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Articles 661 - 690 of 706

Full-Text Articles in Other History of Art, Architecture, and Archaeology

Archaeological Research At The Rowland Clark Site (41rr77), Red River County, Texas, Gegory Perino Jan 1994

Archaeological Research At The Rowland Clark Site (41rr77), Red River County, Texas, Gegory Perino

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Rowland Clark site is located in Red River County, Texas, on a prehistoric river channel of the Red River that has been intersected by a more recent channel of the river. It is approximately 16 km south of the Arnold Roitsch or Sam Kaufman (41RR16) site. The site had small Coles Creek and Early Caddoan period occupations, but the major occupation was of a McCurtain phase group of the Late Caddoan period. I

The site has been in the Clark family for more than a century. The land the site is on is the property of Mr. Rowland Clark ...


Human Skeletal Remains From The Tyson Site (41sy92), Helen D. Dockall Jan 1994

Human Skeletal Remains From The Tyson Site (41sy92), Helen D. Dockall

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

During the 1993 field season at the Tyson site (41SY92), conducted by the East Texas and Northeast Texas Archaeological societies, two burial features were uncovered. These features contained the skeletal remains of three Caddo subadults, ranging in age from birth to one to two years. Burial 1 yielded the partial skeleton of a child less than two years old, as well as elements of a second, slightly younger, child. Burial 2 produced the remains of a well-preserved infant. This article describes the excavation and osteology protocols, a description of taphonomic conditions, inventory of these burials, demography, size of the subadults ...


A Update Of Archaeological Investigations At The Tyson Site (41sy92), Tom Middlebrook Jan 1994

A Update Of Archaeological Investigations At The Tyson Site (41sy92), Tom Middlebrook

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In recent years, much of the research concerning prehistoric and historic Caddoan lifeways has focused on socio-political organization and community structure. Models have been proposed to predict the character of the archaeological record based on European observations of Caddo an life during the 17th-19th centuries. A brief review of these models is warranted to provide the necessary background for interpreting the results of recent archaeological work at an interesting 15th century site in Deep East Texas.

Story and Creel have developed an integrative model to describe Hasinai Caddo "settlement patterns, socio-political organization, and intergroup interactions" based on ethnographic and archaeological ...


Caddoan Archaeology In The Little Cypress Creek Valley: Recent Investigation At The Griffin Mound Site (41ur142), Upshur County, Texas, Bo Nelson, Timothy K. Perttula, Mike Turner Jan 1994

Caddoan Archaeology In The Little Cypress Creek Valley: Recent Investigation At The Griffin Mound Site (41ur142), Upshur County, Texas, Bo Nelson, Timothy K. Perttula, Mike Turner

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

As part of the long-term study of the prehistoric archaeology of the Caddo peoples in Northeast Texas, we are currently focusing our investigations on the Little Cypress Creek valley in Upshur County. Although poorly known archaeologically, background research conducted to date, discussions with landowners, and selected survey-limited testing efforts over the last few years indicates that there are extensive Archaic and Caddoan archaeological remains preserved in the Little Cypress Creek valley. Caddoan period archaeologi cal sites (ca. A.O. 800-1600) are particularly common. The investigations of one of the more significant Caddoan sites found to date in the valley, the ...


Book Reviews, Ann M. Early, Heidi Vaughn Jan 1994

Book Reviews, Ann M. Early, Heidi Vaughn

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Abandonment of Settlements and Regions: Ethnoarchaeological and Archaeological Approaches, edited by Catherine M. Cameron and Steve A. Tomka. Cambridge University Press. 1993.

The Ouachita Mountains: A Guide for Fishermen, Hunters, and Travelers, by Milton D. Rafferty and John C. Catau. Norman: The University of Oklahoma Press. 1991. 308 pages, notes, references, index.


Analysis Of Rowland Clark Site Corn, Leonard Blake Jan 1994

Analysis Of Rowland Clark Site Corn, Leonard Blake

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The carbonized com from the Rowland Clark site, Red River County, Texas was received from Gregory Perino, then of the Museum of the Red River, in March 1982. The analysis of the com is presented by feature, with remarks on the cobs as appropriate. Table 1 presents a summary by feature of the com cob analysis, while Table 2 compares the com from Rowland Clark with samples of com cobs from other well-studied Caddoan sites.


