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Articles 1 - 30 of 49

Full-Text Articles in European History

Behind The Shadows, Selena Ramirez Ahilon Jan 2017

Behind The Shadows, Selena Ramirez Ahilon

Nebraska College Preparatory Academy Senior Capstone Projects

The nineteenth century is classified as the Victorian era, a period in which the middle class rose in power as a result of industrialization. As the middle classes living standards rose the middle class became reliant on utilitarianism values. This ideal appeared to offer a more comfortable life for both men and women, however, by classifying the position of women as the “heart” and men as the “head” of the house, women were hindered to a society in shadows. Women were restricted in every aspect of life because men were in power, and the ideal Victorian woman became the one ...


An Enchanting Witchcraft: Masculinity, Melancholy, And The Pathology Of Gaming In Early Modern London, Celeste Chamberland Oct 2016

An Enchanting Witchcraft: Masculinity, Melancholy, And The Pathology Of Gaming In Early Modern London, Celeste Chamberland

Occasional Papers

In seeking to illuminate the ways in which inchoate models of addiction emerged alongside the unprecedented popularity of gambling in Stuart London, this paper will explore the intersections between a rudimentary pathology of addiction and transformations in the epistemology of reason, the passions, and humoral psychology in the seventeenth century. By exploring the connections between endogenous and exogenous categories of mental illness, this study will examine the ways in which medicine, social expectations, and religion intersected in the seventeenth century alongside the historical relationship between evolving concepts of mental illness, stigma and the politics of blame and responsibility in the ...


Acercamiento Al Pensamiento Mágico Y La Superstición En El Discurso Literario De La Primera Modernidad Española: Miguel De Cervantes Y María De Zayas, Miguel Magdaleno Santamaria Jul 2016

Acercamiento Al Pensamiento Mágico Y La Superstición En El Discurso Literario De La Primera Modernidad Española: Miguel De Cervantes Y María De Zayas, Miguel Magdaleno Santamaria

Theses, Dissertations, Student Research: Modern Languages and Literatures

The purpose of this thesis is to serve as a first approach to magical thinking and superstition in the literary discourse of Early Modern Spain, by examining these topics in Miguel de Cervantes’ first Quijote (1605) and María de Zayas’ Novelas Amorosas y Ejemplares (1637). The methodology followed in this thesis fundamentally includes the points of view of four fields of study. These are: anthropology, history, literature and historical linguistics. Accordingly, this study is thematically divided into four big sections: first, a discussion around the concept of ‘magical thinking’ in relation to religion (from an anthropological point of view); second ...


The Nuremberg Laws And The Foundation Of Nazi Scientific Experimentation 1941-45, Jennifer Hight May 2016

The Nuremberg Laws And The Foundation Of Nazi Scientific Experimentation 1941-45, Jennifer Hight

Academic Excellence Showcase Proceedings

No abstract provided.


The Nuremberg Laws: Creating The Road To The T-4 Program, Jennifer V. Hight Jan 2016

The Nuremberg Laws: Creating The Road To The T-4 Program, Jennifer V. Hight

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

On September 15, 1935 the Nazi party announced a new series of laws codes that legally cemented the principles of Nazi ideology: The Nuremberg Laws. The Nuremberg Laws were composed of three parts. One, the “Reich Citizenship Law” revoked the status of Jews as legal citizens and created the framework the Nazis would use to persecute by defining what it meant to be German or Jewish; later the laws were expanded by the Nazis to label minorities as non-German citizens. The “Laws of the Protection of Hereditary Health” stated that anyone the Nazis deemed as carrying inheritable diseases would be ...


Everyday Magic In Early Modern Europe, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2016

Everyday Magic In Early Modern Europe, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Kathryn Edwards begins her introduction to this well-conceived volume by noting the “explosion of research on magical practices and the attitudes about them in late medieval and early modern Europe” (1) over the last several decades. Witchcraft has continued to be the fiery epicenter of this explosion, despite scholarship’s increasing recognition that occasional eruptions of witch-hunting were surrounded by a vast and typically much more benign “magical universe” (the phrase is from Stephen Wilson’s 2003 book of the same title, frequently cited throughout this volume). The scholars Edwards has assembled each probe various areas of that universe, in ...


