Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Other American Studies

2014

Articles 31 - 57 of 57

Full-Text Articles in Other History of Art, Architecture, and Archaeology

Peyoteism And The Origins Of Caddo Religious Thought, Robert Casr Jan 2014

Peyoteism And The Origins Of Caddo Religious Thought, Robert Casr

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Caddo Indians practiced a vibrant peyote religion long before John Wilson (Moonhead) or Quanah Parker re-ignited the Native American Church. Moreover, research has show the importance of the peyote plant to the Caddo long before any European contact. The peyote religion at the time of the Spanish mission in Texas was full of songs and dances in honor of one known today as (Aah-hi-u kuu-i'-ha) or Father Above, translated to mean home where God lives. Although Swanton proposes that the Hasinai medicine men used peyote "at the beginning of the eighteenth century" (a reference to Friar Hidalgo's ...


A Catalog Of Selected Caddo Ceramic Vessels In The Buddy Jones Collection At The Gregg County Historical Museum, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr., Bo Nelson Jan 2014

A Catalog Of Selected Caddo Ceramic Vessels In The Buddy Jones Collection At The Gregg County Historical Museum, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr., Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This publications presents information and images of 420 Caddo ceramic vessels from several different parts of East Texas. These vessels are in the Buddy Calvin Jones collection at the Gregg County Historical Museum (GCHM) in Longview, Texas. They represent unassociated funerary objects under the provisions of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Our purpose in producing this publication is to make this information available to those in the professional and avocational archaeological community with a serious interest in the native history of the Caddo Indian peoples; as well as to the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma; and to ...


Burned Rock Mounds In North-Central And Northeastern Oklahoma, Robert L. Brooks Jan 2014

Burned Rock Mounds In North-Central And Northeastern Oklahoma, Robert L. Brooks

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Burned rock mounds haven been identified in Oklahoma since the early twentieth century. The Oklahoma River Basin Survey pioneered the study of these features of the cultural landscape in the 1960's- 1970's; however, little research has taken place since that time. This paper reports on the history of research pertaining to burned rock mound features, examines their distribution on the cultural landscape and their construction, analyzes the artifact content of the mounds, and presents some thoughts on the purpose of mound construction and use


Towards A Common Understanding: A Revision Of Forurche Maline Chronology In Oklahoma, Luther J. Leith Jan 2014

Towards A Common Understanding: A Revision Of Forurche Maline Chronology In Oklahoma, Luther J. Leith

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Answering the question of what Fourche Maline is has long been hampered by lack of consensus on the terminology and chronology within the ancestral Caddoan area of the four corners area of southeast Oklahoma, southwest Arkansas, northeast Texas and northwest Louisiana. To address this problem an evolution of the Oklahoma concept of Fourche Maline is presented, and developing a new chronology based on seriation of temporally sensitive artifact categories is discussed. It is concluded that Fourche Maline is a solely Woodland period culture, with a chronology that makes identifying changes over time possible. This conclusion will facilitate the understanding of ...


The Late Paleoindian Occupation Of The Western Ouachita Mountains Of Southeast Oklahoma: The Archaeology Of Component V At The Quince Site (34at134), Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2014

The Late Paleoindian Occupation Of The Western Ouachita Mountains Of Southeast Oklahoma: The Archaeology Of Component V At The Quince Site (34at134), Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Quince site (34AT134) is a well-preserved and relatively deeply stratified Ouachita Mountains archaeological site in Atoka County in southeastern Oklahoma. The site’s archaeological deposits are buried in Late Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial terrace deposits of McGee Creek, a tributary to Muddy Boggy Creek, itself a southern-flowing tributary to the Red River, that cuts through the western edge of the mountains.

Excavated in 1982 and 1983 prior to the creation of McGee Creek Reservoir by the Bureau of Reclamation, the 3.0 m deep archaeological deposits at the Quince site contained a record of prehistoric occupations spanning most of ...