The Rowland Clark (41rr77) Site, Red River County, Texas : Editor's Introduction, Gegory Perino, Leonard Blake, Carol J. Loveland Jan 1994

The Rowland Clark (41rr77) Site, Red River County, Texas : Editor's Introduction, Gegory Perino, Leonard Blake, Carol J. Loveland

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Rowland Clark (41RR77) and Dan Holdeman (41RR11) archaeological sites were excavated in the late 1970s and early 1980s by Gregory Perino of the Museum of Red River in Idabel, Oklahoma. Manuscripts on those investigations were prepared by Perino shortly after the conclusion of the work, but these were never published, remaining instead on file at the Museum of the Red River.


Paintings And Drawings In Willa Cather's Prose: A Catalogue Raisonné, Polly P. Duryea May 1993

Paintings And Drawings In Willa Cather's Prose: A Catalogue Raisonné, Polly P. Duryea

Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research: Department of English

Paintings and Drawings in Willa Cather's Prose: A Catalogue Raisonné considers the specific artists and their visual art that greatly influenced Willa Cather's textual compositions. The Catalogue draws upon the author's research of Cather-related art from both American and European libraries and art museums. This art includes painting, drawing, illustration, and tapestry. A detailed and alphabetized list of selected artists and paintings that Cather preferred is provided. The artists are cross-referenced with Cather's own statements about their work or style. Included is biographical data for each artist, the named work of art, and often the date ...


The Z.V. Davis-Mcpeek Site, An Early Caddoan Mound Site In The Little Cypress Creek Valley, Upshur County, Texas, Bo Nelson, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 1993

The Z.V. Davis-Mcpeek Site, An Early Caddoan Mound Site In The Little Cypress Creek Valley, Upshur County, Texas, Bo Nelson, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Z.V. Davis-McPeek site (41UR4/99) is an Early Caddoan period mound and habitation area located in northwest Upshur County. The mound is on a broad terrace along Little Cypress Creek, in the western portion of the Cypress Basin. Since the initial recording of the site some 60 years ago, there have been several different but limited investigations there, but none have been published. These limited investigations, coupled with the uncertainty of the site's exact location (see below), prompted the authors (with the able assistance of Mike Turner) to relocate the site, assemble known information about it, evaluate ...


Archaeological Investigations At The Tobert Potter And Harriet Ames Cabin (41mr51) On Potter's Point, Caddo Lake, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 1993

Archaeological Investigations At The Tobert Potter And Harriet Ames Cabin (41mr51) On Potter's Point, Caddo Lake, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This paper discusses recent archaeological investigations at the Robert Potter and Harriet Ames cabin site (41MR51) on Caddo Lake at Potter's Point. The cabin site represents a relatively intact mid-nineteenth century archaeological deposit from a Northeast Texas cultural resource of considerable historical significance.

The site was located by Mr. Claude McCrocklin and members of the Louisiana Archaeological Society in the summer of 1992. The artifacts collected from these limited investigations were then turned over to the author for study as the first step in assessing the site's archaeological character and preservation potential.


A Summary Of The History Of The Caddo People, Frank F. Schambach Jan 1993

A Summary Of The History Of The Caddo People, Frank F. Schambach

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

I am pleased and very honored that you have invited me here today to tell you something about the past of the Caddo people as it is known to archaeologists. This is a subject that has been both my occupation and my major preoccupation for more than 25 years. The story that I and other archaeologists have been piecing together over many years is long, complex, and endlessly fascinating. It is a heritage that anyone could be proud of. Let me give you some of the highlights.

The story began over 11,500 years ago--or about 9,500 B.C ...


