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Other American Studies

2012

Articles 1 - 26 of 26

Full-Text Articles in Other History of Art, Architecture, and Archaeology

July 1, 1835: What Did The Caddo Believe They Were Selling, And Was The Price Paid Fair?, Jim Tiller, Gang Gong Jan 2012

July 1, 1835: What Did The Caddo Believe They Were Selling, And Was The Price Paid Fair?, Jim Tiller, Gang Gong

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Most Caddo scholars interested in the tribe’s last years in Louisiana would probably agree that the above questions are largely settled business. The authors, both geographers, would tend to concur that a consensus has probably been reached on these questions; however, those with a desire to get at the truth of the matter might want to at least consider the array of archival documentation that paints a somewhat different picture of this aspect of the land cession. In the pages that follow, a case will be presented that, from the Caddo perspective of the mid-1830s, the tribe knew exactly ...


Three Mounds Creek Site, Gregg County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

Three Mounds Creek Site, Gregg County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

One of the prehistoric Caddo sites represented in the Buddy Calvin Jones Collections at the Gregg County Historical Museum (GCHM) is the Three Mounds Creek site in Gregg County, in East Texas. The site is GC-68 in the Jones site numbering system (68th site he discovered in Gregg County).

The available information about the site in the GCHM records is sketchy at best. The site had three mounds along Spring Creek, near its confluence with the Sabine River, in the Longview area. A search of Gregg County 7.5' USGS topographic quadrangles failed to disclose a Spring Creek in the ...


Artifacts In The Raymond Powell Collection From East Texas, Jeffery S. Girard, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

Artifacts In The Raymond Powell Collection From East Texas, Jeffery S. Girard, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In March 2010, Raymond Powell of Mansfield, Louisiana, allowed the examination and photographic documentation of several artifacts in his possession. The specimens were given to him approximately 60 years ago by a friend who reportedly excavated them from a burial located in either Cass County or Titus County in East Texas. The collection consists of six ceramic vessels and three stone artifacts. The vessels appear to relate to both the Late Caddo Titus phase (ca. A.D. 1430-1680) as well as to contemporaneous sites in Bowie and Cass counties on the Red River near the Great Bend area, and the ...


The Buckner Dam Site (41ce339) And Four Other Caddo Sites On Gum Creek In The Upper Neches River Basin, Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Mark Walters Jan 2012

The Buckner Dam Site (41ce339) And Four Other Caddo Sites On Gum Creek In The Upper Neches River Basin, Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Mark Walters

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Due to recent droughty conditions in East Texas in 2010 and 2011, the water levels on the man-made lakes and reservoirs in the region have been steadily lowering. This decreasing water levels is exposing considerable areas along the lakes that not only have been underwater for considerable periods of time since the lakes were constructed, but this new land exposure is also exposing and eroding archaeological sites that are now along the new lake shore boundaries. Such is the case at Lake Jacksonville, a small lake on Gum Creek in Cherokee County, Texas, and newly recorded archaeological sites have been ...


Caddo Sites In The Saline Creek Basin In Northern Smith County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters Jan 2012

Caddo Sites In The Saline Creek Basin In Northern Smith County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This article concerns the documentation of the artifacts from four prehistoric Caddo sites in the Saline Creek drainage basin in the Post Oak Savannah in northern Smith County, Texas. Saline Creek is a northward-flowing tributary to the Sabine River. The Caddo sites are ca. 10 km south of the confluence of Saline Creek with the Sabine River. Saline Creek enters into the Sabine River about 6 km east (downstream) of the confluence of a major tributary, Lake Fork Creek, with the river.


Caddo Pottery In Modern And Contemporary Art And Protection Of Native American Cultures In Fine Arts By The Iacb’S Indian Arts And Crafts Act, Chase K. Earls Jan 2012

Caddo Pottery In Modern And Contemporary Art And Protection Of Native American Cultures In Fine Arts By The Iacb’S Indian Arts And Crafts Act, Chase K. Earls

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Hello, my name is Chase Kawinhut Earles. I was named by Julia Edge, daughter of Pauline Washington, who was the granddaughter of the Caddo chief, George Washington. I recently, well, not that very long ago started creating Caddo pottery with the much appreciated guidance from Jeri Redcorn. I have been an artist all my life, but mostly only a painter, not much clay, sculpture or pottery. I was inspired to create pottery though, but my experiences were with the Southwest and the Pueblo artists, as this is what I grew up around and what I learned. But I never started ...


