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Full-Text Articles in European History

The Iconography Of The Honey Bee In Western Art, Maura Wilson May 2019

The Iconography Of The Honey Bee In Western Art, Maura Wilson

Master of Arts in Humanities

This master’s thesis studies the ways in which the honey bee is used as a symbol in Western art, specifically between the 1st century AD and the 17th century. Artists have had a close relationship with honey bees since they first drew scenes of life on cave walls; since then, honey bees have been a recurring image featured in artworks spanning centuries, cultures, and religions. During the Renaissance in Europe, the honey bee was adapted from a symbol associated with fertility and polytheistic cult rituals to become a symbol of eloquence in Christianity. The community-based, diligent nature ...


The Knights Templar: The Course Of God And Gold, Aaron Wozniak May 2019

The Knights Templar: The Course Of God And Gold, Aaron Wozniak

Young Historians Conference

The creation and expansion of the Knights Templar exemplifies the power of religious organizations during the time of the Crusades. However, it is the dissolution of the Templars that makes the order’s existence stand out among other knight orders. While the legal accounts of King Philip IV condemn the Templars for heresy, modern scholars and the political context suggest the possibility of exploiting the order for its significant financial holdings. This paper follows the history of the Templar order, from its creation to its demise, to evaluate how the Templars drifted far enough from their initial mission to provide ...


Film Review: The Impure: An Abolitionist Documentary Film Of The 19th Century Traffic In Jewish Women, Caroline Norma May 2019

Film Review: The Impure: An Abolitionist Documentary Film Of The 19th Century Traffic In Jewish Women, Caroline Norma

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson May 2019

Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Using the lives of impaired individuals catalogued in the Íslendingasögur as a narrative framework, this study examines medieval Scandinavian social views regarding impairment from the ninth to the thirteenth century. Beginning with the myths and legends of the eddic poetry and prose of Iceland, it investigates impairment in Norse pre-Christian belief; demonstrating how myth and memory informed medieval conceptualizations of the body. This thesis counters scholarly assumptions that the impaired were universally marginalized across medieval Europe. It argues that bodily difference, in the Norse world, was only viewed as a limitation when it prevented an individual from fulfilling roles that ...


Greek Music Theory Vs. The Bible, Kearsten M. Kostelnik Apr 2019

Greek Music Theory Vs. The Bible, Kearsten M. Kostelnik

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The great philosophers of Ancient Greece have been studied in depth and are known throughout society. Famous Greek philosophers and writers, such as Plato and Pythagoras, formulated theories on musical philosophy — it’s purpose, use, dangers, power, and importance in society. Greek philosophy of music heavily influenced early European society’s view and development of music, it only partially supports Biblical views and principles of music and worship. Pythagoras introduces the theory that music is more than just entertainment with his notion of Music of the Spheres but fails to align with the biblical view of stars and planets as ...


Bartered Bodies: Medieval Pilgrims And The Tissue Of Faith, George D. Greenia Mar 2019

Bartered Bodies: Medieval Pilgrims And The Tissue Of Faith, George D. Greenia

George Greenia

In ‘The Bartered Body,’ George Greenia disentangles the complex desires and experiences of religious travellers of the High Middle Ages who knew the spiritual usefulness of their vulnerable flesh. The bodily remains of the saints housed in pilgrim shrines were not just remnants of a redeemed past, but open portals for spiritual exchange with the living body of the visiting pilgrim.


Bartered Bodies: Medieval Pilgrims And The Tissue Of Faith, George D. Greenia Mar 2019

Bartered Bodies: Medieval Pilgrims And The Tissue Of Faith, George D. Greenia

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

In ‘The Bartered Body,’ George Greenia disentangles the complex desires and experiences of religious travellers of the High Middle Ages who knew the spiritual usefulness of their vulnerable flesh. The bodily remains of the saints housed in pilgrim shrines were not just remnants of a redeemed past, but open portals for spiritual exchange with the living body of the visiting pilgrim.


