is the strength of the academic study of religion to bring these approaches into conversation with one another. The Vocabulary for the Study of Religion provides an excellent platform to sustain this conversation. Written by experts with a background in a variety of disciplines, over 400 ...


Reformers On Sorcery And Superstition, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2015

Reformers On Sorcery And Superstition, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The Observant Movement was a widespread effort to reform religious life across Europe. It took root around 1400, and for a century and more thereafter it inspired or shaped much that became central to European religion and culture. The Observants produced many of the leading religious figures of the later Middle Ages—Catherine of Siena, Bernardino of Siena and Savonarola in Italy, Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros in Spain, and in Germany Martin Luther himself. This volume provides scholars with a current, synthetic introduction to the Observant Movement. Its essays also seek collectively to expand the horizons of our study of ...


Investigating A Century-Long Hole In History: The Untold Story Of Ayahuasca From 1755-1865, Justin Williams Jan 2015

Investigating A Century-Long Hole In History: The Untold Story Of Ayahuasca From 1755-1865, Justin Williams

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis illuminates the lost history of ayahuasca and argues that a larger institution, the ethnocentric and economically focused European milieu, prevented eighteenth and nineteenth-century Europeans from further investigating this mysterious plant-based hallucinogenic infusion. A myriad of factors contributed to these triumphal trade winds of prevailing European thought—ethnocentricity, consequent internalization, economic avarice, and European geo-political domination. In addition, there were other fateful historical circumstances beyond the influence of European paradigms that may have prevented ayahuasca from entering mainstream history.

This thesis begins an understanding toward the reasons that led to a century of historical cover-up—the skeleton of what ...