Archaeology, The Caddo Indian Tribe, And The Native American Graves Protection And Repatriation Act, Mary C. Carter Jan 1993

Archaeology, The Caddo Indian Tribe, And The Native American Graves Protection And Repatriation Act, Mary C. Carter

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Caddo leadership has a long history of working cooperatively with foreign governments. In the seventeenth century, they cooperated with Spanish officials and missionaries who wanted to establish themselves among the southern branch of Caddo tribes--the Hasinai in Northeast Texas. In the eighteenth century, they cooperated with the French who wanted to establish trading posts on the Red River among the Natchitoches and Kadohadacho. In the nineteenth century they cooperated with Americans to establish peaceful relationships with unfriendly tribe. For Caddos, the result of these cooperative efforts was disillusion, decimation, displacement, and finally dispossession. Now, with new hope in the twentieth ...


A Look At The Relationship Between The Spiro And Toltec Centers On The Arkansas River: A View From The Ancient Nile Valley, Frank Winchell Jan 1993

A Look At The Relationship Between The Spiro And Toltec Centers On The Arkansas River: A View From The Ancient Nile Valley, Frank Winchell

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This paper will look into the relationship between the civic-ceremonial centers of Toltec and Spiro and the intervening area along the Arkansas Valley of Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. Although it may first appear that there were two separate developments along the Arkansas Valley, this paper presents the possibility that the centers of Toltec and Spiro were intrinsically involved with one another, and that one may have risen to preeminence at the expense of the other. Indeed, the collapse of Toltec and the rise of Spiro may explain why the Arkansas Valley east of Spiro was not heavily occupied during the ...


Spiroan Entrepots At And Beyond The Western Border Of The Tans-Mississippi South, Frank Schambach Jan 1993

Spiroan Entrepots At And Beyond The Western Border Of The Tans-Mississippi South, Frank Schambach

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Although this paper is primarily a reinterpretation of the Sanders site in the Red River Valley in northeastern Texas, that reinterpretation will make no sense unless I first outline, very quickly, the new paradigm for the archeology of the Arkansas Valley in eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas upon which it is based.

For the last five years, as I am sure most of you know, I have been challenging the standard interpretation of the archeology of the Arkansas Valley in eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas--the Northern Caddoan Area paradigm. I have done this on the grounds that there is no ...


Caddoan Reburial, Thomas E. Speir Jan 1993

Caddoan Reburial, Thomas E. Speir

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

On February 7, 1993 in eastern Texas, the remains of a prehistoric Caddoan Indian were reburied in the original grave. A small ceremony was held to mark the occasion. Representatives of the Caddo Tribe from Oklahoma and Louisiana were in attendance, as were members of the Nonheast Texas Archeological Society (NETAS). This report deals with one case of recently excavated human remains.


The Carlisle Site (41wd46), A Middle Caddoan Occupation On The Sabine River, Wood County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bob D. Skiles, Bonnie C. Yates Jan 1993

The Carlisle Site (41wd46), A Middle Caddoan Occupation On The Sabine River, Wood County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bob D. Skiles, Bonnie C. Yates

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Carlisle site (41WD46) is located on the Sabine River near its confluence with Lake Fork Creek in the Upper Sabine River Basin. As defined by Perttula, the Upper Sabine River Basin includes the area from the headwaters of the Sabine River to the mouths of Cherokee Bayou and Hatley Creek at the western edge of the Sabine Uplift. Lake Fork Creek is one of several large south-southeastward flowing streams within the Upper Sabine River Basin. The town of Mineola is approximately 13 kilometers (km) west of the Carlisle site.

The site is situated at the tip of an upland ...


The Sexual Division Of Labor At The Sanders Site (41lr2), Lamar County, Texas, Diane Wilson Jan 1993

The Sexual Division Of Labor At The Sanders Site (41lr2), Lamar County, Texas, Diane Wilson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This study examined evidence of stress on human bone in order to reconstruct the sexual division of labor for the prehistoric Caddoan culture represented at the Sanders site (41LR2). Specifically, the repeated action stress seen in degenerative joint disease was quantified in order to infer culturally prescribed and habitual actions.

Overall, the division of labor at the Sanders site was somewhat unusual among agricultural societies. Males from the Sanders site had evidence of greater stress loads. In particular, agricultural activities appear to have regardless of sex. Although the Sanders site burial population was believed to be of high social status ...