Documentation Of Late Caddo Period Ceramic Vessels From Sites In The Lake Fork Creek Basin In Wood County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bob D. Skiles Jan 2014

Documentation Of Late Caddo Period Ceramic Vessels From Sites In The Lake Fork Creek Basin In Wood County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bob D. Skiles

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In this article we document 18 ceramic vessels from three ancestral Caddo sites with cemeteries in the Lake Fork Creek basin in Wood County, Texas. Each site has a Late Caddo period Titus phase (ca. A.D. 1430-1680) component.


Ancestral Caddo Ceramics In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr. Jan 2014

Ancestral Caddo Ceramics In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr.

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The most distinctive material culture item of the ancestral Caddo groups that lived in East Texas from ca. A.D. 900 to the 1830s were the ceramics they manufactured primarily for cooking, storage, and serving needs. The decorative styles and vessels forms of the ceramics found at sites in the region hint at the variety, temporal span, and geographic extent of a number of ancestral Caddo groups that lived in this area. The diversity in decoration and shape of Caddo ceramics is considerable, both in the utility ware jars and bowls, as well as in the fine ware bottles, carinated ...


Caddo Ceramic Vessels From The Mcspadden Site, Robert Z. Selden Jr. Jan 2014

Caddo Ceramic Vessels From The Mcspadden Site, Robert Z. Selden Jr.

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The McSpadden site (unrecorded and with no site trinomial) is located on the outskirts of Frankston, Texas, in Anderson County, where three Caddo vessels were recovered during the construction of a local roadway during the early 1950s. These vessels are currently curated in a private collection in College Station, Texas. All come from the same small area, and based upon their stylistic character and vessel forms, appear to date to the Late Caddo period (ca. A.D. 1400-1650) in this part of East Texas.


New Radiocarbon Dates From The Shelby Mound Site (41cp71) On Greasy Creek In The Big Cypress Creek Basin Of East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr. Jan 2014

New Radiocarbon Dates From The Shelby Mound Site (41cp71) On Greasy Creek In The Big Cypress Creek Basin Of East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr.

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Six new radiocarbon dates have been obtained from the Shelby Mound site (41CP71) in the Big Cypress Creek basin in East Texas. They are on charred organic remains—corn cupules and glumes and Hickory (Carya sp.) nutshell—identified in several levels in and immediately below the mound deposits.

The Shelby Mound site on Greasy Creek is the social and political center of an ancestral Caddo Greasy Creek political community. It stretches for several hundred meters along Greasy Creek and a small tributary, with an earthen mound at the northern end of the village and a large cemetery at its southern ...


Renewed Archaeological Investigations At The Sanders Site (41lr2), Lamar County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Mark Walters Jan 2014

Renewed Archaeological Investigations At The Sanders Site (41lr2), Lamar County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Mark Walters

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

At the request of one of the landowners, Ms. Julia Crawford, renewed archaeological investigations took place at the renowned Sanders site (41LR2) in November 2013. These investigations consisted solely of a pedestrian survey of the main part of the Sanders site—the location of two ancestral Caddo earthen mounds and associated habitation deposits—on a broad alluvial terrace (450 ft. amsl) of the Red River, in conjunction with a surface collection of observed material culture remains. Other recent archaeological investigations at the Sanders site have taken place more than ca. 400 m south of the main part of the site ...


The Joe M. Smith Collection From The Roseborough Lake Site (41bw5), Bowie County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2014

The Joe M. Smith Collection From The Roseborough Lake Site (41bw5), Bowie County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Joe M. Smith collection is held by the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory at The University of Texas at Austin. It appears to have been given by Mr. Smith to A. T. Jackson in the early 1930s, around the time of The University of Texas excavations at the nearby Eli Moores site (41BW2). The collection is said to have come from the Rochelle Plantation, which is an earlier name for the Roseborough Lake site (41BW5). The Roseborough Lake site is on an old meander of the Red River “that was cut off in 1872 and named Roseborough Lake." It lies ...