Review Of "Inquisitorien-Handbücher: Papsturkunden Und Juristische Gutachten Aus Dem 13. Jahrhundert", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2016

Review Of "Inquisitorien-Handbücher: Papsturkunden Und Juristische Gutachten Aus Dem 13. Jahrhundert", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This dissertation from the University of Würzburg stakes out some carefully defined territory in the crowded field of heresy and inquisitorial studies. It does so by returning to some of the most frequently studied sources in this field: the early handbooks through which papal inquisitors established the legal and procedural framework of their new (in the thirteenth century) office. Scholars of inquisition going back to Célestin Douais and Henry Charles Lea in the nineteenth century, and indeed as far back as Franciscus Pegna in the sixteenth century, have worked with these texts. Bivolarov, however, identifies an area that he finds ...


The Rhetoric Of Nineteenth Century British Anti-Vaccinators: An Interdisciplinary Movement Of Medicine, Religion, Class, And Popular Culture, Madison P. Walter May 2015

The Rhetoric Of Nineteenth Century British Anti-Vaccinators: An Interdisciplinary Movement Of Medicine, Religion, Class, And Popular Culture, Madison P. Walter

Student Scholarship

Since the introduction of vaccination in 1796 by Edward Jenner, there has been a continuous debate regarding the practice of vaccination. The debate initially focused on ethical and religious opposition to vaccination, but quickly turned towards politics following the passing of compulsory vaccination laws in England in 1853. This politically charged debate regarding compulsion is what remains in the forefront of the minds of anti-vaccinators today. Does the government have the right to force vaccination upon its citizens?

This project is not an examination of ethics or the role of the government, and therefore does not seek to answer this ...


Coelum Britannicum: Inigo Jones And Symbolic Geometry, Rumiko Handa Jan 2015

Coelum Britannicum: Inigo Jones And Symbolic Geometry, Rumiko Handa

Architecture Program: Faculty Scholarly and Creative Activity

Inigo Jones’s interpretation that Stonehenge was a Roman temple of Coelum, the god of the heavens, was published in 1655, 3 years after his death, in The most notable Antiquity of Great Britain, vulgarly called Stone-Heng, on Salisbury Plain, Restored.1 King James I demanded an interpretation in 1620. The task most reasonably fell in the realm of Surveyor of the King’s Works, which Jones had been for the preceding 5 years. According to John Webb, Jones’s assistant since 1628 and executor of Jones’s will, it was Webb who wrote the book based on Jones’s ...


Witch/Witchcraft And Sorcerer/Sorcery, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2015

Witch/Witchcraft And Sorcerer/Sorcery, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The academic study of religion has been an interdisciplinary endeavor since its inception at the end of the nineteenth century. Much of the theoretical vocabulary that is needed to study religion has been imported from adjacent disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, historiography, theology, philology, literary studies, psychology, philosophy, cultural studies, and political sciences. It is the strength of the academic study of religion to bring these approaches into conversation with one another. The Vocabulary for the Study of Religion provides an excellent platform to sustain this conversation. Written by experts with a background in a variety of disciplines, over 400 ...


Reformers On Sorcery And Superstition, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2015

Reformers On Sorcery And Superstition, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The Observant Movement was a widespread effort to reform religious life across Europe. It took root around 1400, and for a century and more thereafter it inspired or shaped much that became central to European religion and culture. The Observants produced many of the leading religious figures of the later Middle Ages—Catherine of Siena, Bernardino of Siena and Savonarola in Italy, Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros in Spain, and in Germany Martin Luther himself. This volume provides scholars with a current, synthetic introduction to the Observant Movement. Its essays also seek collectively to expand the horizons of our study of ...


Review Of Healthy Living In Late Renaissance Italy, Brian Maxson Jul 2014

Review Of Healthy Living In Late Renaissance Italy, Brian Maxson

ETSU Faculty Works

This work offers an interdisciplinary study of preventative health in 16th and 17th century Italy. Previous studies on the practice and prescription of early modern preventative health are few, and scholars have tended to assume that medical understanding of the body's humors remained relatively static during this period.