Alley's Mills: A 19th Century Mill Town, Mary C. Jones Jan 1993

Alley's Mills: A 19th Century Mill Town, Mary C. Jones

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Alley's Mills town site was discovered' while examining a timber tract on Alley's Creek for a harvest cut by International Paper. A deep, rock-lined well, and a profusion of handmade bricks was discovered on a small knoll overlooking Alley's Creek, a tributary of Big Cypress Creek. Also found on the knoll were pieces of whiteware pottery, English blue transfer china, square nails, and glass fragments.

I contacted a local historian, Mr. Fred McKenzie, about the site. We walked over the site, which he had discovered several years ago. In the creek bottom, he pointed out an ...


Problems In The Preservation And Study Of Archaeological Metals In East Texas, Jay C. Blaine Jan 1993

Problems In The Preservation And Study Of Archaeological Metals In East Texas, Jay C. Blaine

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Dee Ann Story recently pointed out how little really is known about the archaeology of Texas Caddoan sites. Specifically, she notes how very few Caddoan sites have been systematically excavated and analyzed in Texas.

There has been some substantial effort in this direction recently as witnessed by the renewed investigations at the Sam Kaufman (Roitsch) site by the Texas Archeological Society and the Texas Historical Commission. However, it seems evident to some of us that while investigations of the prehistoric Caddoan archaeological data base has been less than adequate, our understanding of historic Caddoan groups remains even less satisfactory. In ...


Means Of Site Preservation In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 1993

Means Of Site Preservation In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Although thousands of archeological sites are destroyed annually in Texas, there are effective ways to preserve them using existing State and Federal laws and regulations. These are not simply paperwork exercised, since the tangible results help to insure that prehistoric and historic sites are preservedas a special trust for the benefit of Texas' future generations. I encourage all persons interested in protecting and preserving the heritage of Texas to be an advocate to public and private landowners about site preservation.

Rather than review in detail applicable State and Federal laws about site preservation, a summary paper has been distributed here ...


Data Recovery Efforts At The Millville Mill Site (41rk223), Rusk County, Texas, Eugene R. Foster Jr., Wayne Glander Jan 1993

Data Recovery Efforts At The Millville Mill Site (41rk223), Rusk County, Texas, Eugene R. Foster Jr., Wayne Glander

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In September 1993, data recovery efforts were undertaken by Espey, Huston & Associates, Inc. (EH&A) of Austin, Texas, to mitigate the effects of lignite mining on site 41RK223 in Texas Utilities Mining Company's Oak Hill/2280 Acre Mine permit area of north-central Rusk County, Texas. The data recovery efforts were planned and conducted in coordination with the Department of Antiquities Protection at the Texas Historical Commission (THC) and Mr. Matthew Tanner of TU Services. The site was originally recorded by EH&A during a 1989 survey of the Oak Hill/2280 Acre Mine permit area based on information received ...


Four Clovis Points From San Augustine County, Texas, Kenneth M. Brown Jan 1993

Four Clovis Points From San Augustine County, Texas, Kenneth M. Brown

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Four surface-collected Clovis points (two complete, two fragmentary) from the northeastern valley margin of the Angelina River in San Augustine County are described. One specimen is made from Manning fused glass and is the oldest artifact known to have been made of that rock type. The others appear to be made of chert from the Edwards Plateau.


Chipped Glass, Ceramics, And Axe Handles, Claude Mccrocklin Jan 1993

Chipped Glass, Ceramics, And Axe Handles, Claude Mccrocklin

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This is a brief paper on chipped glass and Euro-American ceramics found on Historic Indian sites in the ARK-LA-TEX region. These tools have long puzzled archaeologists as to their use, and still do to some extent today; hopefully this paper will clarify matters. Chipped and pressure-flaked glass was probably used differently from chipped ceramic tools, since the latter were softer and not as sharp as the bottle glass. As most of the chipped tools found were made of glass, this paper will deal primarily with them.


Vulnerability Of Archeological Sites In East Texas, James E. Corbin Jan 1993

Vulnerability Of Archeological Sites In East Texas, James E. Corbin

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

A discussion concerning the vulnerable archeological sites in East Texas, or anywhere for that matter, is a serious and complex one, primarily because all archaeological sites are vulnerable. Of course, it must be understood that it is the very nature of archaeological sites to be threatened with destruction.


