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Articles 1 - 30 of 311

Full-Text Articles in European History

Tinderbox: Danish-Russian Relations, 1989-2019, Maddy Ghose May 2020

Tinderbox: Danish-Russian Relations, 1989-2019, Maddy Ghose

Master's Theses

This thesis documents and analyzes the major trends of the military, political, economic, and cultural relationships between Denmark and Russia from 1989 to 2019. I document the relationship from the Danish perspective, using primary sources, with the aim to conduct analysis of Danish politicians’ speeches and activities during this period. The outcome is a comprehensive image of the Danish-Russian bilateral relationship at the present time. This relationship has fluctuated widely during the time period under study. Shared economic development interests in the 1990s contributed to a positive relationship; controversy surrounding the war in Chechnya and an assertive Danish prime minister ...


Was The German Battlefleet Programme The Main Reason For The End Of Britain’S “Splendid Isolation”?, Nathan Brewster May 2020

Was The German Battlefleet Programme The Main Reason For The End Of Britain’S “Splendid Isolation”?, Nathan Brewster

Crossing Borders: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

This historiographical essay challenges the common historical narrative that Britain left 'splendid isolation' as a result of perceived German aggression - particularly considering Germany's battlefleet programme. Investigating closer Anglo-American ties, the Anglo-Japanese agreement and the Entente Cordiale show that Britain started to abandon an isolationist policy due to its vast, global and often burdensome empire before the German battlefleet started to present itself as a problem. Rather than pinning Britain's alliances at the turn of the twentieth-century on one factor in Europe, this essay investigates the impact the Americas, Africa, Central Asia and the Far East had on Britain ...


Terra Nullius And The Svalbard Question: Exploring An Anomaly In International Law, Luke H. Campopiano May 2020

Terra Nullius And The Svalbard Question: Exploring An Anomaly In International Law, Luke H. Campopiano

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This honors thesis explores the usage of terra nullius in the context of the negotiations concerning sovereignty over the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Previous scholarship has emphasized the Svalbard Commission’s solution of Norwegian sovereignty, while largely ignoring the many intriguing suggestions at the time for divided or limited sovereignty in the archipelago. Intimately linked to these legal roads-not-taken is terra nullius, a Latin legal term that means “no man’s land.” This thesis will focus on the differing uses of terra nullius by legal scholars, diplomats, explorers, scientists, and corporate lobbyists with the aim of providing a comprehensive understanding ...


Western Influence In The Cover-Up Of The Holodomor, Michael Galka-Giaquinto Jan 2020

Western Influence In The Cover-Up Of The Holodomor, Michael Galka-Giaquinto

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This paper discusses how the Holodomor (Ukrainian Genocide of 1932-1933) was effectively covered up by Stalin with the help of compliant actors in the West. A confluence of media, political, and economic interests in the West was critical in successfully covering up Stalin's crimes against the Ukrainian people.


Recent U.S. And International Assessment Of Baltic Security Developments, Bert Chapman Sep 2019

Recent U.S. And International Assessment Of Baltic Security Developments, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to analyse Baltic security developments from U.S. government and military resources, scholarly journal articles, and multinational public policy research institute assessments. METHODS: The aim is to analyse the content and rhetoric within these resources to learn how those producing these materials view Baltic security developments and their viewpoints on how the U.S. and its allies should respond to these developments focusing on increasing Russian regional assertiveness. RESULTS: The author provides interpretations of Baltic security developments, Russian Baltic policy, and U.S. and NATO responses to these developments in materials produced by ...


Fifty Years Ago, When Newport Remembered Rochambeau, John R. Wadleigh Sep 2019

Fifty Years Ago, When Newport Remembered Rochambeau, John R. Wadleigh

Newport History

Fifty years before the publishing of this article, the landing of the French army under General Rochambeau on American soil, as well as the end of the Revolutionary War were celebrated as part of our nation's Sesquicentennial. In 1930 Newport recalled the French landing with local festivities including a parade and speeches with fireworks on Washington Square in the evening of the 11th of July. In this article, Wadleigh goes in depth about the history and proceedings of this event.


