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Full-Text Articles in European History

Everyday Magic In Early Modern Europe, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2016

Everyday Magic In Early Modern Europe, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Kathryn Edwards begins her introduction to this well-conceived volume by noting the “explosion of research on magical practices and the attitudes about them in late medieval and early modern Europe” (1) over the last several decades. Witchcraft has continued to be the fiery epicenter of this explosion, despite scholarship’s increasing recognition that occasional eruptions of witch-hunting were surrounded by a vast and typically much more benign “magical universe” (the phrase is from Stephen Wilson’s 2003 book of the same title, frequently cited throughout this volume). The scholars Edwards has assembled each probe various areas of that universe, in ...


Review Of "Inquisitorien-Handbücher: Papsturkunden Und Juristische Gutachten Aus Dem 13. Jahrhundert", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2016

Review Of "Inquisitorien-Handbücher: Papsturkunden Und Juristische Gutachten Aus Dem 13. Jahrhundert", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This dissertation from the University of Würzburg stakes out some carefully defined territory in the crowded field of heresy and inquisitorial studies. It does so by returning to some of the most frequently studied sources in this field: the early handbooks through which papal inquisitors established the legal and procedural framework of their new (in the thirteenth century) office. Scholars of inquisition going back to Célestin Douais and Henry Charles Lea in the nineteenth century, and indeed as far back as Franciscus Pegna in the sixteenth century, have worked with these texts. Bivolarov, however, identifies an area that he finds ...


Witch/Witchcraft And Sorcerer/Sorcery, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2015

Witch/Witchcraft And Sorcerer/Sorcery, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The academic study of religion has been an interdisciplinary endeavor since its inception at the end of the nineteenth century. Much of the theoretical vocabulary that is needed to study religion has been imported from adjacent disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, historiography, theology, philology, literary studies, psychology, philosophy, cultural studies, and political sciences. It is the strength of the academic study of religion to bring these approaches into conversation with one another. The Vocabulary for the Study of Religion provides an excellent platform to sustain this conversation. Written by experts with a background in a variety of disciplines, over 400 ...


Reformers On Sorcery And Superstition, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2015

Reformers On Sorcery And Superstition, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The Observant Movement was a widespread effort to reform religious life across Europe. It took root around 1400, and for a century and more thereafter it inspired or shaped much that became central to European religion and culture. The Observants produced many of the leading religious figures of the later Middle Ages—Catherine of Siena, Bernardino of Siena and Savonarola in Italy, Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros in Spain, and in Germany Martin Luther himself. This volume provides scholars with a current, synthetic introduction to the Observant Movement. Its essays also seek collectively to expand the horizons of our study of ...


Reivew Of "Des Teufels Lug Und Trug: Nikolaus Magni Von Jauer, Ein Reformtheologe Des 15. Jahrhunderts Gegen Aberglaube Und Götzendienst", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2014

Reivew Of "Des Teufels Lug Und Trug: Nikolaus Magni Von Jauer, Ein Reformtheologe Des 15. Jahrhunderts Gegen Aberglaube Und Götzendienst", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Late medieval superstition has received a fair amount of attention recently. In 2010, Euan Cameron’s expansive Enchanted Europe: Superstition, Reason, and Religion, 1250–1750 considered it at some length before moving on to later periods, and in 2013 my own Fearful Spirits, Reasoned Follies: The Boundaries of Superstition in Late Medieval Europe dealt with it exclusively. Krzysztof Bracha’s detailed study of a single late medieval author and a major (arguably the major) late medieval treatise on superstition is both the latest and also earliest important study in this area. The book is a German translation and updating of ...


Review Of "Magie: Rezeptions- Und Diskursgeschichtliche Analysen Von Der Antike Bis Zur Neuzeit", Michael D. Bailey Jul 2013

Review Of "Magie: Rezeptions- Und Diskursgeschichtliche Analysen Von Der Antike Bis Zur Neuzeit", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

What is one to make of a seven-hundred-page book that, by its own admission, only addresses the “tip of the iceberg” of its chosen topic (615)? Certainly, the topic is enormous: nothing less than the twenty-five-hundred-year history of conceptions of magic in Western culture, from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Otto writes from the perspective of religious studies, and he reacts in particular to the century-long effort by modern scholars of religion to define magic in some coherent and appropriately wissenschaftlich way. In the first hundred pages of his book, Otto examines the “academic discourse of magic,” focusing ...


Review Of "Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462)", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Review Of "Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462)", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

For more than twenty years, volumes in the Cahiers Lausannois d'Histoire Médiévale have explored the cases and contexts of early European witch trials in and around the western Alps. They have largely focused on the diocese of Lausanne, but in this volume, Carine Dunand looks slightly further afield, to the Chamonix valley in the shadow of Mont Blanc, which was part of the neighboring diocese of Geneva. She follows the same format as other Cahiers volumes, most of which originated as mémoires de licence in the medieval history seminar at the University of Lausanne: about half the book is ...


Review Of "Evening’S Empire: A History Of The Night In Early Modern Europe", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Review Of "Evening’S Empire: A History Of The Night In Early Modern Europe", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

What I admire most about Marcia Hall’s studies of late Cinquecento Italian painting is her straightforward way of relating specific aspects of style, especially color, to the religious and affective goals of a period that needs all the clarity it can get. In this important new study she considers how artists from Rome to Toledo brought the sacred back to sacred art in the aftermath of the Reformation and Council of Trent. Individually they “revolutionized Renaissance painting and laid the groundwork for the modern age” (5), collectively one of the most original attempts to create a new religious art ...


