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History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

2014

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Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in European History

Rough Terrain. Review Of Dane Kennedy, The Last Blank Spaces, Tobias J. Harper Nov 2014

Rough Terrain. Review Of Dane Kennedy, The Last Blank Spaces, Tobias J. Harper

Toby Harper

No abstract provided.


Aspects Of Newtonianism In Rameau’S Génération Harmonique, Abigail Shupe Oct 2014

Aspects Of Newtonianism In Rameau’S Génération Harmonique, Abigail Shupe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation studies the influence of Newtonianism as a cultural phenomenon on the theoretical writings of Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764). Rameau’s Génération harmonique (1737) shows a change in his thinking from his earlier work that bears witness to the debates around Newtonian science in the scientific community. Scholars have discussed possible connections between Génération harmonique and Newton’s Opticks (1704) but none has studied this issue in detail. I argue that Rameau was influenced by Newtonianism rather than by Newton’s works, and that Rameau was not always aware of this influence. In order to situate Rameau’s work within ...


Review Of Healthy Living In Late Renaissance Italy, Brian Maxson Jul 2014

Review Of Healthy Living In Late Renaissance Italy, Brian Maxson

ETSU Faculty Works

This work offers an interdisciplinary study of preventative health in 16th and 17th century Italy. Previous studies on the practice and prescription of early modern preventative health are few, and scholars have tended to assume that medical understanding of the body's humors remained relatively static during this period.


Review Of Healthy Living In Late Renaissance Italy, Brian Maxson Jun 2014

Review Of Healthy Living In Late Renaissance Italy, Brian Maxson

Brian J. Maxson

This work offers an interdisciplinary study of preventative health in 16th and 17th century Italy. Previous studies on the practice and prescription of early modern preventative health are few, and scholars have tended to assume that medical understanding of the body's humors remained relatively static during this period.


Neither “Headache” Nor “Illness:” The False Narrative Of Syphilis And Its Origin In Europe, Michael W. Horton Jun 2014

Neither “Headache” Nor “Illness:” The False Narrative Of Syphilis And Its Origin In Europe, Michael W. Horton

HIST 4800 Early America in the Atlantic World (Herndon)

In this paper I argue that the master narrative of the origin of syphilis in Europe, known as the Columbian Theory does not hold up to historical review since it does not contain enough concrete evidence for we as historians to be comfortable with as the master narrative. To form my argument I use the writings of Girolamo Fracastoro, an Italian physician known for coining the term “syphilis,” as the basis when I review the journal of Christopher Columbus. I review his journal, which chronicles the first voyage to the Americas, to see if there is any connection between the ...


Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent May 2014

Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent

Doctoral Dissertations

What do community interpreting for the Deaf in western societies, conference interpreting for the European Parliament, and language brokering in international management have in common? Academic research and professional training have historically emphasized the linguistic and cognitive challenges of interpreting, neglecting or ignoring the social aspects that structure communication. All forms of interpreting are inherently social; they involve relationships among at least three people and two languages. The contexts explored here, American Sign Language/English interpreting and spoken language interpreting within the European Parliament, show that simultaneous interpreting involves attitudes, norms and values about intercultural communication that overemphasize information and ...


Comparison Of Focus And Audience Between Seneca’S Natural Questions And Pliny’S Natural History, Joshua Ely May 2014

Comparison Of Focus And Audience Between Seneca’S Natural Questions And Pliny’S Natural History, Joshua Ely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Around 65 AD, the Ancient Roman philosopher Seneca wrote his only text concerning Natural Phenomenon: Natural Questions. Considered since medieval times as part of a trinity of great thinkers including Plato and Aristotle, Seneca’s work in rhetoric, philosophy, and legal theory still receive praise today. The praise is not replicated for Natural Questions, however. Modern historians who consider the work paint it as uninspiring. Pliny, another Roman author and philosopher, wrote a far more encompassing and detailed work called Natural History, and it is this work that is considered the premier Roman comment on Natural Philosophy. These contemporaneous ...