Neither “Headache” Nor “Illness:” The False Narrative Of Syphilis And Its Origin In Europe, Michael W. Horton Jun 2014

Neither “Headache” Nor “Illness:” The False Narrative Of Syphilis And Its Origin In Europe, Michael W. Horton

HIST 4800 Early America in the Atlantic World (Herndon)

In this paper I argue that the master narrative of the origin of syphilis in Europe, known as the Columbian Theory does not hold up to historical review since it does not contain enough concrete evidence for we as historians to be comfortable with as the master narrative. To form my argument I use the writings of Girolamo Fracastoro, an Italian physician known for coining the term “syphilis,” as the basis when I review the journal of Christopher Columbus. I review his journal, which chronicles the first voyage to the Americas, to see if there is any connection between the ...


Scientism, Satire, And Sacrificial Ceremony In Dostoevsky's "Notes From Underground" And C.S. Lewis's "That Hideous Strength", Jonathan Smalt May 2014

Scientism, Satire, And Sacrificial Ceremony In Dostoevsky's "Notes From Underground" And C.S. Lewis's "That Hideous Strength", Jonathan Smalt

Masters Theses

Though the nineteenth-century Victorian belief that science alone could provide utopia for man weakened in the epistemological uncertainty of the postmodern era, this belief still continues today. In order to understand our current scientific milieu--and the dangers of propagating scientism--we must first trace the rise of scientism in the nineteenth-century. Though removed, Fyodor Dostoevsky, in Notes From Underground (1864), and C.S. Lewis, in That Hideous Strength (1965), are united in their critiques of scientism as a conceptual framework for human residency. For Dostoevsky, the Crystal Palace of London's Great Exhibition (1862) embodied the nineteenth-century goal to found utopia ...


“To Fly Is More Fascinating Than To Read About Flying”: British R.F.C. Memoirs Of The First World War, 1918-1939, Ian A. Isherwood Jan 2014

“To Fly Is More Fascinating Than To Read About Flying”: British R.F.C. Memoirs Of The First World War, 1918-1939, Ian A. Isherwood

Civil War Institute Faculty Publications

Literature concerning aerial warfare was a new genre created by the First World War. With manned flight in its infancy, there were no significant novels or memoirs of pilots in combat before 1914. It was apparent to British publishers during the war that the new technology afforded a unique perspective on the battlefield, one that was practically made for an expanding literary marketplace. As such former Royal Flying Corps pilots created a new type of war book, one written by authors self-described as “Knights in the Air”, a literary mythology carefully constructed by pilots and publishers and propagated in the ...


Quantitative Literacy And The Humanities, Rachel Chrastil Jan 2014

Quantitative Literacy And The Humanities, Rachel Chrastil

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Reivew Of "Des Teufels Lug Und Trug: Nikolaus Magni Von Jauer, Ein Reformtheologe Des 15. Jahrhunderts Gegen Aberglaube Und Götzendienst", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2014

Reivew Of "Des Teufels Lug Und Trug: Nikolaus Magni Von Jauer, Ein Reformtheologe Des 15. Jahrhunderts Gegen Aberglaube Und Götzendienst", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Late medieval superstition has received a fair amount of attention recently. In 2010, Euan Cameron’s expansive Enchanted Europe: Superstition, Reason, and Religion, 1250–1750 considered it at some length before moving on to later periods, and in 2013 my own Fearful Spirits, Reasoned Follies: The Boundaries of Superstition in Late Medieval Europe dealt with it exclusively. Krzysztof Bracha’s detailed study of a single late medieval author and a major (arguably the major) late medieval treatise on superstition is both the latest and also earliest important study in this area. The book is a German translation and updating of ...


Review Of "Magie: Rezeptions- Und Diskursgeschichtliche Analysen Von Der Antike Bis Zur Neuzeit", Michael D. Bailey Jul 2013

Review Of "Magie: Rezeptions- Und Diskursgeschichtliche Analysen Von Der Antike Bis Zur Neuzeit", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

What is one to make of a seven-hundred-page book that, by its own admission, only addresses the “tip of the iceberg” of its chosen topic (615)? Certainly, the topic is enormous: nothing less than the twenty-five-hundred-year history of conceptions of magic in Western culture, from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Otto writes from the perspective of religious studies, and he reacts in particular to the century-long effort by modern scholars of religion to define magic in some coherent and appropriately wissenschaftlich way. In the first hundred pages of his book, Otto examines the “academic discourse of magic,” focusing ...


