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Articles 1 - 30 of 297

Full-Text Articles in European History

The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning May 2019

The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

An examination of Tolkien’s conception of history, the crisis of unpreparedness preceding the Second World War, and a relating of the story of Churchill’s warnings and eventual ascension to the position of Prime Minister. This study will compare the historical perspective of Tolkien, as represented in his fictional works, with the turmoil that transpired during the early days of WWII. Mostly, it will demonstrate how Tolkien’s view of history manifested itself within the context of the very perilous realities leading up to WWII. Nonetheless, a larger portrait of the nation of Great Britain, Winston Churchill, and their ...


Casualties Of War? Refining The Civilian-Military Dichotomy In World War I, Eric Grube Apr 2019

Casualties Of War? Refining The Civilian-Military Dichotomy In World War I, Eric Grube

Madison Historical Review

Throughout the First World War, newspapers around the world mocked the British state for its lavish spending on captured German officers kept at Donington Hall, a refurbished English estate. Why was this camp such a controversial space of perceived decadence? I argue that its comforts seemed to linger from an earlier era, one in which military men exuded genteel civility as integral to their supposedly heroic service. The British state essentially enabled such treatment, and the public decried this space for sustaining the anachronism of aristocratic privilege in the face of a globalized total war. However, the German inmates expected ...


In Defense Of Peace: Aron Trainin's Contributions To International Jurisprudence, Thomas Earl Porter Apr 2019

In Defense Of Peace: Aron Trainin's Contributions To International Jurisprudence, Thomas Earl Porter

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The Soviet Union played a major role in the establishment of the International Military Tribunal (IMT) that tried Nazi Germany’s leaders for their criminal actions at Nuremberg. Only a handful of Western scholars have noted that the Soviets were early proponents of the use of the legal principle of conspiracy and in establishing the principle that a war of aggression in and of itself could be legally construed as a criminal act. And it was the brilliant Soviet jurist Aron Trainin who forcefully “advanced the idea of individual responsibility for international crimes…the realization of which was established during ...


Anglo-Spanish Trade And Diplomacy 1712-1742, Forrest La Jeunesse Apr 2019

Anglo-Spanish Trade And Diplomacy 1712-1742, Forrest La Jeunesse

Masters Theses

Between the War of Spanish succession till the war of Austrian succession, the British focus shifted from matters of the European Continent towards that of expanding its trade and its commercial empire. With the securing of an important treaty with France, the British were able to seek trading concessions from the Spanish, through diplomacy or war, in order to gain economic dominance in the West Indies. However, unequal and often conflicting interests between the two nations prevented desired expansion into the West Indies for the British, so they sought to exploit vague treaty terms and obligations in order to conduct ...


A Most Interesting Time: The Militarization Of Containment After The Czechoslovakian Coup D'Etat Of 1948, Abraham Buri Mar 2019

A Most Interesting Time: The Militarization Of Containment After The Czechoslovakian Coup D'Etat Of 1948, Abraham Buri

History Undergraduate Theses

This paper discusses the development of American foreign policy during the first few years of the Cold War through the containment doctrine. This doctrine, which in modern times has come to mean aggressive military action against any perceived communist threat, is not at all what the architect of containment George Kennan had in mind when he first pitched the idea to the Truman Administration in 1946. The reason that the definition shifted in the course of a few short years is because of the communist coup d’état that occurred in Czechoslovakia in February 1948. Scholars have traditionally assigned more ...


Before Vietnam: Understanding The Initial Stages Of Us Involvement In Southeast Asia, 1945-1949, Jacob T. Mach Dec 2018

Before Vietnam: Understanding The Initial Stages Of Us Involvement In Southeast Asia, 1945-1949, Jacob T. Mach

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

The Vietnam War, widely considered the worst foreign policy debacle in American history, remains the most controversial event of the twentieth century. Much criticism for Vietnam involvement stems from two sources: 1) disapproval with how American leadership conducted the war, and 2) disagreement over the reason for the conflict in the first place. Few historians, if any, dispute the first criticism. The historical community remains divided, however, in terms of a definitive position on the basis or origin for the conflict. For a holistic approach to the origin of the Vietnam War, one must first elucidate the conception of American ...


