Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 25 of 25

Full-Text Articles in Other History of Art, Architecture, and Archaeology

Archaeology, Language, And The African Past, Roger Blench Mar 2007

Archaeology, Language, And The African Past, Roger Blench

African Diaspora Archaeology Newsletter

No abstract provided.


The Organization Of Novaculite Tool Production: Quarry-Workshop Debitage Comparisons, Mary Beth D. Trubitt Jan 2007

The Organization Of Novaculite Tool Production: Quarry-Workshop Debitage Comparisons, Mary Beth D. Trubitt

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Arkansas novaculite, outcropping in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma, has been an important regional lithic resource for thousands of years. Because of the stone’s durability, by-products of past novaculite procurement and tool production and use activities litter the landscape in southwest Arkansas. Recent work situates novaculite quarries in the broader context of tool production and exchange systems. This article focuses on the organization of tool production, and explores analytical techniques that can be used to identify spatial separation of the lithic reduction process between quarry, workshop, and habitation sites.


Leaning Rock Site (41sm325) Lithics, Harry J. Shafer Jan 2007

Leaning Rock Site (41sm325) Lithics, Harry J. Shafer

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The intent of the lithic analysis from the Leaning Rock site (41SM325) in Smith County, Texas, is to glean all possible information from the artifacts. Lithic studies have taken the back seat in materials analysis from sites and projects in East Texas where archaeologists focus primarily, if not exclusively, on formal tool analysis, if any analysis is done at all. Stone tools often had complex histories, and reading these histories can provide some useful, if not the only source for, insights into tool technologies, function, style, and social inferences. Stone tools were used in entirely different functional contexts than were ...


Remote Sensing At The Horace Cabe Site (41bw14), Chester P. Walker, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2007

Remote Sensing At The Horace Cabe Site (41bw14), Chester P. Walker, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

A magnetometer survey was conducted at the Horace Cabe Mound site (41BW14) in 2005 by Walker and Schultz as part of the Bowie County Levee Realignment project in Bowie County, Texas. The purpose of the survey was to attempt to locate anomalies that may represent potential archaeological features at this important Late Caddo mound center near the Red River. The area was surveyed using a Geometrics portable G858 cesium sensor magnetometer and a G-856 proton magnetometer base station. This article puts on record another substantive example of Caddo archaeology as seen through the use of remote sensing technology.

The original ...


Archeological Investigations Of The Lang Pasture (41an38) Midden Deposits On Private Property West Of The Sh 155 Right-Of-Way, Anderson County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Mark Walters, Leeanna Schniebs Jan 2007

Archeological Investigations Of The Lang Pasture (41an38) Midden Deposits On Private Property West Of The Sh 155 Right-Of-Way, Anderson County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Mark Walters, Leeanna Schniebs

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In the spring of 2006 data recovery investigations were completed at the Lang Pasture site (41AN38) by Coastal Environments, Inc. (Baton Rouge, Louisiana) and Archeological & Environmental Consultants, LLC (Austin and Pittsburg, Texas) for the Texas Department of Transportation. The site is situated along the SH 155 rightof- way in the Caddo Creek basin in northeastern Anderson County, Texas, in the Caddo archeological area of Northeast Texas. The archeological excavations indicate that the site was primarily occupied by Caddo peoples during the Frankston phase, sometime after A.D. 1400. The number and kinds of features identified in the right-of-way—portions of ...


Proposal For A 2007 Caddo Archaeology Summit Meeting, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2007

Proposal For A 2007 Caddo Archaeology Summit Meeting, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Caddo Indian peoples lived in parts of the four states of Arkansas (specifically southwest Arkansas), Louisiana (the northwestern part of the state), Oklahoma (the eastern region), and Texas (all of East Texas) from deep in prehistoric times until the early 1840s. They left behind an extensive archaeological record marked by important mound centers where the social and political elite lived and led community-wide rituals, ceremonies, and traditions; villages, hamlets, and farmsteads where the people carried out their daily lives; numerous cemeteries and burial grounds where the people were laid to rest following long-standing religious burial ceremonies; as well as ...


The History Of Archaeological Investigations At The Jamestown Mound Site (41sm54), An Archaeological Conservancy Preserve In Smith County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2007

The History Of Archaeological Investigations At The Jamestown Mound Site (41sm54), An Archaeological Conservancy Preserve In Smith County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Jamestown Mound site (41SM54) is an Archaeological Conservancy (TAC) preserve in northern Smith Country, Texas in the northeastern part of the state. The Jamestown site is one of the largest Caddo mound centers in East Texas, with seven recorded mounds and an associated village area of unknown extent and internal complexity. It is also one of the four premier mound centers in the Sabine River basin, the other three being Hudnall-Pirtle (41RK4), a TAC preserve, Pine Tree Mounds (41HS15), also a TAC preserve as of 2006, and Boxed Springs (41UR30), and was obviously an important civic and ceremonial center ...