Atlantic Threads: Singer In Spain And Mexico, 1860-1940, Paula A. De La Cruz-Fernández May 2013

Atlantic Threads: Singer In Spain And Mexico, 1860-1940, Paula A. De La Cruz-Fernández

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the role of Singer in the modernization of sewing practices in Spain and Mexico from 1860 to 1940. Singer marketing was founded on gendered views of women’s work and gendered perceptions of the home. These connected with sewing practices in Spain and Mexico, where home sewing remained economically and culturally important throughout the 1940s. "Atlantic Threads" is the first study of the US-owned multinational in the Hispanic World. I demonstrate that sewing practices, and especially practices related to home sewing that have been considered part of the private sphere and therefore not an important historical matter ...


Researching North America: Sir Humphrey Gilbert’S 1583 Expedition And A Reexamination Of Early Modern English Colonization In The North Atlantic World, Nathan Probasco May 2013

Researching North America: Sir Humphrey Gilbert’S 1583 Expedition And A Reexamination Of Early Modern English Colonization In The North Atlantic World, Nathan Probasco

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research, Department of History

Sir Humphrey Gilbert’s 1583 expedition to North America was the first attempt by an Englishman to colonize beyond the British Isles, and yet it has not been subject to thorough scholarly analysis for more than seventy years. Although it is often overlooked or misinterpreted by scholars, an exhaustive examination of the voyage reveals the complexity and preparedness of this and similar early modern English expeditions. Gilbert recruited several specialists who expended considerable time and resources while researching and otherwise working in support of the voyage. Their efforts secured much needed capital, a necessary component of expensive private voyages, and ...


The First Quarter Century Of European Printing, Paul Needham Mar 2013

The First Quarter Century Of European Printing, Paul Needham

A.S.W. Rosenbach Lectures in Bibliography

The University of Pennsylvania Libraries A.S.W. Rosenbach Lectures in Bibliography for 2013:

Monday, March 18, 2013: "The 1450s: Bookmaking Inventions." Total time: 1:29:39. Welcome: David N. McKnight (00:01); Introduction: William Noel (05:12); Lecture: Paul Needham (07:00).

March 19, 2013: "The 1460s: Slow Diaspora." Total time: 01:35:48. Introduction: David N. McKnight (00:01); Lecture: Paul Needham (07:50); Question and Answer (01:25:00).

March 21, 2013: 1470-1475: "The Sowing of Printing Shops." Total time: 01:24:53. Introduction: David N. McKnight (00:01); Lecture: Paul Needham (01:52); Question and Answer ...


Soldiers Of Science--Agents Of Culture: American Archaeologists In The Office Of Strategic Services (Oss), Despina Lalaki Jan 2013

Soldiers Of Science--Agents Of Culture: American Archaeologists In The Office Of Strategic Services (Oss), Despina Lalaki

Publications and Research

"Scientificity" and appeals to political independence are invaluable tools when institutions such as the American School of Classical Studies at Athens attempt to maintain professional autonomy. Nonetheless, the cooperation of scientists and scholars with the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), among them archaeologists affiliated with the American School, suggests a constitutive affinity between political and cultural leadership. This relationship is here mapped in historical terms, while, at the same time, sociological categorizations of knowledge and its employment are used in order to situate archaeologists in their broader social and political context and to evaluate their work not merely as agents ...


"Sewing A Safety Net: Scarborough's Maritime Community, 1747-1765", Charles Foy Jun 2012

"Sewing A Safety Net: Scarborough's Maritime Community, 1747-1765", Charles Foy

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

From 1747 to 1765 Scarborough created a safety net to keep its maritime dependents from becoming impoverished. A web of kinship connections that permitted sailors to move between land and sea as well as between maritime roles as they aged; the employment of maritime servants; the extensive hiring of elderly seamen; the use of the Seamen’s Sixpence after legislative reform in 1747 to develop locally operated seamen’s hospitals for the benefit of sailors and their families; and strong community support of the hospitals worked together to provide a social safety net that was, by eighteenth century standards, robust ...


