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Other American Studies

2012

Archaeology

Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Other History of Art, Architecture, and Archaeology

Three Mounds Creek Site, Gregg County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

Three Mounds Creek Site, Gregg County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

One of the prehistoric Caddo sites represented in the Buddy Calvin Jones Collections at the Gregg County Historical Museum (GCHM) is the Three Mounds Creek site in Gregg County, in East Texas. The site is GC-68 in the Jones site numbering system (68th site he discovered in Gregg County).

The available information about the site in the GCHM records is sketchy at best. The site had three mounds along Spring Creek, near its confluence with the Sabine River, in the Longview area. A search of Gregg County 7.5' USGS topographic quadrangles failed to disclose a Spring Creek in the ...


Artifacts In The Raymond Powell Collection From East Texas, Jeffery S. Girard, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

Artifacts In The Raymond Powell Collection From East Texas, Jeffery S. Girard, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In March 2010, Raymond Powell of Mansfield, Louisiana, allowed the examination and photographic documentation of several artifacts in his possession. The specimens were given to him approximately 60 years ago by a friend who reportedly excavated them from a burial located in either Cass County or Titus County in East Texas. The collection consists of six ceramic vessels and three stone artifacts. The vessels appear to relate to both the Late Caddo Titus phase (ca. A.D. 1430-1680) as well as to contemporaneous sites in Bowie and Cass counties on the Red River near the Great Bend area, and the ...


The Buckner Dam Site (41ce339) And Four Other Caddo Sites On Gum Creek In The Upper Neches River Basin, Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Mark Walters Jan 2012

The Buckner Dam Site (41ce339) And Four Other Caddo Sites On Gum Creek In The Upper Neches River Basin, Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Mark Walters

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Due to recent droughty conditions in East Texas in 2010 and 2011, the water levels on the man-made lakes and reservoirs in the region have been steadily lowering. This decreasing water levels is exposing considerable areas along the lakes that not only have been underwater for considerable periods of time since the lakes were constructed, but this new land exposure is also exposing and eroding archaeological sites that are now along the new lake shore boundaries. Such is the case at Lake Jacksonville, a small lake on Gum Creek in Cherokee County, Texas, and newly recorded archaeological sites have been ...


Documentation Of Archaeological Materials From The Cherokee Lake Site (41rk132), Rusk County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

Documentation Of Archaeological Materials From The Cherokee Lake Site (41rk132), Rusk County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Cherokee Lake site was discovered by Buddy Calvin Jones in 1956, after a terrace area along Tiawichi Creek, inundated by the construction of Lake Cherokee in 1947, had been graded for the constmction of fish hatcheries there. Jones identified a single burial and a large storage pit in Area A at the southern end of the terrace, where there was a shallow (0-30 em bs) midden deposit.

The burial in Area A is an Historic Nadaco Caddo grave that probably dates to the early 18th century based on the recovery of 15 blue glass beads. This strand of beads ...


The Younger Site (41mr6), Marion County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson Jan 2012

The Younger Site (41mr6), Marion County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Younger site (41MR6) is located on a lower toe slope (250ft. amsl) and alluvial terrace in the Arms Creek or Patton Creek valley at Lake 0' the Pines. Arms Creek is an eastward-flowing tributary to Big Cypress Creek. At normal pool levels the Younger site is now under the waters of Lake 0' the Pines.

When the site was first recorded by E. 0. Miller of the National Park Service in 1951, it was named the D. M. Collom site. The site was estimated to cover 6-8 acres, and was marked by several areas of bare ground where Caddo ...


A Hematite Cone From Smith County, Texas, Mark Walters Jan 2012

A Hematite Cone From Smith County, Texas, Mark Walters

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Hematite (Fe2O3) is a mineral, its most important usage being iron ore. In the United States, hematite occurs over a large region with a major concentration in the central part of the country. Hematite has varying degrees of hardness and colors. Hematite gives rocks their red color and characteristic “red-streak.” Soft, earthy (red ocher) forms were prized as paints. Hard, compact forms with considerable iron content were valued as tools, because of their strength as well as susceptibility to a high and beautiful polish. Certain forms of hematite are used in making jewelry. During prehistoric times, hematite was fashioned and ...


Trends In Archaic And Woodland Period Use Of The Middle Sabine River Basin Based On Dart Point Proportions, Timothy K. Perttula, William L. Young Jan 2012

Trends In Archaic And Woodland Period Use Of The Middle Sabine River Basin Based On Dart Point Proportions, Timothy K. Perttula, William L. Young

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In this article, we use the varying proportions of a large sample of Archaic and Woodland period dart points to explore trends in settlement and occupational intensity from ca. 10,000 to 1200 years B.P. in the Pineywoods and Post Oak Savannah of East Texas. These darts were collected from sites in Gregg, Harrison, Rusk, and Smith counties, Texas, mainly on sites in the middle reaches of the Sabine River basin.


Analysis Of Ceramic Sherds From The Mid-18th Century Gilbert Site On Lake Fork Creek, Rains County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

Analysis Of Ceramic Sherds From The Mid-18th Century Gilbert Site On Lake Fork Creek, Rains County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Gilbert site (41RA13) is an important mid-18th century American Indian site on an alluvial terrace along Lake Fork Creek, adjacent to the upper part of Lake Fork Reservoir in Rains County, Texas. The site was first investigated in 1962 by the Dallas Archeological Society, and based on the findings from that work, the Texas Archeological Society (TAS) had a field school at the site in June and July 1962.

