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English Language and Literature

English Publications

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Full-Text Articles in European History

Essex’S International Agenda In 1595 And His Device Of The Indian Prince, Linda Shenk Jan 2013

Essex’S International Agenda In 1595 And His Device Of The Indian Prince, Linda Shenk

English Publications

In the fall of 1595, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, was poised to attain political greatness, and he knew it. The international political climate had become sufficiently precarious that a statesman with Essex‘s particular expertise in foreign intelligence and military matters possessed skills well-tailored to address England’s current crises. Spain was once again preparing to invade, this time with an armada greater than in 1588; relations with England’s key ally France were cooling; and the financial and military advantages of asserting a presence in the New World were becoming increasingly evident. Aware of this moment as opportune ...


"To Love And Be Wise": The Earl Of Essex, Humanist Court Culture, And England's Learned Queen, Linda Shenk Jan 2007

"To Love And Be Wise": The Earl Of Essex, Humanist Court Culture, And England's Learned Queen, Linda Shenk

English Publications

During two particular decades of her reign—the 1560s and the 1590s—Queen Elizabeth I strategically and publicly represented herself as a learned prince. In the 1590s alone, she staged several significant demonstrations of her erudition: she delivered a Latin oration at the University of Oxford (1592) while university officials, prominent nobles, and international dignitaries looked on; in the months after Henri IV converted to Catholicism in 1593, she translated Boethius; in 1597, she trounced the Spanish-allied Polish ambassador with a pert Latin speech; and in 1598, she translated excerpts from Horace Ars poetica and Plutarch's essay De curiositate ...


Mildred Cooke Cecil, Linda Shenk Jan 2007

Mildred Cooke Cecil, Linda Shenk

English Publications

Married to William Cecil, Queen Elizabeth's chief advisor, Mildred Cooke Cecil occupied a rare position in Elizabethan England. She traveled in the inmost circles of high politics and occasionally participated directly in political, typically international, situations. Born on 25 August 1526 to Sir Anthony Cooke and Lady Anne Fitzwilliam, Cooke Cecil became one of the most famous learned women in England during and even after her lifetime. Elizabethan educator Roger Ascham lauded Cooke Cecil for being able to read Greek as easily as English. She had proven this skill by translating Greek works by the early church fathers, St ...


Anne Cooke Bacon, Linda Shenk Jan 2007

Anne Cooke Bacon, Linda Shenk

English Publications

Motivated by religious piety and a remarkable education, Anne Cooke Bacon was one of the most prominent and prolific women writers in Renaissance England. Scholars have called attention in particular to the transformation her writing underwent after the death of her husband, Sir Nicholas Bacon, in 1579. While he lived, Cooke Bacon translated religious works, modestly keeping the focus on the ideas of others. When she became a widow, she assumed a new voice and tone-assertive and often domineering-in letters of advice not only to her adult sons but to prominent male political figures as well.