The Baltics And Ukraine: Geopolitical Hotspots, Bert Chapman Aug 2019

The Baltics And Ukraine: Geopolitical Hotspots, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides detailed historical overview and contemporary analysis on why the Baltics and Ukraine are historical and remain contemporary geopolitical hotspots. Provides analysis of cultural economic, environmental, and security factors influencing long-standing contentiousness over these regions. Places emphasis on how Russian behavior and policies influence this contentiousness. Concludes by noting that differences between the U.S. and its allies and conflicts within the U.S. Government may limit the ability of the U.S. to effectively respond to events in these disputed regions.


The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning May 2019

The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

An examination of Tolkien’s conception of history, the crisis of unpreparedness preceding the Second World War, and a relating of the story of Churchill’s warnings and eventual ascension to the position of Prime Minister. This study will compare the historical perspective of Tolkien, as represented in his fictional works, with the turmoil that transpired during the early days of WWII. Mostly, it will demonstrate how Tolkien’s view of history manifested itself within the context of the very perilous realities leading up to WWII. Nonetheless, a larger portrait of the nation of Great Britain, Winston Churchill, and their ...


Casualties Of War? Refining The Civilian-Military Dichotomy In World War I, Eric Grube Apr 2019

Casualties Of War? Refining The Civilian-Military Dichotomy In World War I, Eric Grube

Madison Historical Review

Throughout the First World War, newspapers around the world mocked the British state for its lavish spending on captured German officers kept at Donington Hall, a refurbished English estate. Why was this camp such a controversial space of perceived decadence? I argue that its comforts seemed to linger from an earlier era, one in which military men exuded genteel civility as integral to their supposedly heroic service. The British state essentially enabled such treatment, and the public decried this space for sustaining the anachronism of aristocratic privilege in the face of a globalized total war. However, the German inmates expected ...


In Defense Of Peace: Aron Trainin's Contributions To International Jurisprudence, Thomas Earl Porter Apr 2019

In Defense Of Peace: Aron Trainin's Contributions To International Jurisprudence, Thomas Earl Porter

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The Soviet Union played a major role in the establishment of the International Military Tribunal (IMT) that tried Nazi Germany’s leaders for their criminal actions at Nuremberg. Only a handful of Western scholars have noted that the Soviets were early proponents of the use of the legal principle of conspiracy and in establishing the principle that a war of aggression in and of itself could be legally construed as a criminal act. And it was the brilliant Soviet jurist Aron Trainin who forcefully “advanced the idea of individual responsibility for international crimes…the realization of which was established during ...


Anglo-Spanish Trade And Diplomacy 1712-1742, Forrest La Jeunesse Apr 2019

Anglo-Spanish Trade And Diplomacy 1712-1742, Forrest La Jeunesse

Masters Theses

Between the War of Spanish succession till the war of Austrian succession, the British focus shifted from matters of the European Continent towards that of expanding its trade and its commercial empire. With the securing of an important treaty with France, the British were able to seek trading concessions from the Spanish, through diplomacy or war, in order to gain economic dominance in the West Indies. However, unequal and often conflicting interests between the two nations prevented desired expansion into the West Indies for the British, so they sought to exploit vague treaty terms and obligations in order to conduct ...


A Most Interesting Time: The Militarization Of Containment After The Czechoslovakian Coup D'Etat Of 1948, Abraham Buri Mar 2019

A Most Interesting Time: The Militarization Of Containment After The Czechoslovakian Coup D'Etat Of 1948, Abraham Buri

History Undergraduate Theses

This paper discusses the development of American foreign policy during the first few years of the Cold War through the containment doctrine. This doctrine, which in modern times has come to mean aggressive military action against any perceived communist threat, is not at all what the architect of containment George Kennan had in mind when he first pitched the idea to the Truman Administration in 1946. The reason that the definition shifted in the course of a few short years is because of the communist coup d’état that occurred in Czechoslovakia in February 1948. Scholars have traditionally assigned more ...