Scientism, Satire, And Sacrificial Ceremony In Dostoevsky's "Notes From Underground" And C.S. Lewis's "That Hideous Strength", Jonathan Smalt May 2014

Scientism, Satire, And Sacrificial Ceremony In Dostoevsky's "Notes From Underground" And C.S. Lewis's "That Hideous Strength", Jonathan Smalt

Masters Theses

Though the nineteenth-century Victorian belief that science alone could provide utopia for man weakened in the epistemological uncertainty of the postmodern era, this belief still continues today. In order to understand our current scientific milieu--and the dangers of propagating scientism--we must first trace the rise of scientism in the nineteenth-century. Though removed, Fyodor Dostoevsky, in Notes From Underground (1864), and C.S. Lewis, in That Hideous Strength (1965), are united in their critiques of scientism as a conceptual framework for human residency. For Dostoevsky, the Crystal Palace of London's Great Exhibition (1862) embodied the nineteenth-century goal to found utopia ...


Enlightenment And Catholicism In Europe. A Transnational History, Ulrich Lehner, Jeffrey Burson Mar 2014

Enlightenment And Catholicism In Europe. A Transnational History, Ulrich Lehner, Jeffrey Burson

Ulrich L. Lehner

No abstract provided.


'An Explosive Of Quite Unimaginable Force': Did Werner Heisenberg Obstruct German Atomic Bomb Research?, Aaron G. Noll Mar 2014

'An Explosive Of Quite Unimaginable Force': Did Werner Heisenberg Obstruct German Atomic Bomb Research?, Aaron G. Noll

Graduate History Conference, UMass Boston

Why was Nazi Germany unable to acquire an atomic bomb during World War II? An answer to this question necessarily involves an analysis of the wartime conduct of Werner Heisenberg. As the undisputed leader of German nuclear research, Heisenberg was integral to the successful production of a bomb. Heisenberg claimed after the war that the Nazis lacked the economic resources for this project. Moreover, Nazi military strategy ruled out such a sustained long-term commitment in armaments development. Heisenberg explained that he personally felt fortunate that these circumstances prevented Hitler from having a bomb. He argued that he merely “pretended” to ...


The Unbreakable Circle: An Intellectual History Of Michel Foucault, Chris Mb Moreland Mar 2014

The Unbreakable Circle: An Intellectual History Of Michel Foucault, Chris Mb Moreland

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The following is a chronologically ordered internal intellectual history of Michel Foucault. The objective of this analysis is to determine whether or not Foucault provides a viable critical social theory of bourgeois society. In order to examine this topic, I trace the development of Foucault’s thought during his early, pre-archaeological stage, his archaeological stage, and his genealogical stage. I frame Foucault’s stages as attempts to overcome Kant’s subject/object division—or the paradox that man operates as both a meaning-giving subject and an empirical object—that one encounters in discourses pertaining to the social sciences. Foucault’s ...


The Efficacy Of Mathematics Education, Eric Geimer Feb 2014

The Efficacy Of Mathematics Education, Eric Geimer

The STEAM Journal

Evidence supports the notion that mathematics education in the United States is inadequate. There is also evidence that mathematics education deficiencies extend internationally. The worldwide mathematics education deficit appears large enough that improving student performance in this educational problem area could yield great economic benefit. To improve the efficacy of mathematics education, education’s root problems must first be understood. Often supposed educational root problems are considered and contrasted against potential deficiencies of mathematics methodologies and curricula that are based on mainstream educational philosophies. The educational philosophies utilized to form early-grade mathematics methodologies and related curricula are judged to be ...


Tmg 1 (2014): Pandemic Disease In The Medieval World: Rethinking The Black Death, Ed. Monica Green, Monica H. Green, Carol Symes, Anna Colet, Josep Xavier Muntané I Santiveri, Jordi Ruíz, Oriol Saula, M. Eulàlia Subirà De Galdàcano, Clara Jáuregui, Sharon N. Dewitte, Stuart Borsch, Ann G. Carmichael, Nükhet Varlık, Fabian Crespo, Matt B. Lawrenz, Michelle Ziegler, Robert Hymes, Kathleen Walker-Meikle, Wolfgang P. Müller Jan 2014

Tmg 1 (2014): Pandemic Disease In The Medieval World: Rethinking The Black Death, Ed. Monica Green, Monica H. Green, Carol Symes, Anna Colet, Josep Xavier Muntané I Santiveri, Jordi Ruíz, Oriol Saula, M. Eulàlia Subirà De Galdàcano, Clara Jáuregui, Sharon N. Dewitte, Stuart Borsch, Ann G. Carmichael, Nükhet Varlık, Fabian Crespo, Matt B. Lawrenz, Michelle Ziegler, Robert Hymes, Kathleen Walker-Meikle, Wolfgang P. Müller

The Medieval Globe Books

The plague organism (Yersinia pestis) killed an estimated 40% to 60% of all people when it spread rapidly through the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe in the fourteenth century: an event known as the Black Death. Previous research has shown, especially for Western Europe, how population losses then led to structural economic, political, and social changes. But why and how did the pandemic happen in the first place? When and where did it begin? How was it sustained? What was its full geographic extent? And when did it really end?

