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Full-Text Articles in European History

Sex On The Brain: The Rise And Fall Of German Sexual Science, Kevin S. Amidon Sep 2015

Sex On The Brain: The Rise And Fall Of German Sexual Science, Kevin S. Amidon

Kevin S. Amidon

Throughout the nineteenth century, German medical, scientific and legal scholars found themselves puzzled and engaged by the diverse forms of human sexuality. Psychiatrists like Richard von Krafft-Ebing who were interested in explaining deviance encountered scientifically trained advocates for emancipation like Magnus Hirschfeld, and the result was the new – if unstable – discipline of sexual science. Because they based arguments for social intervention on knowledge of nature and the body, the field's proponents – like the advocates of eugenics and racial hygiene – argued that they were biologists. After 1900, this mutual biological engagement of sexual science and eugenics revealed itself in overlapping ...


“Diesmal Fehlt Die Biologie!” Max Horkheimer, Richard Thurnwald, And The Biological Prehistory Of German Sozialforschung, Kevin S. Amidon Sep 2015

“Diesmal Fehlt Die Biologie!” Max Horkheimer, Richard Thurnwald, And The Biological Prehistory Of German Sozialforschung, Kevin S. Amidon

Kevin S. Amidon

In his early writings Max Horkheimer explored the issues surrounding biological explanation in Kantian and neo-Kantian philosophy. After he became director of the Institut für Sozialforschung in 1930, he continued to explore the relationships between biology, materialism, philosophy, and social theory. This interest was reflected both in his editorial policy for the Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung and in his own scholarly development that led to the development of critical theory in the later 1930s and the anti-Semitism research of the 1940s. Horkheimer's interests and ambitions also generated resistance from other social scientists. The Berlin ethnologist Richard Thurnwald, along with his ...


Adolf Meyer-Abich, Holism, And The Negotiation Of Theoretical Biology, Kevin S. Amidon Aug 2015

Adolf Meyer-Abich, Holism, And The Negotiation Of Theoretical Biology, Kevin S. Amidon

Kevin S. Amidon

Adolf Meyer-Abich (1893–1971; known as Adolf Meyer before 1938) spent his career as one of the most vigorous and varied advocates in the biological sciences. Primarily a philosophical proponent of holistic thought in biology, he also sought through collaboration with empirically oriented colleagues in biology, medicine, and even physics (including C. J. van der Klaauw, Karl K¨otschau, Hans B¨oker, Jakob von Uexk¨ull, and Pascual Jordan) to develop arguments against mechanistic and reductionistic positions in the life sciences, and to integrate them into a newly disciplinary theoretical biology. He participated in major publishing efforts including the founding ...