Documentation Of Archaeological Materials From The Cherokee Lake Site (41rk132), Rusk County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

Documentation Of Archaeological Materials From The Cherokee Lake Site (41rk132), Rusk County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Cherokee Lake site was discovered by Buddy Calvin Jones in 1956, after a terrace area along Tiawichi Creek, inundated by the construction of Lake Cherokee in 1947, had been graded for the constmction of fish hatcheries there. Jones identified a single burial and a large storage pit in Area A at the southern end of the terrace, where there was a shallow (0-30 em bs) midden deposit.

The burial in Area A is an Historic Nadaco Caddo grave that probably dates to the early 18th century based on the recovery of 15 blue glass beads. This strand of beads ...


Certain Caddo Sites On Stone Chimney Creek, Cherokee County, Texas, Mark Walters, Timothy K. Perttula, Leeanna Schniebs Jan 2012

Certain Caddo Sites On Stone Chimney Creek, Cherokee County, Texas, Mark Walters, Timothy K. Perttula, Leeanna Schniebs

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Limited archaeological investigations coupled with private landowner’s surface collections on Stone Chimney Creek in northwestern Cherokee County, Texas has resulted in the recording of nine new Caddo sites, several of which appear to have been occupied after ca. A.D. 1650 in the Allen phase. The landowner had collected artifacts on his farm and contacted the Texas Historical Commission (THC) about getting information about them, who in turn contacted the author, a member of the Texas Archeological Stewardship Network. The landowner was interested in learning more about the native inhabitants who had once called this portion of Stone Chimney ...


The Killdeer Site (41sm379): A Middle Caddo Site In Northern Smith County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters Jan 2012

The Killdeer Site (41sm379): A Middle Caddo Site In Northern Smith County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Killdeer site was reported in July 2007 by Mark Walters, based on a surface reconnaissance of the site area and a small surface collection of artifacts, primarily prehistoric Caddo pottery sherds. The site is situated on a lower upland slope (410 feet amsl) about 190m northeast of Loves Branch, a small stream in the Harris Creek drainage in the Sabine River basin. Soils are a Redsprings very gravelly sandy loam, 8-25% slopes. Darkly-stained sediments and burned animal bone suggest that there is a Caddo midden deposit at the northern end of the site.


Watershed Times For The Caddo Peoples Of The Far Southeast, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

Watershed Times For The Caddo Peoples Of The Far Southeast, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

A.D. 1450 was a watershed year in the native history of the Caddo Indian peoples of the Far Southeast (southwest Arkansas, northwest Louisiana, eastern Oklahoma, and eastern Texas). For the first time, recognizable and relatively geographically coherent socio-political polities in several areas can be identified that arose out of the distinctive archaeological traditions of the Caddo area that first are recognizable about A.D. 900. These new Caddo polities that came into existence at ca. A.D. 1450 apparently lasted until at least A.D. 1680, if not later, but did not survive sustained European contact with the same ...


The Pickett Switch Site (34pn1) And The Presence Of Arkansas River Basin Caddoans In East Central Oklahoma, Robert L. Brooks Jan 2012

The Pickett Switch Site (34pn1) And The Presence Of Arkansas River Basin Caddoans In East Central Oklahoma, Robert L. Brooks

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The expansion of Arkansas River Basin Caddoans westward along the Canadian River remains an intriguing subject of study. This paper examines the presence of Caddoans living in the Ada vicinity, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma. The focus is on the Pickett Switch site excavated by Herbert Antle from 1930-1934. This paper examines the work of Herbert Antle, the history of his excavations as well as others at the Pickett Switch site, and describes a collection from the Pickett Switch site at the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History. Concluding comments continue to seek refinement in our understanding of the settlement practices ...


M. R. Harrington And The Lost Mound In Hempstead County, Arkansas, Duncan P. Mckinnon Jan 2012

M. R. Harrington And The Lost Mound In Hempstead County, Arkansas, Duncan P. Mckinnon

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In the early months of 1916, Mark R. Harrington, under the auspices of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, visited a mound site at the Battle Farm in Hempstead County, Arkansas. Harrington describes the location of the Hempstead County mound being three miles west of Fulton “on the brink of a low terrace of the Red river bottoms, perhaps half a mile north of that stream and a quarter of a mile east of Little River, which empties into the Red at this point.” Using historical maps and archaeological site reports, this paper explores the area around the ...


The Younger Site (41mr6), Marion County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson Jan 2012

The Younger Site (41mr6), Marion County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Younger site (41MR6) is located on a lower toe slope (250ft. amsl) and alluvial terrace in the Arms Creek or Patton Creek valley at Lake 0' the Pines. Arms Creek is an eastward-flowing tributary to Big Cypress Creek. At normal pool levels the Younger site is now under the waters of Lake 0' the Pines.