The English Voyage Of Pietrobono Burzelli, Evan A. Maccarthy Oct 2018

The English Voyage Of Pietrobono Burzelli, Evan A. Maccarthy

Faculty Scholarship

Praised by poets, scholars, and fellow musicians of his day, the singer, lutenist, and teacher Pietrobono Burzelli (ca. 1417–97) achieved international renown for his skill at improvisational performances on plucked instruments. Until recently, archival documents recorded his presence at many courts on the Italian peninsula and as far away as the Hungarian court. Documents until now unknown to musicologists reveal that Pietrobono also traveled to England. In August 1466 he signed a will and testament in advance of a risky trip “ad partes Anglie” that he was planning to begin the next day.

The testament offers new information about ...


An Assessment Of Parliament’S View Of The Jamestown Settlement In 1652 – 45 Years After The Initial Establishment, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr. Sep 2018

An Assessment Of Parliament’S View Of The Jamestown Settlement In 1652 – 45 Years After The Initial Establishment, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

A brief opinion piece based on parliament’s view of the Jamestown colony in 1652, 45 years after the colony’s establishment in the new world. The paper is substantiated by early English documents with a present day interpretation.


Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 2: The Central Intelligence Agency, Bert Chapman Jun 2018

Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 2: The Central Intelligence Agency, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Provides an overview of information resources produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) including popular reference works like World Factbook and Chiefs of State and Cabinet Leaders of Foreign Governments. Additional content describes the CIA's origins and development, descriptions of current organizational components, information about it's directors, and the text of historical National Intelligence Estimates (NIE) and the President's Daily Brief covering topics as varied as North Korea, the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and NIE's on Soviet ballistic missile forces and numerous other topics. Features artifacts from the CIA Museum.


America, An Aloof Friend: The Limits Of U.S.-Czechoslovak Relations From Munich To War, Connor Schonta Jun 2018

America, An Aloof Friend: The Limits Of U.S.-Czechoslovak Relations From Munich To War, Connor Schonta

Masters Theses

Between 1918 and 1938, the United States and Czechoslovakia maintained unique, friendly, and special diplomatic relations. This was mainly due to the two countries’ shared commitment to liberal, democratic values. In 1938, however, Hitler’s aggressive foreign policy came to a head in the form of the Munich Agreement, which not only set Czechoslovakia on a course of destruction but also fundamentally transformed the nature of U.S.-Czechoslovak relations. This study seeks to unpack the development of U.S.-Czechoslovak relations in the eleven months between Munich (October 1938) and the start of World War II (September 1939). During ...


Unwritten: The Hidden History Of The Holodomor, Amy Whisman Jun 2018

Unwritten: The Hidden History Of The Holodomor, Amy Whisman

Masters Theses

Between 1930 and 1933, Joseph Stalin unleashed an assault on Ukraine that resulted in the starvation of 5 million people. Their story went untold for decades. The fact that Soviet propaganda was largely successful in suppressing the truth speaks less to its sophistication than to the gullibility and complicity of Westerners. Although there were truth-tellers from Great Britain, the United States, and even Europe who accurately reported on the Ukrainian famine, Stalin understood that such voices could be effectively neutralized. Because the story of the Holodomor remained essentially unwritten, the West did not recognize it as the legitimate offspring of ...


Revolution Is American Until It Isn't: A Study Of American Reactions To The French Revolution 1789 And The Russian Revolutionary Period Of 1917, Jonathan Dunning Apr 2018

Revolution Is American Until It Isn't: A Study Of American Reactions To The French Revolution 1789 And The Russian Revolutionary Period Of 1917, Jonathan Dunning

Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal

This study compares American reactions to both the French Revolution of 1789 and the Russian revolutions of 1917, and it finds that there are striking similarities in American responses to both. Early Republic Americans supported the French Revolution when it began, as they believed the French were adopting democratic and liberal ideas. Likewise, World War I era Americans supported the February Revolution in Russia, as they thought the rise of the Provisional Government would create a bright democratic future for the Russian people. However, as the French Revolution turned increasing violent in the 1790s and the Bolsheviks brought about the ...