Queen Catherine's Material Body, Kyra Zapf Jan 2019

Queen Catherine's Material Body, Kyra Zapf

Summer Research

In an era when most women were at the mercy of their husbands and the courts who ruled in their favor, Catherine managed a long and drawn out fight against being divorced by the most powerful man in England. Material goods contributed to much of Catherine's autonomy. Examples include: naming of items in her will, royal jewels she owned as personal property, and gifts she gave and received. Catherine used her wardrobe as a political statement. For centuries England's queens have been instrumental in creating an image for the monarchy, one tied not only to their clothing and ...


Merry < Machiavellian: Exploring King Charles Ii The Puppet Master From The Fall Of Edward Hyde To The Fall Of The Cabal, Zayd Y. Normand Jan 2019

Merry < Machiavellian: Exploring King Charles Ii The Puppet Master From The Fall Of Edward Hyde To The Fall Of The Cabal, Zayd Y. Normand

Senior Projects Fall 2019

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


Before Vietnam: Understanding The Initial Stages Of Us Involvement In Southeast Asia, 1945-1949, Jacob T. Mach Dec 2018

Before Vietnam: Understanding The Initial Stages Of Us Involvement In Southeast Asia, 1945-1949, Jacob T. Mach

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

The Vietnam War, widely considered the worst foreign policy debacle in American history, remains the most controversial event of the twentieth century. Much criticism for Vietnam involvement stems from two sources: 1) disapproval with how American leadership conducted the war, and 2) disagreement over the reason for the conflict in the first place. Few historians, if any, dispute the first criticism. The historical community remains divided, however, in terms of a definitive position on the basis or origin for the conflict. For a holistic approach to the origin of the Vietnam War, one must first elucidate the conception of American ...


The English Voyage Of Pietrobono Burzelli, Evan A. Maccarthy Oct 2018

The English Voyage Of Pietrobono Burzelli, Evan A. Maccarthy

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Praised by poets, scholars, and fellow musicians of his day, the singer, lutenist, and teacher Pietrobono Burzelli (ca. 1417–97) achieved international renown for his skill at improvisational performances on plucked instruments. Until recently, archival documents recorded his presence at many courts on the Italian peninsula and as far away as the Hungarian court. Documents until now unknown to musicologists reveal that Pietrobono also traveled to England. In August 1466 he signed a will and testament in advance of a risky trip “ad partes Anglie” that he was planning to begin the next day.

The testament offers new information about ...


An Assessment Of Parliament’S View Of The Jamestown Settlement In 1652 – 45 Years After The Initial Establishment, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr. Sep 2018

An Assessment Of Parliament’S View Of The Jamestown Settlement In 1652 – 45 Years After The Initial Establishment, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

A brief opinion piece based on parliament’s view of the Jamestown colony in 1652, 45 years after the colony’s establishment in the new world. The paper is substantiated by early English documents with a present day interpretation.


Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 2: The Central Intelligence Agency, Bert Chapman Jun 2018

Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 2: The Central Intelligence Agency, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Provides an overview of information resources produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) including popular reference works like World Factbook and Chiefs of State and Cabinet Leaders of Foreign Governments. Additional content describes the CIA's origins and development, descriptions of current organizational components, information about it's directors, and the text of historical National Intelligence Estimates (NIE) and the President's Daily Brief covering topics as varied as North Korea, the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and NIE's on Soviet ballistic missile forces and numerous other topics. Features artifacts from the CIA Museum.


Unwritten: The Hidden History Of The Holodomor, Amy Whisman Jun 2018

Unwritten: The Hidden History Of The Holodomor, Amy Whisman

Masters Theses

Between 1930 and 1933, Joseph Stalin unleashed an assault on Ukraine that resulted in the starvation of 5 million people. Their story went untold for decades. The fact that Soviet propaganda was largely successful in suppressing the truth speaks less to its sophistication than to the gullibility and complicity of Westerners. Although there were truth-tellers from Great Britain, the United States, and even Europe who accurately reported on the Ukrainian famine, Stalin understood that such voices could be effectively neutralized. Because the story of the Holodomor remained essentially unwritten, the West did not recognize it as the legitimate offspring of ...