Analysis Of The Hardin A Site (41gg69) Faunal Remains, Leeanna Schniebs Jan 2014

Analysis Of The Hardin A Site (41gg69) Faunal Remains, Leeanna Schniebs

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The excavation of the Hardin A site (41GG69), a late 14th to early 15th century A.D. period Caddo site in Gregg County, Texas, yielded 495 faunal specimens. This sum includes all bone fragments, and pieces of antler and turtle shell. Total weight of the assemblage is 266.6 grams. Faunal material was recovered from 15 levels in a single 1 x 2 m unit comprised of a midden deposit and feature fill. The remainder of the article discuss the methods employed in the faunal analysis, results of taxonomic identification and quantification, and the distribution of these remains.


Freshwater Mussel Shells: A Status Symbol At The Roitsch/ Williams Sites In Red River County, Texas?, Jesse Todd Jan 2014

Freshwater Mussel Shells: A Status Symbol At The Roitsch/ Williams Sites In Red River County, Texas?, Jesse Todd

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Upon examining unmodified bone and shell from the Sanders site (41LR2), the Dan Holdeman site (41RR11), the Roitsch site (41RR16), the Bob Williams portion of the Roitsch site (41RR16), the Rowland Clark site (41RR77), and the Roden site (34Mc215), which are located in the Middle Red River Valley of Texas and Oklahoma, freshwater mussel shells were more apparent as burial furniture at the Roitsch and Bob Williams site than any other of the above mentioned sites.


Additional Artifact Collections From The Gardener Site (41cp55), Camp County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson Jan 2014

Additional Artifact Collections From The Gardener Site (41cp55), Camp County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Gardener site (41CP55) was first recorded by Sullivan (1977) prior to construction of Lake Bob Sandlin on Big Cypress Creek. A surface collection of sherds and daub suggested that the site was the locus of a Late Caddo period (ca. A.D. 1450-1680) settlement and burned house. However, no further archaeological work was done at the site before it was inundated by Lake Bob Sandlin in the late 1970s.

Recently, because of lower flood pool levels (about 9 ft. below normal flood pool) at Lake Bob Sandlin due to East Texas drought conditions, archaeological materials from the Gardener site ...


41sm53 (P-4) On Prairie Creek, Smith County, Texas, Mark Walters, Timothy Perttula Jan 2014

41sm53 (P-4) On Prairie Creek, Smith County, Texas, Mark Walters, Timothy Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In February 1957, Sam Whiteside of Smith County, Texas, excavated a burial at 41SM53. This site was designated P-4 in Mr. Whiteside’s notes and it was one of several Caddo sites along Prairie Creek in the upper Sabine River basin that he investigated to varying degrees in the 1950s and 1960s. As an a vocational archeologist Mr. Whiteside made many important contributions to East Texas archeology. Dr. Dee Ann Story, of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory at The University of Texas at Austin, who corresponded with Mr. Whiteside, later obtained the trinomial 41SM53 for the site.


Caddo Ceramic Vessels From The Loftis And Pearl Smith Sites In Harrison County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson Jan 2014

Caddo Ceramic Vessels From The Loftis And Pearl Smith Sites In Harrison County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Loftis (HC-53) and Pearl Smith (HC-60) sites are ancestral Caddo sites that were investigated by Buddy Jones, probably in 1960, but those investigations were never published by Jones. The sites are along Clarks Creek in the Sabine River basin in southwestern Harrison County in East Texas; Loftis is about 3 km north of the Pearl Smith site. Jones excavated Caddo burials from both sites, and also conducted limited investigations in Caddo habitation deposits at the Loftis site.

There are two vessels from the Loftis site and one vessel from the Pearl Smith site in the Buddy Jones collection at ...