Augustine On Rhetoric And Flourishing - Handout.Pdf, Jon P. Radwan Mar 2019

Augustine On Rhetoric And Flourishing - Handout.Pdf, Jon P. Radwan

Jon P. Radwan

"Lust and Love at Work: Rhetoric and Human Flourishing according to Augustine" - presented to LCC International University, Klaipeda Lithuania, 3/5/19.


The Two Yoḥannǝses Of Santo Stefano Degli Abissini, Rome: Reconstructing Biography And Cross-Cultural Encounter Through Manuscript Evidence, Samantha Kelly, Denis Nosnitsin Jan 2019

The Two Yoḥannǝses Of Santo Stefano Degli Abissini, Rome: Reconstructing Biography And Cross-Cultural Encounter Through Manuscript Evidence, Samantha Kelly, Denis Nosnitsin

Manuscript Studies

The Ethiopian Orthodox monastery of Santo Stefano degli Abissini in Rome was one of four diasporic Ethiopian communities around the Mediterranean and played a central role in disseminating knowledge about Ethiopian language, culture, and religion in sixteenth-century Europe. Yet apart from its most famous member, Täsfa Ṣǝyon, very little is known about the identities and careers of its monks. This article draws on the surviving Geez manuscripts of Santo Stefano’s own library, as well as European correspondence and archival documents, to reconstruct the biographies of two influential denizens of Santo Stefano. Hitherto believed to be a single person, Yoḥannǝs ...


The Latitudinarian Influence On Early English Liberalism, Amanda Oh Jan 2019

The Latitudinarian Influence On Early English Liberalism, Amanda Oh

The Larrie and Bobbi Weil Undergraduate Research Award Documents

This paper takes the unexpected position that early liberal thought developed in transformative events within the Anglican Church during the second half of the seventeenth century. The historical evolution of religion laid the foundation of English political and intellectual philosophy, as supported by works written by the branch of Anglican churchmen known as the Latitudinarians. I will argue that these ministers were foremost in advancing the argument for religious toleration because their religious writings held political consequence. Toleration was the principle value of liberalism in the late seventeenth century because the problem of Dissenters was so pertinent to English religious ...


Spanish California Missions: An Economic Success, Lynne Doti Jan 2019

Spanish California Missions: An Economic Success, Lynne Doti

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

Starting in 1769, the Spanish established missions in Alta California. A small band of soldiers, Franciscan priests and volunteers walked from Baja California to San Francisco Bay through semi-arid, scarcely populated land stopping occasionally to establish a location for a religious community. Usually two priests, a few soldiers and a few Indians from Baja California settled at the spot. Their only resources for starting an economy were themselves, a few animals and a nearby source of water. They attracted the local Indians to join the community and perform the work necessary to create a strong economy. After only a few ...


La Modernité Tunisienne Dévoilée : Une Étude Autour De La Femme Célibataire, Madison Wagner Jan 2019

La Modernité Tunisienne Dévoilée : Une Étude Autour De La Femme Célibataire, Madison Wagner

Scripps Senior Theses

This thesis explains recent accounts of discrimination and cutbacks in reproductive health spaces in Tunisia. Complicating dominant analyses, which attribute these events to the post-revolution political atmosphere which has allowed the proliferation of islamic extremism, I interpret these instances as a manifestation of a deeply rooted stigma against sexually active single women. I trace this stigma’s inception to the contradictory way that Habib Bourguiba conceptualized modernity after independence, and the responsibility he assigned to Tunisian women to embody that modernity. This responsibility remains salient today, and is putting Tunisian women in an increasingly untenable and vulnerable position.

After independence ...


Reason Vs. Truth: How The Enlightenment And Romanticism Effected The Victorian Occult, Jessica Brazinski Nov 2018

Reason Vs. Truth: How The Enlightenment And Romanticism Effected The Victorian Occult, Jessica Brazinski

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

“Reason vs. Truth: How the Enlightenment and Romanticism Effected the Victorian Occult.”