Pandemic Disease in the Medieval World is the first ...


The Secret Weapons Of World War Ii: An Analysis Of Hitler's Chemical Weapons Policy, Reyn Sp Ono Jan 2014

The Secret Weapons Of World War Ii: An Analysis Of Hitler's Chemical Weapons Policy, Reyn Sp Ono

CMC Senior Theses

Very little historical scholarship specifically analyzes or explores the absence of chemical weapons in World War II. This thesis seeks to fill the gaps in the historical narrative by providing insight into the personal and external factors that influenced Hitler’s chemical weapons policy. This thesis also touches upon the wartime violence perpetrated by both the Axis and the Allies, thereby offering a neutral, unbiased historical account. From 1939-1941, Hitler did not deploy chemical weapons because his blitzkrieg of Europe was progressing successfully – chemical warfare was unnecessary. With the failure of Operation Barbarossa from 1942-1943, Armaments Minister Albert Speer oversaw ...


“To Fly Is More Fascinating Than To Read About Flying”: British R.F.C. Memoirs Of The First World War, 1918-1939, Ian A. Isherwood Jan 2014

“To Fly Is More Fascinating Than To Read About Flying”: British R.F.C. Memoirs Of The First World War, 1918-1939, Ian A. Isherwood

Civil War Institute Faculty Publications

Literature concerning aerial warfare was a new genre created by the First World War. With manned flight in its infancy, there were no significant novels or memoirs of pilots in combat before 1914. It was apparent to British publishers during the war that the new technology afforded a unique perspective on the battlefield, one that was practically made for an expanding literary marketplace. As such former Royal Flying Corps pilots created a new type of war book, one written by authors self-described as “Knights in the Air”, a literary mythology carefully constructed by pilots and publishers and propagated in the ...


Quantitative Literacy And The Humanities, Rachel Chrastil Jan 2014

Quantitative Literacy And The Humanities, Rachel Chrastil

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Reivew Of "Des Teufels Lug Und Trug: Nikolaus Magni Von Jauer, Ein Reformtheologe Des 15. Jahrhunderts Gegen Aberglaube Und Götzendienst", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2014

Reivew Of "Des Teufels Lug Und Trug: Nikolaus Magni Von Jauer, Ein Reformtheologe Des 15. Jahrhunderts Gegen Aberglaube Und Götzendienst", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Late medieval superstition has received a fair amount of attention recently. In 2010, Euan Cameron’s expansive Enchanted Europe: Superstition, Reason, and Religion, 1250–1750 considered it at some length before moving on to later periods, and in 2013 my own Fearful Spirits, Reasoned Follies: The Boundaries of Superstition in Late Medieval Europe dealt with it exclusively. Krzysztof Bracha’s detailed study of a single late medieval author and a major (arguably the major) late medieval treatise on superstition is both the latest and also earliest important study in this area. The book is a German translation and updating of ...


Arrival From Abroad: Plague, Quarantine, And Concepts Of Contagion In Eighteenth-Century England, Talei Ml Hickey Jan 2014

Arrival From Abroad: Plague, Quarantine, And Concepts Of Contagion In Eighteenth-Century England, Talei Ml Hickey

History Undergraduate Theses

The isolation and separation of infected individuals in response to epidemics has persevered throughout history as an effective public health measure. Since the devastation of the Black Death during the fourteenth century, major European cities continued to institute various forms of quarantine in order to address the threat of plague. Following the Great Plague of London in 1665-66 – the last major outbreak of bubonic plague to occur in England – the country had no way of knowing it would never again be visited by the disease in its epidemic form. In the eighteenth century, Parliament took measures aimed at preventing outbreaks ...