Byram Ferry (16bo17): A Middle To Late Caddo Period Mound Site In The Red River Floodplain, Northwest Louisiana, Jeffery S. Girard Jan 2007

Byram Ferry (16bo17): A Middle To Late Caddo Period Mound Site In The Red River Floodplain, Northwest Louisiana, Jeffery S. Girard

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

One of the few remaining Caddo mounds in northwest Louisiana is located at the Byram Ferry site (16BO17) in northern Bossier Parish near the Arkansas state line. Until recently, a brief description by Clarence B. Moore (1912) and a few comments by Clarence H. Webb in his undated and unpublished field notes constituted the only information about the site available to archeological researchers. A collection of sherds and one intact vessel from Byram Ferry are present in the Ralph McKinney collection currently on loan to the History Center at the Bossier Parish Library in Bossier City, Louisiana. Examination of this ...


Abstracts Of Papers For The 14th Annual East Texas Archeological Conference, February 10, 2007, George Avery Jan 2007

Abstracts Of Papers For The 14th Annual East Texas Archeological Conference, February 10, 2007, George Avery

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

A summary of the analysis of lithics at Los Adaes (16NA16) is presented. Aside from a small number of Late Paleoindian/Early Archaic diagnostics, all stone artifacts recovered at Los Adaes (16NA16) date to the colonial period or later. Colonial stone artifacts include gunflints, probable strike-a-lights, and ground stone fragments, mostly mano fragments. Most of the gunflints appear to be French, while most of the strike-a-light flint appear to be from Central Texas chert. The local gravel cherts do not appear to have been used as either gunflints or strike-a-light flints. The mano fragments are mostly of basalt, which was ...


Documentation Of A Native American Church Altar In Caddo County, Oklahoma, Robert Cast Jan 2007

Documentation Of A Native American Church Altar In Caddo County, Oklahoma, Robert Cast

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

What little research that has been done in Caddo County, Oklahoma (and elsewhere) with Caddo Native American Church altars or "fireplace" locations show that there is a desperate need to document and record these locations for future generations. However, even with the paucity of this research, it is feasible to suggest that these ceremonial altars, their stylistic differences, and the passing of this religion to future generations of traditional practitioners have had a very long history.

Others have discussed the ceremonial uses of fire, structures, objects, and mounds in the archaeological record, yet have not addressed the appearance and importance ...


Kinsloe Focus Artifact Assemblages And Nadaco Caddo, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2007

Kinsloe Focus Artifact Assemblages And Nadaco Caddo, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Kinsloe focus (now phase) was defined by Jones on the basis of seven sites in Gregg, Harrison, and Rusk counties in East Texas, in the middle reaches of the Sabine River basin. These sites are Ware Acres (41GG31), Kinsloe (4IGG3), Susie Slade (4IHSI3), Brown I (4IHS26I), C. D. Marsh (4IHS269), Millsey Williamson (4IRK3), and Cherokee Lake (41RK132). As currently understood, these historic Caddo sites were most likely occupied by Nadaco Caddo people between ca. A.D. 1680-1800.

For our purposes here, my interest is in compiling in one place the characteristic material culture items found in the known Kinsloe ...


A Survey Of Historic Caddo Sites In Nacogdoches County, Texas, Tom Middlebrook Jan 2007

A Survey Of Historic Caddo Sites In Nacogdoches County, Texas, Tom Middlebrook

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This review was originally prepared for presentation to the East Texas Caddo Research Group held in Nacogdoches, Texas on December 2 and 3, 2006. The primary purpose of this article is to summarize the archaeological resources currently known relating to the Historic Caddo period of Nacogdoches County. No attempt is made here to provide analysis of the data or to draw synthetic conclusions. The author's hope is that this survey will be helpful to workers in this area of inquiry by speeding access to available resources and exposing possible research problems.


Recent Research On The Archaeological And Historical Evidence Of The Hasanai, Paul S. Marceaux Jan 2007

Recent Research On The Archaeological And Historical Evidence Of The Hasanai, Paul S. Marceaux

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This article was assembled using information collected for my dissertation proposal. The Allen Phase Caddo sites and other aboriginal Historic sites of interest are located in the upper Neches and Angelina River basins in East Texas, and were identified from various sources in the archaeological literature . In addition, regional archaeologists and a vocational archaeologists, including several participants of the East Texas Caddo Research Group 2006 meeting, provided information and helped in the process of vetting sites.