When the site was first recorded by E. 0. Miller of the National Park Service in 1951, it was named the D. M. Collom site. The site was estimated to cover 6-8 acres, and was marked by several areas of bare ground where Caddo ...


A Hematite Cone From Smith County, Texas, Mark Walters Jan 2012

A Hematite Cone From Smith County, Texas, Mark Walters

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Hematite (Fe2O3) is a mineral, its most important usage being iron ore. In the United States, hematite occurs over a large region with a major concentration in the central part of the country. Hematite has varying degrees of hardness and colors. Hematite gives rocks their red color and characteristic “red-streak.” Soft, earthy (red ocher) forms were prized as paints. Hard, compact forms with considerable iron content were valued as tools, because of their strength as well as susceptibility to a high and beautiful polish. Certain forms of hematite are used in making jewelry. During prehistoric times, hematite was fashioned and ...


Trends In Archaic And Woodland Period Use Of The Middle Sabine River Basin Based On Dart Point Proportions, Timothy K. Perttula, William L. Young Jan 2012

Trends In Archaic And Woodland Period Use Of The Middle Sabine River Basin Based On Dart Point Proportions, Timothy K. Perttula, William L. Young

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In this article, we use the varying proportions of a large sample of Archaic and Woodland period dart points to explore trends in settlement and occupational intensity from ca. 10,000 to 1200 years B.P. in the Pineywoods and Post Oak Savannah of East Texas. These darts were collected from sites in Gregg, Harrison, Rusk, and Smith counties, Texas, mainly on sites in the middle reaches of the Sabine River basin.


Analysis Of Ceramic Sherds From The Mid-18th Century Gilbert Site On Lake Fork Creek, Rains County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

Analysis Of Ceramic Sherds From The Mid-18th Century Gilbert Site On Lake Fork Creek, Rains County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Gilbert site (41RA13) is an important mid-18th century American Indian site on an alluvial terrace along Lake Fork Creek, adjacent to the upper part of Lake Fork Reservoir in Rains County, Texas. The site was first investigated in 1962 by the Dallas Archeological Society, and based on the findings from that work, the Texas Archeological Society (TAS) had a field school at the site in June and July 1962.

There are several notable features of the Gilbert site. First, it contains 21 midden mounds about 6-9 m in diameter and ca. 1 m in height spread out over ca ...


Early 1960s Excavations At The Sam Kaufman Site (41rr16), Red River County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson Jan 2012

Early 1960s Excavations At The Sam Kaufman Site (41rr16), Red River County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Sam Kaufman site (41RR6, also known as the Arnold Roitsch site for a time) is a well-known Caddo Indian village along Mound Prairie and the Red River in Red River County, Texas. There have been a number of reported archaeological investigations, as well as bioarchaeological studies, at the site, and at other nearby sites since the 1930s.

This article reports on previously unknown investigations conducted by Buddy Calvin Jones in December 1961 through January 1962 at the Sam Kaufman site. His notes on the work-which primarily consist of burial plan drawings and a map or two-have recently been provided ...


Little Cypress Creek Basin Archaeology: Six Late Caddo Period Cemeteries In Upshur County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson Jan 2012

Little Cypress Creek Basin Archaeology: Six Late Caddo Period Cemeteries In Upshur County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Our concern in this report is to present the archaeological findings from six Late Caddo (ca. A.D. 1450-1680) cemetery sites in the Little Cypress Creek basin in Upshur County, in East Texas. These are the Enis Smith (41 UR317), Henry Williams (41UR318), I. P. Starr (41 UR319), Herbert Taft (41 UR320), Frank Smith (41 UR326), and Frank Smith Refinery (41 UR327) sites. There are two other large Late Caddo cemeteries in this same area that will also be discussed herein: Henry Spencer (41 UR315, Perttula et al. 2012) and the Sword site (41 UR8/208).

These sites represent a ...


A Caddo Archeology Map, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

A Caddo Archeology Map, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Archeologists use the term “Caddo” to refer to the many archaeological sites and abundant material remains that the ancestors of the modern Caddo peoples left behind over a large area of four different states, including eastern Texas, northwestern Louisiana, southwestern Arkansas, and eastern Oklahoma, traditionally centered on the Red River and its tributary streams. That record is marked by the remains of farmsteads, hamlets, villages, family and community cemeteries, and many small and large mound centers with public structures on and off mound platforms, plazas, and the burials of the social and political elite in and off mounds, as well ...