America, An Aloof Friend: The Limits Of U.S.-Czechoslovak Relations From Munich To War, Connor Schonta Jun 2018

America, An Aloof Friend: The Limits Of U.S.-Czechoslovak Relations From Munich To War, Connor Schonta

Masters Theses

Between 1918 and 1938, the United States and Czechoslovakia maintained unique, friendly, and special diplomatic relations. This was mainly due to the two countries’ shared commitment to liberal, democratic values. In 1938, however, Hitler’s aggressive foreign policy came to a head in the form of the Munich Agreement, which not only set Czechoslovakia on a course of destruction but also fundamentally transformed the nature of U.S.-Czechoslovak relations. This study seeks to unpack the development of U.S.-Czechoslovak relations in the eleven months between Munich (October 1938) and the start of World War II (September 1939). During ...


Der Hungerwinter: Family, Famine, The Black Market, And Denazification In Allied-Occupied Germany (1945 - 1949), Tyler Stanley May 2018

Der Hungerwinter: Family, Famine, The Black Market, And Denazification In Allied-Occupied Germany (1945 - 1949), Tyler Stanley

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

This paper analyzes numerous letters written among several members of a German family living under the Allied occupation. The Lingenhoel family were one of a great many Germans enduring hunger, famine, and denazification in the immediate postwar period. Using the Lingenhoel family as the lens of analysis, this paper ultimately assesses the Allies' efforts to alleviate the widespread hunger and the Germans' responsibility of collaborating with the former Nazi government.


Revolution Is American Until It Isn't: A Study Of American Reactions To The French Revolution 1789 And The Russian Revolutionary Period Of 1917, Jonathan Dunning Apr 2018

Revolution Is American Until It Isn't: A Study Of American Reactions To The French Revolution 1789 And The Russian Revolutionary Period Of 1917, Jonathan Dunning

Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal

This study compares American reactions to both the French Revolution of 1789 and the Russian revolutions of 1917, and it finds that there are striking similarities in American responses to both. Early Republic Americans supported the French Revolution when it began, as they believed the French were adopting democratic and liberal ideas. Likewise, World War I era Americans supported the February Revolution in Russia, as they thought the rise of the Provisional Government would create a bright democratic future for the Russian people. However, as the French Revolution turned increasing violent in the 1790s and the Bolsheviks brought about the ...


From Swing King To Swing Kids: The Jazz Era Of ‘Big Band Orchestras’ In World War Ii, Katie Victoria Burnopp Apr 2018

From Swing King To Swing Kids: The Jazz Era Of ‘Big Band Orchestras’ In World War Ii, Katie Victoria Burnopp

Student Scholar Showcase

Known as the ‘King of Swing’, clarinetist and band leader Benny Goodman (1909-1986) threatened the Nazi cause during WWII. With intent of improving music pedagogy, the purpose of this research was to investigate swing music during World War II. The particular problems of this study were to: (1) identify how the swing music of Benny Goodman (1909-1986) influenced adolescents in the United States of America, United Kingdom, and Germany; (2) explore the Nazi party view on ‘swing’ music of the era; (3) examine how the music of Charlie and his Orchestra became used as a tool for Nazi propaganda; and ...


Republicans, Rivers, And Racism: The French Revolution And The Early American South, Andrew Landreth Apr 2018

Republicans, Rivers, And Racism: The French Revolution And The Early American South, Andrew Landreth

Scholars Week

This paper examines the political impact of the French Revolution and related events on the development of the American South in the early republic, roughly from 1789-1815. This paper argues that the French Revolution and its offshoots helped to sharpen early Southern sectionalism by reinforcing three characteristics that would soon define the region: republicanism, expansionism, and white racism.