From Swing King To Swing Kids: The Jazz Era Of ‘Big Band Orchestras’ In World War Ii, Katie Victoria Burnopp Apr 2018

From Swing King To Swing Kids: The Jazz Era Of ‘Big Band Orchestras’ In World War Ii, Katie Victoria Burnopp

Student Scholar Showcase

Known as the ‘King of Swing’, clarinetist and band leader Benny Goodman (1909-1986) threatened the Nazi cause during WWII. With intent of improving music pedagogy, the purpose of this research was to investigate swing music during World War II. The particular problems of this study were to: (1) identify how the swing music of Benny Goodman (1909-1986) influenced adolescents in the United States of America, United Kingdom, and Germany; (2) explore the Nazi party view on ‘swing’ music of the era; (3) examine how the music of Charlie and his Orchestra became used as a tool for Nazi propaganda; and ...


Republicans, Rivers, And Racism: The French Revolution And The Early American South, Andrew Landreth Apr 2018

Republicans, Rivers, And Racism: The French Revolution And The Early American South, Andrew Landreth

Scholars Week

This paper examines the political impact of the French Revolution and related events on the development of the American South in the early republic, roughly from 1789-1815. This paper argues that the French Revolution and its offshoots helped to sharpen early Southern sectionalism by reinforcing three characteristics that would soon define the region: republicanism, expansionism, and white racism.


The Impact Of Ethnic Cleansing And The Eurocentric International System On The Entrance Of The Ottoman Empire Into The Great War, 1878-1914, Parker Lake Jan 2018

The Impact Of Ethnic Cleansing And The Eurocentric International System On The Entrance Of The Ottoman Empire Into The Great War, 1878-1914, Parker Lake

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This thesis examines the reasons for the Ottoman Empire’s entrance into the First World War. It claims that the Empire’s decision was rooted in the failure of the European international system to uphold its diplomatic agreements and the resulting refugee crisis in the Balkans caused by Russian imperialism.


Schießbefehl And The Issues Of Retroactivity Within The East German Border Guard Trials, Keegan Mcmurry Jan 2018

Schießbefehl And The Issues Of Retroactivity Within The East German Border Guard Trials, Keegan Mcmurry

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

From 1961 to 1989, 327 people attempting to cross the border from East Germany to West Germany were killed while making the crossing. With the opening of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and German reunification a year later, German courts began to address whether the border guards, their officers, or political leadership of the former East Germany should be tried for these deaths. If East Germany no longer existed, could West German laws be applied to these cases? This project examines this issue by examining trials that were conducted in the 1990s and the legal sources that examine this ...


Der Hungerwinter: Family, Famine, The Black Market, And Denazification In Allied-Occupied Germany (1945 - 1949), Tyler Stanley Jan 2018

Der Hungerwinter: Family, Famine, The Black Market, And Denazification In Allied-Occupied Germany (1945 - 1949), Tyler Stanley

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This paper analyzes numerous letters written among several members of a German family living under the Allied occupation. The Lingenhoel family were one of a great many Germans enduring hunger, famine, and denazification in the immediate postwar period. Using the Lingenhoel family as the lens of analysis, this paper ultimately assesses the Allies' efforts to alleviate the widespread hunger and the Germans' responsibility of collaborating with the former Nazi government.


Herat: The Key To India, The Individual Fears And Plans That Shaped The Defense Of India During The Great Game, Trevor L. Borasio Jan 2018

Herat: The Key To India, The Individual Fears And Plans That Shaped The Defense Of India During The Great Game, Trevor L. Borasio

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Herat was exalted as the key to India’s defense during the nineteenth century. This small city in the Khorasan region of contemporary Afghanistan was obsessed over by British politicians, explorers, agents, and authors, yet no secondary source has sought to explain why British advocates attributed importance to the city. This thesis argues that Herat was important to British men on the ground in Central Asia who feared that oncoming Russian and Persian expansionism would threaten India. Initially, British interest in the northwest frontier of India grew out a need to protect what they perceived to be the only vulnerable ...