By: Jessica Brazinski

Abstract:

This research project is a historical analysis of occult secret societies and organizations during and soon after the reign of Queen Victoria. In particular, this research focuses on the impact of Romanticism and the Enlightenment on the Victorian occult. By examining the founding myths, practices, and core beliefs of these organizations this study found that Enlightenment, Romanticist, and Neoclassical ideas all played a part in the adoption of foreign ideas into these societies. The Freemasons, for instance, were very much influenced by Enlightenment ideas ...


After Faith, Hope, And Love: The Unique Divergence Of Asceticism By Gregory The Great And Maximus The Confessor, Caleb N. Zuiderveen Oct 2018

After Faith, Hope, And Love: The Unique Divergence Of Asceticism By Gregory The Great And Maximus The Confessor, Caleb N. Zuiderveen

Theses and Dissertations

In the late sixth and early seventh centuries, asceticism continued as a frequent expression of Christian devotion. Despite communications between the Eastern and Western Churches and a common patristic foundation, theology in the East and West during this time diverged on the results of asceticism. This paper explores this divergence by examining two theologians, Gregory the Great and Maximus the Confessor. Current scholarship has examined Gregory the Great and Maximus the Confessor on their own, yet the dialogue between each tradition and its implications remains understudied. Thus, this study contextualizes Gregory the Great’s On the Song of Songs and ...


Moses Mendelssohn's Approach To Jewish Integration In Light Of His Reconciliation Of Traditional Judaism And Enlightenment Rationalism, Robert J. Clark Aug 2018

Moses Mendelssohn's Approach To Jewish Integration In Light Of His Reconciliation Of Traditional Judaism And Enlightenment Rationalism, Robert J. Clark

Robert Clark, Ph.D.

Prior to the eighteenth century, European Jews lived in separate communal structures at the discretion of their host countries.1 A very few found places of influence and wealth as "court Jews" and lived as aristocrats, but their acceptance in society was limited, subject to official approval, and came at a price.2 There had always been opportunities for Jews to integrate into European society, albeit not without complication, via assimilation and conversion.3 But the ability to enter the social order as Jews and find a place to belong without rejecting their heritage and religion proved elusive. The emergence ...


Thanatourism To Dark Tourism: The Transition Of The Religious Sacred To Secular Sacred, Kelsey Reed Aug 2018

Thanatourism To Dark Tourism: The Transition Of The Religious Sacred To Secular Sacred, Kelsey Reed

Museum Studies Theses

The study of tourism shows a trend in the growing popularity of visiting sites associated with death, called Dark Tourism. While the term Dark Tourism is a modern construct, the practice of visiting sites associated with death is not. At the same time these sites of Dark Tourism (like Auschwitz) hold a place of importance in modern culture to multiple groups, placing them on a level of sacredness. Dark Tourism comes from the practice of Thanatourim (Death Tourism) and transitioned over time to follow the guideline of Dark Tourism. The connection to the aspect of the sacred can also be ...


Natura Sanat: On Ecological Aspects Of Healing Miracles In Kalwaria Pacławska, Poland, Kamila Baraniecka-Olszewska Jun 2018

Natura Sanat: On Ecological Aspects Of Healing Miracles In Kalwaria Pacławska, Poland, Kamila Baraniecka-Olszewska

Journal of Global Catholicism

The subject-matter of my article is a change affecting the discourse on miraculous healings in a Catholic Marian sanctuary – Kalwaria Pacławska – run by Franciscan friars in the South-Eastern Poland and a way in which those changes affect pilgrims’ bodies. In Kalwaria Pacławska there meet, intersect and compete various religious and secular discourses and they all influence emotions and bodily sensations accompanying pilgrimage to this sacred site. One of those discourses has been introduced to Kalwaria just recently. The central element of the sanctuary is the miraculous image of Virgin Mary which is the goal of numerous pilgrimages from both Poland ...