Archaeological Investigations At The Wade (Gc-38) And Estes (Gc-49) Sites In The Sabine River Basin, Gregg County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr., Bo Nelson Jan 2014

Archaeological Investigations At The Wade (Gc-38) And Estes (Gc-49) Sites In The Sabine River Basin, Gregg County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr., Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Buddy C. Jones conducted extensive archaeological investigations in the 1950s and 1960s at many sites in the mid-Sabine River basin of East Texas, especially on Caddo sites of various ages in Gregg, Harrison, and Rusk counties. However, that work has not illuminated our understanding of the archaeology of the Caddo Indian peoples that lived along this stretch of the Sabine River as much as it could have, primarily because little of the work completed by Jones was ever published, or the results and findings shared with professional and avocational archaeological colleagues working in the region. The Caddo archaeology of the ...


A Woodland Period Ceramic Assemblage From Rabbit Creek In The Sabine River Basin, Gregg County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2014

A Woodland Period Ceramic Assemblage From Rabbit Creek In The Sabine River Basin, Gregg County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The GC-123 site was located and investigated by Buddy C. Jones during his years of archaeological work and surface collecting at numerous aboriginal sites in the mid-Sabine River basin in East Texas. The site is in south-central Gregg County, on Rabbit Creek (a northern-flowing tributary to the Sabine River), but only a few miles from the Sabine River valley.

The site is notable for its ceramic sherd assemblage. Based on characteristics of Woodland period ceramics from the mid-Sabine River basin, including sites such as 41HS231 and 41RK562 (see Dockall and Fields 2011; Dockall et al. 2008), Hawkwind (41HS915), Folly (41RK26 ...


The Ceramic Sherd Assemblage From The Boatstone Site In Gregg County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2014

The Ceramic Sherd Assemblage From The Boatstone Site In Gregg County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Boatstone site (GC-50 in Buddy Jones' site numbering system) is one of many Caddo sites that Buddy Jones investigated along the Sabine River and its tributaries in the Longview, Texas, area. In most cases, his investigations at the sites consisted of the surface collection of ceramic and lithic artifacts, and only in rare cases did Jones complete analyses or publications on his investigations. This article discusses the ancestral Caddo ceramic assemblage from the Boatstone site, which is situated near the confluence of Iron Bridge Creek and the Sabine River in southeastern Gregg County in the East Texas Pineywoods. This ...


Documentation Of Ceramic Vessels And Projectile Points From The C. D. Marsh Site (41hs269) In The Sabine River Basin, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden, Bo Nelson Jan 2014

Documentation Of Ceramic Vessels And Projectile Points From The C. D. Marsh Site (41hs269) In The Sabine River Basin, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

A total of at least eight Caddo burials were excavated at the C. D. Marsh site on Eight Mile Creek, a southward-flowing tributary to the Sabine River, by Buddy C. Jones in 1959-1960. This includes Burial 1, an historic (dating after ca. A.D. 1685) Nadaco Caddo burial; European trade goods found with this burial include two small silver disks. The other burials (Burials 2-8) are part of an earlier Caddo cemetery that is thought to be associated with the ca. A.D. 1350-17th century Pine Tree Mound community along the Sabine River and its tributaries. Jones suggests that these ...


The Clay Ball Site In The Upper Neches River Basin Of East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson Jan 2014

The Clay Ball Site In The Upper Neches River Basin Of East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Clay Ball site is an ancestral Caddo site believed to be located in the upper Neches River basin in East Texas. The site is notable for its series of small, square vessels with Frankston phase (ca. A.D. 1400- 1650) engraved motifs, as such vessel forms have not been previously documented in studies of Frankston or later Allen phase (ca. A.D. 1650-1830) vessel assemblages.

The unique ceramic vessels from the site were excavated by Buddy C. Jones, and although his main site collecting and excavation work was in the mid-Sabine River basin, he did excavate several sites in ...


Glass Beads From Kinsloe Focus Sites In Gregg, Harrison, And Rusk Counties, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr. Jan 2014

Glass Beads From Kinsloe Focus Sites In Gregg, Harrison, And Rusk Counties, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr.

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

European glass beads are one of the most common artifact categories found on historic Caddo sites in the middle reaches of the Sabine River basin in East Texas on what Jones had dubbed Kinsloe focus sites. Several thousands beads were found by Jones in his investigation of burial features at these sites, along with other European trade goods and Caddo ceramic vessels, pipes, and chipped stone tools.