From The Rhineland To Czechoslovakia: How The Policies Of Appeasement In The British Government Led To The Second World War, Tyler Berger Jan 2018

From The Rhineland To Czechoslovakia: How The Policies Of Appeasement In The British Government Led To The Second World War, Tyler Berger

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis's goal is to better explain how the appeasement policies of the British government between 1936 and 1939 brought about the Second World War. This thesis looks at the British government's response to the remilitarization of the Rhineland by Germany in 1936, the Anschluss, the Munich Conference, and the German invasion of Czechoslovakia.


Dividing Germany, Accepting An Invitation To Empire: The Life, Death, And Historical Significance Of George Kennan's "Program A", John Gleb Sep 2017

Dividing Germany, Accepting An Invitation To Empire: The Life, Death, And Historical Significance Of George Kennan's "Program A", John Gleb

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

This paper will attempt to reinterpret the early Cold War moment in Euro-American relations that gave rise to and ultimately destroyed George Kennan’s plan to reunify and neutralize Germany—the so-called “Program A” of 1948–49. Kennan envisioned his Program as the first and decisive step towards creating a “free European community” capable of acting as a non-aligned “third force,” thus ending the Cold War on the Continent. But before it could be presented to the United States’ European allies, Britain and France, some of the plan’s principal features were leaked to the New York Times. These features ...


To The Brink: Turkish And Cuban Missiles During The Height Of The Cold War, Cody Fuelling Sep 2017

To The Brink: Turkish And Cuban Missiles During The Height Of The Cold War, Cody Fuelling

International Social Science Review

This article examines the importance of the placement of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) in Turkey during the Eisenhower administration and how this maneuver contributed to the Cold War and subsequent Cuban missile crisis.


Sloan On Geopolitics, Geography, And Strategy History In Geopolitics, Bert Chapman Jun 2017

Sloan On Geopolitics, Geography, And Strategy History In Geopolitics, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Geopolitical literature is experiencing a renaissance and scholars representing classical and critical perspectives in this field bring multifaceted assessments to historical and current international political and security issues. Sloan’s Geopolitics, Geography and Strategic History, which is part of Routledge’s Geopolitical Theory Series, examines connections between geography, strategy, and history and is the subject of this review and analysis. Three thesis questions examined by the author include why the geographical scope of political objectives and following strategies of nation states change, how do these changes occur, and over what time period do these changes occur. Sloan examines why the ...


Cold War And The Olympics: An Athlete's Perspective, Mike Vecchione Jun 2017

Cold War And The Olympics: An Athlete's Perspective, Mike Vecchione

Honors Theses

When President Jimmy Carter decided to boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, it was the largest act of political interference in the history of the Olympics. It began in December of 1979 when Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan. Carter was having a difficult time getting the hostages back so in response to the invasion of Afghanistan, Carter gave the Soviets one month to withdraw their troops or the United States would boycott their Olympics. Since the Soviets did not respect the demands of the President, Carter stuck to his threat and the United States did not participate in the 1980 ...


Stronger For Scotland: The Rise Of The Modern Scottish Nationalist Movement, Thomas Wilson Jun 2017

Stronger For Scotland: The Rise Of The Modern Scottish Nationalist Movement, Thomas Wilson

Honors Theses

This research analyzes the growth of the Scottish Nationalist Party, currently Scotland’s main party in Scottish Parliament. The growth of the nationalist movement began in the 1920s and took a long period of formative years before the movement grew into the Scottish Nationalist party seen today. The nationalist movement was most successful in the latter years of the 20th century, but the most important stages of the nationalist movement were its formative years in from the 1920s through the 1940s. This thesis analyzes the nationalist’s developmental process of determining the goal of the nationalist movement and the methods ...


Following The Spirit Of The Law: Col. Eberhard P. Deutsch And The Legal Division Of United States Forces Austria, 1945-1946, Peter J. Casey May 2017

Following The Spirit Of The Law: Col. Eberhard P. Deutsch And The Legal Division Of United States Forces Austria, 1945-1946, Peter J. Casey

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

As World War II neared its end in Europe, the Allied powers faced a difficult situation with the occupied nation of Austria. Considering the complicated Austrian relationship with Nazism, the Allies had to decide how the nation would be liberated, occupied, and rehabilitated. Almost instantaneously, the United States, Great Britain, and France became at odds with a vengeful Soviet Union seeking to build a defensive shield of Communist European client states that included Austria. This study will show that as the head of the American Legal Division, Col. Eberhard P. Deutsch, United States Army, was instrumental in the reformation of ...