Cast Off The Yoke Of Tyranny!: The Influence Of The Reformation Upon The Enlightenment And World Revolution, Kevan D. Keane Jun 2018

Cast Off The Yoke Of Tyranny!: The Influence Of The Reformation Upon The Enlightenment And World Revolution, Kevan D. Keane

Bound Away: The Liberty Journal of History

This paper explores the connection between the Protestant Reformation and the Revolutions in America and France during the eighteenth century. When the Reformation started, with it came a strong opposition to absolutism and other forms of perceived tyranny. Over time, this culminated in both the American and French Revolutions. An oft-neglected subject in the history of these events, however, is the influence of the Reformation upon Enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke. Locke lived in seventeenth-century England at a time when the Geneva Bible outdid the King James Bible in popularity. The Geneva Bible contained marginal notes that promoted the ...


Priestly Celibacy And The Rise Of National Priests’ Associations Since Vatican Ii, William Doherty Ph.D. May 2018

Priestly Celibacy And The Rise Of National Priests’ Associations Since Vatican Ii, William Doherty Ph.D.

Department of History and Social Sciences

"This chapter briefly traces the history of priestly celibacy in the Catholic Church, its reasons, and the crisis in vocations the discipline created, partly as a result of the Second Vatican Council’s praise of sexuality in marriage. A collateral movement questioned how authority should be distributed among the hierarchy, the clergy, and the laity, that is, what sort of ecclesiology should obtain?"


Zycie W Ameryce: Life In America—Polish-American Cultural Resilience And Adaptation In The Face Of Americanization, Brett A. Cotter May 2018

Zycie W Ameryce: Life In America—Polish-American Cultural Resilience And Adaptation In The Face Of Americanization, Brett A. Cotter

Of Life and History

No abstract provided.


Of Life And History, Vol. 1 (May 2018) May 2018

Of Life And History, Vol. 1 (May 2018)

Of Life and History

No abstract provided.


Une Crise D’Identité: The Use Of Institutional Systems To Build Nationalism In Alsace And Lorraine Following The First World War, 1918-1925, Catherine B. Griffin May 2018

Une Crise D’Identité: The Use Of Institutional Systems To Build Nationalism In Alsace And Lorraine Following The First World War, 1918-1925, Catherine B. Griffin

Of Life and History

No abstract provided.


Comparing Monarchical Use Of Religion And Popular Responses In England And Russia In The Seventeenth And Eighteenth Centuries, Megan Miller May 2018

Comparing Monarchical Use Of Religion And Popular Responses In England And Russia In The Seventeenth And Eighteenth Centuries, Megan Miller

Senior Honors Theses

This thesis compares the use of religion by Russian and English monarchies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as well as the response of the public in each country. It examines official religion in each state, as well as the kinds of toleration each extended to other religions. In both cases, the outlook of the monarchy changed over the course of the period under study; while both monarchies clearly understood the key role religion played in the lives of their subjects and the power it afforded the state and its sovereigns, the “official” use of religion continued in Russia and ...


Iñigo To Ignatius: The Spiritual Foundation Of The Society Of Jesus, Lee T. Holden May 2018

Iñigo To Ignatius: The Spiritual Foundation Of The Society Of Jesus, Lee T. Holden

Student Scholarship

When one thinks of the accomplishments of Ignatius of Loyola, it is hard to imagine that he is, to most moderns, little more than a name. Most people know at least something about the Society of Jesus, often called the Jesuits, but what about its founder? Though he is a canonized saint, he did not apply his own name to his order, as did Benedict, Francis, and Dominic. This, perhaps, tells us more about Ignatius than many scholars could. Following his ‘conversion’ he was a man who relentlessly deflected credit for his doings away from himself. Though he was the ...