Review Of "Demons Of Urban Reform: Early European Witch Trials And Criminal Justice, 1430-1530", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Review Of "Demons Of Urban Reform: Early European Witch Trials And Criminal Justice, 1430-1530", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

It’s interesting, fascinating, and even entertaining. The book is clearly directed to a broader audience—including, certainly, the burgeoning yoga market—but scholars, while familiar with the figures and issues in Syman’s book, would also find it interesting, if lacking the depth of typical scholarly studies


Adolf Meyer-Abich, Holism, And The Negotiation Of Theoretical Biology, Kevin S. Amidon Jan 2009

Adolf Meyer-Abich, Holism, And The Negotiation Of Theoretical Biology, Kevin S. Amidon

World Languages and Cultures Publications

Adolf Meyer-Abich (1893–1971; known as Adolf Meyer before 1938) spent his career as one of the most vigorous and varied advocates in the biological sciences. Primarily a philosophical proponent of holistic thought in biology, he also sought through collaboration with empirically oriented colleagues in biology, medicine, and even physics (including C. J. van der Klaauw, Karl K¨otschau, Hans B¨oker, Jakob von Uexk¨ull, and Pascual Jordan) to develop arguments against mechanistic and reductionistic positions in the life sciences, and to integrate them into a newly disciplinary theoretical biology. He participated in major publishing efforts including the founding ...


Sex On The Brain: The Rise And Fall Of German Sexual Science, Kevin S. Amidon Jun 2008

Sex On The Brain: The Rise And Fall Of German Sexual Science, Kevin S. Amidon

World Languages and Cultures Publications

Throughout the nineteenth century, German medical, scientific and legal scholars found themselves puzzled and engaged by the diverse forms of human sexuality. Psychiatrists like Richard von Krafft-Ebing who were interested in explaining deviance encountered scientifically trained advocates for emancipation like Magnus Hirschfeld, and the result was the new – if unstable – discipline of sexual science. Because they based arguments for social intervention on knowledge of nature and the body, the field's proponents – like the advocates of eugenics and racial hygiene – argued that they were biologists. After 1900, this mutual biological engagement of sexual science and eugenics revealed itself in overlapping ...


“Diesmal Fehlt Die Biologie!” Max Horkheimer, Richard Thurnwald, And The Biological Prehistory Of German Sozialforschung, Kevin S. Amidon Jan 2008

“Diesmal Fehlt Die Biologie!” Max Horkheimer, Richard Thurnwald, And The Biological Prehistory Of German Sozialforschung, Kevin S. Amidon

World Languages and Cultures Publications

In his early writings Max Horkheimer explored the issues surrounding biological explanation in Kantian and neo-Kantian philosophy. After he became director of the Institut für Sozialforschung in 1930, he continued to explore the relationships between biology, materialism, philosophy, and social theory. This interest was reflected both in his editorial policy for the Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung and in his own scholarly development that led to the development of critical theory in the later 1930s and the anti-Semitism research of the 1940s. Horkheimer's interests and ambitions also generated resistance from other social scientists. The Berlin ethnologist Richard Thurnwald, along with his ...


Lodestone And Earth: The Study Of Magnetism And Terrestrial Magnetism In Great Britain, C 1750-1830 , Robinson Mclaughry Yost Jan 1997

Lodestone And Earth: The Study Of Magnetism And Terrestrial Magnetism In Great Britain, C 1750-1830 , Robinson Mclaughry Yost

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates a neglected area in the history of the physical sciences--the history of the study of magnetism. Examining the study of magnetism and terrestrial magnetism in Great Britain from the 1750s to the 1830s allows for discussing the changing motives, methods, and results of magnetic and geomagnetic studies. The changes in magnetic studies are comparable to dramatic transformations in other areas of experimental physics, including the studies of heat, light, and electricity;With the publication of De Magnete, William Gilbert intimately linked the earth's magnetism to magnetism by arguing the earth was a giant magnet. Though subsequent ...


A Frightful, But Not Necessarily Fatal, Madness: Rabies In Eighteenth-Century England And English North America , John Douglas Blaisdell Jan 1995

A Frightful, But Not Necessarily Fatal, Madness: Rabies In Eighteenth-Century England And English North America , John Douglas Blaisdell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the numerous medical beliefs and attitudes toward rabies in eighteenth-century England and English North America. It also attempts to explain the reasons behind some of these beliefs;The beliefs as to causation generally change with the changes in medical theories. As the established medical profession moves away from the beliefs in disease as a result of general body dysfunction and toward disease as a result of the dysfunction of one or more of the organs of the body the beliefs about rabies change accordingly. Rabies was no longer seen as a result of the dysfunction of the ...


Science, Practice And Politics: German Agricultural Experiment Stations In The Nineteenth Century , Mark Russell Finlay Jan 1992

Science, Practice And Politics: German Agricultural Experiment Stations In The Nineteenth Century , Mark Russell Finlay

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the origins, scientific research, and impact of German agricultural experiment stations in the nineteenth century. At the time, German experiment stations held a commanding status in chemistry and life sciences research, German agricultural scientists established themselves an important scientific community, and German stations contributed to their nation's economic and industrial prominence;The dissertation emphasizes conflicts among the stations' three major constituencies. Profit-minded agriculturists were among the first to promote agricultural science. Generally speaking, they expected agricultural science to serve their immediate and practical interests, though they also employed a rhetoric of economic development and national ...