"A Vigorous Propaganda": The Peace Conferences Of 1899 And 1907, The Peace Palace, And Internationalism Through Design At The Hague, 1899–1920, Daniel Pecoraro May 2017

"A Vigorous Propaganda": The Peace Conferences Of 1899 And 1907, The Peace Palace, And Internationalism Through Design At The Hague, 1899–1920, Daniel Pecoraro

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This thesis uncovers the history of the Peace Palace and The Hague’s role in the early days of the internationalist movement. In the process of localizing the early twentieth century history of The Hague, this thesis examines the development of international imagery and culture through design. The Peace Palace as we know it today was ultimately a result of tensions between internationalist ideas (cooperation, arbitration, modernity) and the pride of Old World nationalism. The final design by Louis Cordonnier and J. A. G. Van der Steur repudiates the feeling of modernity surrounding the idea of peace through arbitration. It ...


Visionaries In Opposition: Napoleon, Talleyrand, And The Future Of France, Seth J. Browner Apr 2017

Visionaries In Opposition: Napoleon, Talleyrand, And The Future Of France, Seth J. Browner

Senior Theses and Projects

This thesis is a study of the relationship between Napoleon and Talleyrand, the foreign minister. It examines their relationship from the vantage point of three key events: the coup of 18 Brumaire, the Strasbourg memorandum, and Talleyrand's resignation. Ultimately, this study finds that their relationship was troubled, and the falling out occurred because of a difference in their goals. Napoleon wanted to build an empire. Talleyrand wanted to reintegrate France into the system of European powers.


Paris Peace Conference 1919 Simulation, Kitty Lam Mar 2017

Paris Peace Conference 1919 Simulation, Kitty Lam

Kitty Lam

This lesson plan for high school students in World History and United States History courses is related to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Students will simulate a meeting of the Paris Peace Conference to determine the terms of peace after the First World War. Eight delegations are represented in this simulation: United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Germany, Kingdom of the Hejaz, Zionist League. The goals of this simulation are to develop student understanding about the post-war priorities of the "Big Four", the role of the First World War in shaping geopolitics in the Middle East, the significance ...


The Hopes And The Realities Of Aviation In French Indochina, 1919-1940, Gregory Charles Seltzer Jan 2017

The Hopes And The Realities Of Aviation In French Indochina, 1919-1940, Gregory Charles Seltzer

Theses and Dissertations--History

My dissertation examines how and why the French employed aviation in the five constituent parts of French Indochina (Annam, Cambodia, Cochinchina, Laos, and Tonkin) during the interwar period of the 1920s and 1930s. I argue that the French, believing that the modern technology of powered flight possessed seemingly endless potential, saw aviation as a vehicle for extending, consolidating, developing, and protecting their interests both within the colony and around Southeast and East Asia. Aircraft, whether civil or military, were viewed and used as a multi-purpose tool of empire. Indeed, planes were employed for a variety of tasks in Indochina: transportation ...


Civil War Or Genocide? The United Nations Commission Of Experts’ Misunderstanding Of The Third Balkan War Of The 1990s, Matthew G. Morley Jan 2017

Civil War Or Genocide? The United Nations Commission Of Experts’ Misunderstanding Of The Third Balkan War Of The 1990s, Matthew G. Morley

Grand Valley Journal of History

When the country of Yugoslavia disintegrated into war, the United Nations created a research commission, the Yugoslav Commission of Experts, to document war crimes. This commission, led by Cherif M. Bassiouni, depicted the conflict as a perpetual problem with historical roots and also as having victims on both sides, which presented a legal-definitional paradox to the Security Council, requiring litigation of principles, categorization of conflicts, and discussion of further involvement - if applicable. This paper traces the essentialist understandings of the Commission of Experts and the International Human Rights Law Institute – two groups that otherwise had good intentions to bring about ...