The Saint Of Orléans: Her Legacy, Riona K. O’Donnell Apr 2018

The Saint Of Orléans: Her Legacy, Riona K. O’Donnell

Young Historians Conference

Often referred to as Joan of Arc in the anglophone tradition, Jeanne d’Arc – the saint who fought to liberate France during the Hundred-Years War, the convicted heretic who was burned at the stake – never existed outside of history books. These images only superficially resemble the historical figure of Jeanne. Still, Jeanne’s image as an ancient warrior hero, an example of Divine will, or a symbol of French nationalism permeates today’s culture across the western world. How did this historical dynamism manifest in a young woman who was in the public eye for a short two years? This ...


The Church Besieged, The French Revolution, Nationalism, And The Battle Over Modernity, William Doherty Ph.D. Apr 2018

The Church Besieged, The French Revolution, Nationalism, And The Battle Over Modernity, William Doherty Ph.D.

Department of History and Social Sciences

"From the French Revolution, 1798, right through the nineteenth century and into the 20th Century, in nearly every major European country the Catholic Church found itself embattled. Its monopoly in religion ended or challenged by anti-clericalism, secularism, liberalism targeting the Church’s authority and putting its privileges, property, prestige, and independence under siege.

Every pope from Pius VI (1775-1799) to Pius X (1903-1914) fought against the enemy--modernity. They revived the Index of Prohibited Books, declared monarchy the best polity, and condemned church-state separation, toleration, freedom of conscience, and any idea the Church needed reform."


The Moral Politics Of Infancy: Formation Of A Protestant Maternity In England, Ca. 1550-1650, Katharine Etsell Feb 2018

The Moral Politics Of Infancy: Formation Of A Protestant Maternity In England, Ca. 1550-1650, Katharine Etsell

History Theses

This paper studies a shift in conceptions and responsibilities of maternity during the English Reformation, 1550-1650. A focus on interpersonal family life pushes against and complicates traditional views of the Reformation, and a social historiographical lens furthers this agenda and grants perspective to how certain aspects of religious reform changed the rules of motherhood. In seeking to answer questions about the effects of this new religion on women and family life, it becomes evident that there was an obsession with correcting and directing maternity from a wide variety of authorities, including mothers, medical intellectuals, and members of the clergy; what ...


German Hands And Cultural Clay: Martin Luther’S Impact On Germanic Culture, Nathan Mauslein Jan 2018

German Hands And Cultural Clay: Martin Luther’S Impact On Germanic Culture, Nathan Mauslein

Undergraduate Research Journal

The Holy Roman Empire’s history in the heart of Europe was long and turbulent, with strong leaders such as Charlemagne and Otto the Great leaving deep and lasting impressions upon the Germanic people that resided within it. During the Renaissance, like much of the rest of the continent, this period and thereafter would be marked not by a ruler but by a common man. Martin Luther, like the other thinkers of the time, questioned the status quo, analyzing his world and comparing it to the standards set forth by earlier men, in his case the early church. Despite being ...


Crusader Orientalism: Depictions Of The Eastern Other In Medieval Crusade Writings, Henry Schaller Jan 2018

Crusader Orientalism: Depictions Of The Eastern Other In Medieval Crusade Writings, Henry Schaller

Summer Research

This paper examines the ways in which different texts (crusade chronicles, French epic poems, and crusade sermons) written during the early Crusades and Crusader States created a coherent portrait of the East. It compare the ways Edward Said’s Orientalism, which examines colonial texts, and the effect their portrait of the East had on European identity, with texts of the Crusades. These texts cast the Orient into a place that was the antithesis of Christendom, defining what it meant to have a Christian, European white identity. This was done through representations of: threatening sexuality, skin color, unlimited wealth, and a ...


Ubi Bene, Ibi Patria - The Identities, Displacements, And Homelands Of The Juifs D’Algérie, Britt Shacham Jan 2018

Ubi Bene, Ibi Patria - The Identities, Displacements, And Homelands Of The Juifs D’Algérie, Britt Shacham

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Multidisciplinary Studies of Bard College.