My dissertation will examine the archival and archaeological records in hopes of identifying the archaeological correlates of Hasinai Caddo groups in East Texas. To ...


American Indian Pottery From Historic Period Sites In North Louisiana, H. F. Gregory, George Avery Jan 2007

American Indian Pottery From Historic Period Sites In North Louisiana, H. F. Gregory, George Avery

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The following is a revised version of a presentation given at the annual meeting of the Louisiana Archaeological Society (LAS) held in Monroe, Louisiana, on March 4, 2006. The goal of the LAS presentation was to simply show photographs and illustrations of American Indian pottery that dates to the historic period in North Louisiana. Most of the photographs and illustrations are from a manuscript written by H.F. "Pete" Gregory entitled Los Adaes (16NAJ6) American Indian Ceramics. This manuscript was compiled by George A very as part of the Los Adaes Station Archaeology Program, funded entirely by the Louisiana Division ...


Sites In Northern Louisiana With Major Collections Of Historic Caddo And Other Native American Pottery, Jeffery S. Girard Jan 2007

Sites In Northern Louisiana With Major Collections Of Historic Caddo And Other Native American Pottery, Jeffery S. Girard

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Archaeological sites in northern Louisiana that date to the 18th and 19th centuries which have yielded significant amounts of Native American pottery are plotted on the accompanying map, and briefly summarized below. A common feature of ceramic collections from these sites is the prevalence of shell temper, a trait that is rare prior to the late 17th century in the region. The earliest contexts probably date from the late 17th to the early 18th centuries and include utilitarian types that were common during the Late Caddo period (ca. A.D. 1500-1700). By the middle 18th century, these types apparently were ...


Cultural Diversity In The Southern Caddo Region, James E. Corbin Jan 2007

Cultural Diversity In The Southern Caddo Region, James E. Corbin

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The earliest expression of Caddo culture in the southern portion of the Southern Caddo region is well known. That Alto phase Caddo culture had any effect on coeval societies and the subsequent cultural development in the area cannot be demonstrated. What happened after ca. A.D. 1100 has been much discussed, but the realities of that subsequent cultural development are unknown. It can be argued that what followed was a part of a larger cultural phenomenon of regionalization of societies within the broader Caddoan area. Some researchers have argued that. at least in the extreme southern portion of the Caddo ...


Points Of Discussion And Directions For Research On Caddo Historic Archaeology, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2007

Points Of Discussion And Directions For Research On Caddo Historic Archaeology, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

I start with the premise that there are considerable gaps remaining in our basic knowledge of the Caddo historic archaeological record for the period from ca. 1670-1850 in East Texas. The period between ca. A.D. 1542-1670 is better known archaeologically, thanks in large measure to some significant work at Late Caddo sites along the Red River, along Big Cypress Creek, and in the Neches-Angelina River basins, but there are considerable gaps there as well in what we think we know about the life and times of the Caddo in the 16th and 17th centuries, especially on the role Europeans ...


Historic Caddo Archaeology: An Occasional Meeting Of The East Texas Caddo Research Group, December 2-3, 2006, In Nacogdoches Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Tom Middlebrook Jan 2007

Historic Caddo Archaeology: An Occasional Meeting Of The East Texas Caddo Research Group, December 2-3, 2006, In Nacogdoches Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Tom Middlebrook

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The articles in this issue of the Journal of Northeast Texas Archaeology had their origins in a meeting held in December 2006 of the East Texas Caddo Research Group (ETCRG). The meeting of archaeologists was held on December 2 and 3, 2006 at the Arthur Temple College of Forestry and Agriculture on the campus of Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas.

The ETCRG is an informal group of individuals interested in advancing the general understanding of Caddo archaeology in the East Texas region, and we have attempted to do this by convening meetings at various times to discuss ...


Late Titus Phase Sites Along Caney Creek In Northern Wood County, Texas, Mark Walters Jan 2007

Late Titus Phase Sites Along Caney Creek In Northern Wood County, Texas, Mark Walters

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

There are a number of seemingly late Titus phase (ca. after A.D. 1670) Caddo sites clustered on the middle to upper reaches of Caney Creek in northern Wood County. This is based on a large collection of grave goods amassed by a collector in the 1960s from Caddo sites in this area. No European goods were reported from any of the sites but several of the vessel types have been shown to often occur in association with a few European trade goods at other published Caddo sites. There are examples in the collection of Ripley Engraved carinated bowls with ...