The Wa'akas Site (41cp490) At Lake Bob Sandlin, Camp County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson Jan 2012

The Wa'akas Site (41cp490) At Lake Bob Sandlin, Camp County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Wa'akas site (meaning Cow in the Caddo language) is located on a small toe slope (330ft. amsl) overlooking a small and unnamed tributary to Big Cypress Creek. The channel of Big Cypress Creek lies about 1 km to the north. The toe slope landform is normally inundated by the waters of Lake Bob Sandlin but became exposed during an episode of lowered water levels (about LO feet below the normal pool elevation of 337ft. amsl) at the lake due to drought conditions from late 2005 to early 2007. A large number of prehistoric artifacts were exposed on the ...


The Caddo Ceramic Assemblage From The New Hope Site (41fk107), Franklin County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson Jan 2012

The Caddo Ceramic Assemblage From The New Hope Site (41fk107), Franklin County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The New Hope site (41FK107) is located on an alluvial terrace (330-340 ft. amsl) on the west side of the Big Cypress Creek valley, about 200m west of the channel at the time it was inundated by Lake Bob Sandlin. The site covers an estimated 2.5 acres.lt is about I km north of the confluence of Brushy Creek and Big Cypress Creek. In addition to what would have been the broad floodplain of Big Cypress Creek, there are gently sloping upland landforms (340-490 ft. amsl) to the northwest, west, and south of the site, and these landforms are ...


Additional Lake Bob Sandlin Sites With Documented Collections Of Prehistoric Lithic And Ceramic Artifacts, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Patti Haskins Jan 2012

Additional Lake Bob Sandlin Sites With Documented Collections Of Prehistoric Lithic And Ceramic Artifacts, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Patti Haskins

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This is the third in a series of publications that concern the documentation of prehistoric artifact-collections from sites found along the shoreline of Lake Bob Sandlin in the Big Cypress Creek basin of East Texas. These documentation efforts have demonstrated that sites at the lake have diverse temporal and spatial patterns, with an intensive Caddo occupation from the Middle (ca. A.D. 1200-1425) to Late Caddo (ca. A.D. 1430-1680) periods.


The Marcus Kolb Site (41ce438), Cherokee County, Texas, Part 2, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

The Marcus Kolb Site (41ce438), Cherokee County, Texas, Part 2, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Marcus Kolb site is an early to mid-19th century occupation on an upland ridge adjacent to an intemiittent tributary of Gum Creek in the upper Neches River basin in East Texas. The recovered artifacts from the site, especially black transfer-printed pearl ware sherds, a worked stoneware sherd, and possibly a cut and crimped copper-based artifact, suggested that the site could have been occupied as early as the 1820s-early 1830s, during the time when this part of East Texas was occupied by the Cherokee. The tantalizing possibility of a Cherokee Indian occupation is negated to some extent by the chronological ...


Documentation Of A Collection From The Poole Site (41tt47) In The Big Cypress Creek Basin In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2012

Documentation Of A Collection From The Poole Site (41tt47) In The Big Cypress Creek Basin In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Poole site (41TT47) is about 2.5 miles south of Mt. Pleasant, and is now situated within the Mount Pleasant Wastewater Treatment Plant. The site was originally recorded by Milton Bell and Ken Brown in 1971 , who described it as "a thin scatter of artifacts, bone fragments, and charcoal necks brought to surface on gopher hills." The site was estimated at ca. 50 x 50 m in size; the artifacts "occurred mostly at the south side of the site. A metate was found in the center of the darker area. Wood charcoal flecks may be from more recent clearing ...


Recent Investigations At The Mounds Plantation Site (16cd12), Caddo Parish, Louisiana, Jeffery S. Girard Jan 2012

Recent Investigations At The Mounds Plantation Site (16cd12), Caddo Parish, Louisiana, Jeffery S. Girard

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Dr. Montroville Wilson Dickeson, born in Philadelphia in 1810, was a medical doctor, taxidermist and avid collector of fossils. Between 1837 and 1844 he pursued another interest—excavating Indian burial mounds in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. He claimed to have “opened up” more than a thousand mounds and collected more than 40,000 objects. He also made drawings of the mounds and later provided these to an artist by the name of John J. Egan, who, about 1850, converted the drawings into a series of large paintings on huge canvases. Dickeson toured the country in 1852 allowing the ...


Stable Isotope Analysis From A Burial At The Pipe Site (41an67) In Anderson County, Texas, Diane Wilson, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters Jan 2012

Stable Isotope Analysis From A Burial At The Pipe Site (41an67) In Anderson County, Texas, Diane Wilson, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In this article, we present the findings of stable isotope analysis (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) from an analysis of human remains from a burial at the Pipe site (41AN67). The Pipe site is a late 15th-mid-16th century Caddo settlement and cemetery in the Lake Palestine area in the upper Neches River basin in East Texas that was investigated by Buddy Calvin Jones in 1968 and Southern Methodlst University in 1969.