In Jones’ description of the beads from the Kinsloe focus sites, he relied on the analytical and chronological interpretations of John Witthoft, then of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, although he did ...


The Millsey Williamson (41rk3), Bead Burial, And L. N. Morwell Farm Sites On Martin Creek: Historic Caddo Settlements Along Trammels Trace, Rusk County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson Jan 2014

The Millsey Williamson (41rk3), Bead Burial, And L. N. Morwell Farm Sites On Martin Creek: Historic Caddo Settlements Along Trammels Trace, Rusk County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

There are collections of ceramic vessels and other artifacts from the Millsey Williamson (41RK3), Bead Burial, and L. N. Morwell sites in the Buddy Jones collection at the Gregg County Historical Museum. The purpose of this article is to put the documentation of these collections on record, as this documentation provides previously unavailable detailed information on the material content of probable 18th century Nadaco Caddo/Kinsloe phase historic sites in East Texas.

Based on the limited available information from the Bead Burial and L. N. Morwell Farm sites, it is probable that all three sites are different names for the ...


Glade Creek At Oil Lease Grave Site, Gregg County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2014

Glade Creek At Oil Lease Grave Site, Gregg County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Glade Creek at Oil Lease Grave site is reported by Buddy C. Jones to have been a large Caddo cemetery that was found and excavated by a Mr. C. W. Bailey sometime before 1954. Jones labeled the site as GC-23 in his site recording system. As far as can be determined from the available notes, the site was located on Glade Creek, a small spring-fed stream that is a tributary to Witcher Creek, in the Little Cypress Creek basin in the northern part of Gregg County, Texas, in the East Texas Pineywoods.

A single ceramic vessel from the site ...


A Whole Vessel From The Henry Brown #2 Site (41hs262), A Historic Nadaco Caddo Site In Harrison County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson Jan 2014

A Whole Vessel From The Henry Brown #2 Site (41hs262), A Historic Nadaco Caddo Site In Harrison County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Henry Brown #2 site is a poorly known Historic Caddo site (dating after ca. A.D. 1685) affiliated with the Nadaco Caddo on Potters Creek in Harrison County, Texas. It is a cemetery site located about 0.5 miles from the J. O. and Henry Brown (or Brown #1) site (41HS261), another Historic Caddo cemetery. A single fragmentary ceramic vessel from the Henry Brown #2 site has been identified in the collections of the Gregg County Historical Museum in Longview, Texas, and we recently documented this vessel in July 2013.


Temporal Dynamics Of East Texas Caddo Sites With Nine Or Fewer Radiocarbon Dates, Robert Z. Selden Jr. Jan 2014

Temporal Dynamics Of East Texas Caddo Sites With Nine Or Fewer Radiocarbon Dates, Robert Z. Selden Jr.

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This article presents the specifics from the date combination process, and the subsequent production of summed probability distributions for radiocarbon (14C) assays from Caddo sites in East Texas. All 14C dates employed in this effort were collected from research and cultural resource management (CRM) reports and publications, were synthesized, and then recalibrated in version 4.2.2 of OxCal using IntCal09. These data are meant to augment those from previous analyses of radiocarbon samples from East Texas Caddo sites, assisting in refining these ideas further.


The Horton Site (41cp16) On Big Cypress Creek In The East Texas Pineywoods, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2014

The Horton Site (41cp16) On Big Cypress Creek In The East Texas Pineywoods, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Horton site (41CP16) is primarily a Late Paleoindian (ca. 10,000 years B.P.) to ancestral Caddo site (ca. post-A.D. 800), although there is a small mid-19th-early 20th century component as well. This site is on an upland slope (320-350 ft. amsl) that once overlooked the Big Cypress Creek floodplain; the channel of the creek was ca. 100 m north from the site. The site is currently under the waters of Lake Bob Sandlin. Robert L. Turner, Jr. surface collected the site during the 1950s and 1960s, and the study of this substantial artifact assemblage is the subject ...