The Impact Of Ethnic Cleansing And The Eurocentric International System On The Entrance Of The Ottoman Empire Into The Great War, 1878-1914, Parker Lake Jan 2018

The Impact Of Ethnic Cleansing And The Eurocentric International System On The Entrance Of The Ottoman Empire Into The Great War, 1878-1914, Parker Lake

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This thesis examines the reasons for the Ottoman Empire’s entrance into the First World War. It claims that the Empire’s decision was rooted in the failure of the European international system to uphold its diplomatic agreements and the resulting refugee crisis in the Balkans caused by Russian imperialism.


Schießbefehl And The Issues Of Retroactivity Within The East German Border Guard Trials, Keegan Mcmurry Jan 2018

Schießbefehl And The Issues Of Retroactivity Within The East German Border Guard Trials, Keegan Mcmurry

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

From 1961 to 1989, 327 people attempting to cross the border from East Germany to West Germany were killed while making the crossing. With the opening of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and German reunification a year later, German courts began to address whether the border guards, their officers, or political leadership of the former East Germany should be tried for these deaths. If East Germany no longer existed, could West German laws be applied to these cases? This project examines this issue by examining trials that were conducted in the 1990s and the legal sources that examine this ...


How Will The Politics And Government Of Hong Kong Change In 2047 When The “One Country, Two Systems” Policy Has Expired., Christopher D. Spalding, James M. Lochte Jan 2018

How Will The Politics And Government Of Hong Kong Change In 2047 When The “One Country, Two Systems” Policy Has Expired., Christopher D. Spalding, James M. Lochte

Undergraduate Research

Since the official transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from Great Britain to China in 1997, Hong Kong has been governed under a special set of laws dubbed “One Country, Two Systems”. Though Hong Kong and the mainland are one country, the People’s Republic of China, they are governed under two different systems with regards to economic and political policy. This two-system agreement has been seen as a guarantor of Hong Kong’s Western-style democracy and political freedoms, especially as compared to the rest of the People’s Republic. However, the system was set to be in place for ...


Dividing Germany, Accepting An Invitation To Empire: The Life, Death, And Historical Significance Of George Kennan's "Program A", John Gleb Sep 2017

Dividing Germany, Accepting An Invitation To Empire: The Life, Death, And Historical Significance Of George Kennan's "Program A", John Gleb

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

This paper will attempt to reinterpret the early Cold War moment in Euro-American relations that gave rise to and ultimately destroyed George Kennan’s plan to reunify and neutralize Germany—the so-called “Program A” of 1948–49. Kennan envisioned his Program as the first and decisive step towards creating a “free European community” capable of acting as a non-aligned “third force,” thus ending the Cold War on the Continent. But before it could be presented to the United States’ European allies, Britain and France, some of the plan’s principal features were leaked to the New York Times. These features ...


To The Brink: Turkish And Cuban Missiles During The Height Of The Cold War, Cody Fuelling Sep 2017

To The Brink: Turkish And Cuban Missiles During The Height Of The Cold War, Cody Fuelling

International Social Science Review

This article examines the importance of the placement of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) in Turkey during the Eisenhower administration and how this maneuver contributed to the Cold War and subsequent Cuban missile crisis.


Sloan On Geopolitics, Geography, And Strategy History In Geopolitics, Bert Chapman Jun 2017

Sloan On Geopolitics, Geography, And Strategy History In Geopolitics, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Geopolitical literature is experiencing a renaissance and scholars representing classical and critical perspectives in this field bring multifaceted assessments to historical and current international political and security issues. Sloan’s Geopolitics, Geography and Strategic History, which is part of Routledge’s Geopolitical Theory Series, examines connections between geography, strategy, and history and is the subject of this review and analysis. Three thesis questions examined by the author include why the geographical scope of political objectives and following strategies of nation states change, how do these changes occur, and over what time period do these changes occur. Sloan examines why the ...