Zeppelins Over London, Ron Anderson Jan 2012

Zeppelins Over London, Ron Anderson

ERAU Prescott Aviation History Program

Hear the story of the first strategic bombing campaign in history. The target was the civilian populated areas of London in World War I. Come on board a giant Zeppelin of the Imperial German Navy Air Service and learn what these raids did, or did not accomplish, from Ron Anderson, local zeppelin historian.


How To Throw A Spear On A Sling, Thomas Nelson Winter Jan 2012

How To Throw A Spear On A Sling, Thomas Nelson Winter

Faculty Publications, Classics and Religious Studies Department

When javelin throwers are told to be ready, Xenophon's phrasing appears, for instance, "He ordered the targeteers to carry javelin on strap, and the bowmen to hold arrow on string" (Anabasis 5.2, Rouse tr.). This context shows that the spear-throwers' readiness to throw, paralleling the archer with arrow nocked, was some preparation with a strap, sling, or thong. In addition to the warfare usage, Greek hunters also used a sling with their hunting spears. The hunter in Achilles Tatius 2.34 narrates, "I wound the thongs on my javelin ... " (Winkler tr.)

I owe to my former student Donald ...


Review Of "Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462)", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Review Of "Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462)", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

For more than twenty years, volumes in the Cahiers Lausannois d'Histoire Médiévale have explored the cases and contexts of early European witch trials in and around the western Alps. They have largely focused on the diocese of Lausanne, but in this volume, Carine Dunand looks slightly further afield, to the Chamonix valley in the shadow of Mont Blanc, which was part of the neighboring diocese of Geneva. She follows the same format as other Cahiers volumes, most of which originated as mémoires de licence in the medieval history seminar at the University of Lausanne: about half the book is ...


Review Of "Evening’S Empire: A History Of The Night In Early Modern Europe", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Review Of "Evening’S Empire: A History Of The Night In Early Modern Europe", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

What I admire most about Marcia Hall’s studies of late Cinquecento Italian painting is her straightforward way of relating specific aspects of style, especially color, to the religious and affective goals of a period that needs all the clarity it can get. In this important new study she considers how artists from Rome to Toledo brought the sacred back to sacred art in the aftermath of the Reformation and Council of Trent. Individually they “revolutionized Renaissance painting and laid the groundwork for the modern age” (5), collectively one of the most original attempts to create a new religious art ...


Review Of "Demons Of Urban Reform: Early European Witch Trials And Criminal Justice, 1430-1530", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Review Of "Demons Of Urban Reform: Early European Witch Trials And Criminal Justice, 1430-1530", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

It’s interesting, fascinating, and even entertaining. The book is clearly directed to a broader audience—including, certainly, the burgeoning yoga market—but scholars, while familiar with the figures and issues in Syman’s book, would also find it interesting, if lacking the depth of typical scholarly studies


Review Of Mary Pickering, Auguste Comte: An Intellectual Biography, Vols 2 And 3, John Tresch Sep 2011

Review Of Mary Pickering, Auguste Comte: An Intellectual Biography, Vols 2 And 3, John Tresch

Departmental Papers (HSS)

No abstract provided.


Interview Of William F. Burns, Major General Usa, William F. Burns, Brian Carlson Mar 2011

Interview Of William F. Burns, Major General Usa, William F. Burns, Brian Carlson

All Oral Histories

General Burns was enrolled in La Salle University's Army ROTC program. Burns was the first distinguished ROTC graduate in school history. He commissioned as a Field Artillery officer in 1954. From there, General Burns began his military career, which include, posts at: Fort Bragg, Fort Sill, United States Army War College, Princeton University and Germany. He retired in 1988 as a Major General in the United States Army. President Reagan nominated Gen Burns as the Director for Arms Control Agency in 1988. During this time he spent countless hours negotiating arms control with the Soviets for example, in Geneva ...