Inverted Rim Engraved Vessels In Protohistoric And Early Historic Caddo Sites In Parts Of Northeast Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2007

Inverted Rim Engraved Vessels In Protohistoric And Early Historic Caddo Sites In Parts Of Northeast Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

A distinctive vessel form makes its appearance in protohistoric and early historic Caddo sites in the upper Sabine and Sulphur river basins, and on the middle reaches of the Red River basin. This form is an inverted rim bowl and carinated bowl with engraved decorations, and these vessels arc frequently red-slipped or have red pigment smeared in the engraved lines.

The best known of these inverted rim engraved vessels is Womack Engraved. Womack Engraved vessels are decomted on the rim with a variety of engraved motifs, including cross-hatched pendant triangles and for our purposes here negative meandering scrolls. These negative ...


The Gum Creek Cluster: Protohistoric Caddo Sites In The Little Cypress Creek Basin, Ca. 1670-1720, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson Jan 2007

The Gum Creek Cluster: Protohistoric Caddo Sites In The Little Cypress Creek Basin, Ca. 1670-1720, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Gum Creek cluster represents a group of contemporaneous Caddo sites in the Little Cypress Creek basin of East Texas that were apparently occupied between ca. A.D. 1670-1720. These sites are closely affiliated with the Titus phase and may represent some of the very latest occupied Titus phase settlements in the Cypress Creek basin.

The Gum Creek cluster Caddo sites were excavated by Buddy Calvin Jones in the 1950s and 1960s, but were never reported by him during his lifetime. After his death, his vessel collection and other artifacts were documented by Perttula, with the able assistance of Bo ...


Documentation Of A Collection Of Archaeological Materials From The Millsey Williamson Site (41rk3), A Historic Nadaco Caddo Settlement, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson Jan 2007

Documentation Of A Collection Of Archaeological Materials From The Millsey Williamson Site (41rk3), A Historic Nadaco Caddo Settlement, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Millsey Williamson site (41RK3) is a well known historic 18th century Nadaco Caddo site on Martin Creek in Rusk County, Texas. It is one of a number of 18th and early 19th century Kinsloe phase sites in the middle Sabine River basin apparently affiliated with the Nadaco Caddo settlement of the region.

An unknown number of historic Nadaco Caddo burials have been excavated at the site over the years, especially along the western part of the terrace landform above Martin Creek, now marked by the Martin Lake shoreline. There has been intensive collecting activities at Millsey Williamson since Martin ...


The Shreveport Caddo, 1835-1838, Jim Tiller Jan 2007

The Shreveport Caddo, 1835-1838, Jim Tiller

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Period records, such as the reports of Many, Bonnell and Riley, clearly make reference to at least four Caddo villages located between the Red River and the United States-Mexico/Texas boundary in the mid-1830s. In the early 1990s, one of these sites, Timber Hill, was located just to the west of Jim's Bayou in Marion County. In this article I will discuss the location and demise of at least four and possible five additional 1830s-era villages located south of Caddo Lake. In the interest of preserving the sites mentioned, the specific locations of the villages discussed in this article ...


Upper Neches River Basin Caddo Ceramics, An Attempt At An Updated Seriation And A Context For Understnading Frankston To Allen Phase Ceramic Stylistic And Technological Changes, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2007

Upper Neches River Basin Caddo Ceramics, An Attempt At An Updated Seriation And A Context For Understnading Frankston To Allen Phase Ceramic Stylistic And Technological Changes, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Table 1 provides comparative sherd assemblage data from Lake Palestine sites on the Neches River, 41HE139 west of Lake Palestine, 41AN38 south of Lake Palestine, as well as the Kah-hah-kowha site (41CE354) to the northeast of the lake. This site has an Allen phase component. The Lake Palestine sites include Debro (41CE86), William Sherman (41CE30), Forest Drive (41HE184), Halbert, Woldert (41HE80), Ferguson, Tomato Patch (41HE185), Mitchell (41HE22), and White Mule (41HE166).


Seriation Proposed By Kleinschmidt (1982: Table 19) Of Allen Phase And Frankston Phase Sites In The Upper Neches River, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2007

Seriation Proposed By Kleinschmidt (1982: Table 19) Of Allen Phase And Frankston Phase Sites In The Upper Neches River, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Kleinschmidt reviewed sherd and vessel collections from a number of Frankston phase (ca. A.D. 1400-1650) and Allen phase (ca. A.D. 1650-1800+) sites in the upper Neches River basin (Anderson, Cherokee, Henderson, and Smith counties) and developed a ceramic frequency seriation of those sites more than 25 years ago. That seriation is still useful today, or at least I find it so, because it does seem to provide a good measure of temporal changes in the kinds of decorated ceramic vessels used by these Caddo peoples, as well as a good measure of the direction of changes in ceramic ...