Dental Paleopathologies In The Sanders Site (41lr2) Population From Lamar County, Texas, Diane Wilson Jan 1993

Dental Paleopathologies In The Sanders Site (41lr2) Population From Lamar County, Texas, Diane Wilson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Dental health, like skeletal health, reflects the natural and social environment, as well as genetics. This paper focuses on the results of stress on the teeth once they have erupted; stresses include chemical, mechanical, and pathogenic forces. These forces are primarily the result of dietary factors. The specific aspects of dental health examined in this paper are cariogenesis, dental attrition, antemortem tooth loss, and abscessing. These dental paleopathologies primarily reflect diet and food processing strategies.

Throughout the Americas, dental disorders have increased with the adoption of maize agriculture. Reliance on maize provides a sticky, carbohydraterich dietary staple that is favorable ...


A Two-Phase Or Tiered Caddo Mound At The Camp Joy Site (41ur144), Lake 0' The Pines, Mike Turner Jan 1993

A Two-Phase Or Tiered Caddo Mound At The Camp Joy Site (41ur144), Lake 0' The Pines, Mike Turner

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

As the United States expanded in the late eighteenth century and through most of the nineteenth century, much interest and question was raised over the increasing numbers of earthen mounds and earthen constructions encountered by the settlers moving westward across the southeastern woodlands. Mounds? Mound builders? Enough questions were raised about their origins that in 1881, the Division of Mound Exploration of the Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, was established to address and resolve these issues. The work of the Division of Mound Exploration can be considered the first "modern archeology" done in the United States. Their mound research covered ...


The West Island Site (41mxi65), Kevin King, Mike Turner Jan 1993

The West Island Site (41mxi65), Kevin King, Mike Turner

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This paper describes a set of artifacts collected from the West Island site, a poorly known Titus phase cemetery in Ellison Creek Reservoir. The site is on a small knoll adjacent to a small spring branch that flows into the now-inundated Ellison Creek, a tributary of Big Cypress Creek.

The site knoll is now no more than one foot (30 em) above the normal pool elevation of Ellison Creek Reservoir, and it is usually totally submerged. Up to five feet (1.52 meters) of white sand caps the knoll, and overlies the clay subsoil. Due to continued submergence, the knoll ...


Possible Archaeological Sites Within The City Limits Of Jefferson, Texas, Thomas E. Speir Jan 1993

Possible Archaeological Sites Within The City Limits Of Jefferson, Texas, Thomas E. Speir

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In 1992, the author accompanied a longtime resident of Jefferson on a tour of the city to examine historic and prehistoric sites within the city limits that might be of archaeological interest. He became aware of many of these sites over 20 years ago while growing up in the area. The condition of the sites has, of course, changed radically since that time. Enough information about the sites was revealed to indicate where it might be worthwhile in the future to do more extensive archaeological and historical research.

We began our tour at 12:00 noon on July 24, 1992 ...


Artifact Repatriation And Collection Documentation, Dan E. Mcgregor Jan 1993

Artifact Repatriation And Collection Documentation, Dan E. Mcgregor

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) became law in November 1990, giving Native Americans control over the disposition of human remains and certain artifacts with which they have "cultural affiliation". For East Texas, most Native American burials are unquestionably affiliated with the Caddo Tribe of Oklahoma. Implementation of NAGPRA will affect the archaeological data base for East Texas. Repatriation of human remains and associated artifacts to the Caddo Tribe will be required of most curation facilities with collections from this region. Under NAGPRA, future excavation and analysis of human remains and associated artifacts will become increasingly difficult ...


The Problem Of Site Looting In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 1993

The Problem Of Site Looting In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

It is likely that looting by treasure hunters and grave robbers has destroyed thousands of sites in East Texas. In the last 5 to 10 years, the vandalism and looting of archeological sites by commercial looters on private, state, and federal property has reached epidemic proportions. Undisturbed Caddoan Indian habitation sites and cemeteries, thought to date from about 1200 to 200 years B.P., are very vulnerable to disturbance and destruction by commercial collectors and looters. These folks are. destroying forever irreplaceable evidence about Texas' cultural heritage.

The looting and vandalism of Caddoan sites has been a persistent Texas problem ...