There are several notable features of the Gilbert site. First, it contains 21 midden mounds about 6-9 m in diameter and ca. 1 m in height spread out over ca ...


Early 1960s Excavations At The Sam Kaufman Site (41rr16), Red River County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson Jan 2012

Early 1960s Excavations At The Sam Kaufman Site (41rr16), Red River County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Sam Kaufman site (41RR6, also known as the Arnold Roitsch site for a time) is a well-known Caddo Indian village along Mound Prairie and the Red River in Red River County, Texas. There have been a number of reported archaeological investigations, as well as bioarchaeological studies, at the site, and at other nearby sites since the 1930s.

This article reports on previously unknown investigations conducted by Buddy Calvin Jones in December 1961 through January 1962 at the Sam Kaufman site. His notes on the work-which primarily consist of burial plan drawings and a map or two-have recently been provided ...


Little Cypress Creek Basin Archaeology: Six Late Caddo Period Cemeteries In Upshur County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson Jan 2012

Little Cypress Creek Basin Archaeology: Six Late Caddo Period Cemeteries In Upshur County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Our concern in this report is to present the archaeological findings from six Late Caddo (ca. A.D. 1450-1680) cemetery sites in the Little Cypress Creek basin in Upshur County, in East Texas. These are the Enis Smith (41 UR317), Henry Williams (41UR318), I. P. Starr (41 UR319), Herbert Taft (41 UR320), Frank Smith (41 UR326), and Frank Smith Refinery (41 UR327) sites. There are two other large Late Caddo cemeteries in this same area that will also be discussed herein: Henry Spencer (41 UR315, Perttula et al. 2012) and the Sword site (41 UR8/208).

These sites represent a ...


The Wa'akas Site (41cp490) At Lake Bob Sandlin, Camp County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson Jan 2012

The Wa'akas Site (41cp490) At Lake Bob Sandlin, Camp County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Wa'akas site (meaning Cow in the Caddo language) is located on a small toe slope (330ft. amsl) overlooking a small and unnamed tributary to Big Cypress Creek. The channel of Big Cypress Creek lies about 1 km to the north. The toe slope landform is normally inundated by the waters of Lake Bob Sandlin but became exposed during an episode of lowered water levels (about LO feet below the normal pool elevation of 337ft. amsl) at the lake due to drought conditions from late 2005 to early 2007. A large number of prehistoric artifacts were exposed on the ...


Additional Lake Bob Sandlin Sites With Documented Collections Of Prehistoric Lithic And Ceramic Artifacts, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Patti Haskins Jan 2012

Additional Lake Bob Sandlin Sites With Documented Collections Of Prehistoric Lithic And Ceramic Artifacts, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Patti Haskins

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This is the third in a series of publications that concern the documentation of prehistoric artifact-collections from sites found along the shoreline of Lake Bob Sandlin in the Big Cypress Creek basin of East Texas. These documentation efforts have demonstrated that sites at the lake have diverse temporal and spatial patterns, with an intensive Caddo occupation from the Middle (ca. A.D. 1200-1425) to Late Caddo (ca. A.D. 1430-1680) periods.


The Marcus Kolb Site (41ce438), Cherokee County, Texas, Part 2, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

The Marcus Kolb Site (41ce438), Cherokee County, Texas, Part 2, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Marcus Kolb site is an early to mid-19th century occupation on an upland ridge adjacent to an intemiittent tributary of Gum Creek in the upper Neches River basin in East Texas. The recovered artifacts from the site, especially black transfer-printed pearl ware sherds, a worked stoneware sherd, and possibly a cut and crimped copper-based artifact, suggested that the site could have been occupied as early as the 1820s-early 1830s, during the time when this part of East Texas was occupied by the Cherokee. The tantalizing possibility of a Cherokee Indian occupation is negated to some extent by the chronological ...


Documentation Of A Collection From The Poole Site (41tt47) In The Big Cypress Creek Basin In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

Documentation Of A Collection From The Poole Site (41tt47) In The Big Cypress Creek Basin In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Poole site (41TT47) is about 2.5 miles south of Mt. Pleasant, and is now situated within the Mount Pleasant Wastewater Treatment Plant. The site was originally recorded by Milton Bell and Ken Brown in 1971 , who described it as "a thin scatter of artifacts, bone fragments, and charcoal necks brought to surface on gopher hills." The site was estimated at ca. 50 x 50 m in size; the artifacts "occurred mostly at the south side of the site. A metate was found in the center of the darker area. Wood charcoal flecks may be from more recent clearing ...


Stable Isotope Analysis From A Burial At The Pipe Site (41an67) In Anderson County, Texas, Diane Wilson, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters Jan 2012

Stable Isotope Analysis From A Burial At The Pipe Site (41an67) In Anderson County, Texas, Diane Wilson, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In this article, we present the findings of stable isotope analysis (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) from an analysis of human remains from a burial at the Pipe site (41AN67). The Pipe site is a late 15th-mid-16th century Caddo settlement and cemetery in the Lake Palestine area in the upper Neches River basin in East Texas that was investigated by Buddy Calvin Jones in 1968 and Southern Methodlst University in 1969.