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Full-Text Articles in Other History of Art, Architecture, and Archaeology

Rediscovering Brazil: The Marajoara Style In Modernist Art And Design, Alyson Brandes May 2019

Rediscovering Brazil: The Marajoara Style In Modernist Art And Design, Alyson Brandes

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

During the Portuguese rule of Dom Pedro II until 1889, through the years of the First Brazilian Republic (1889-1930) and into the First Vargas Regime (1930-1945), Brazil struggled to solidify a strong national identity that would finally unify the country and legitimize its rich cultural heritage. The discovery and excavation of Marajó Island in the 1870s provided evidence of a great, ancient civilization, and inspired Brazilian Art Deco and early Modernist artists. Polychrome ceramic urns, vessels, and tangas (female pubic covers) were among the most abundant archaeological finds, many with zoomorphic and geometric motifs that show the cultural importance of ...


Archaeology In The Classroom At A New England Prep School, Ryan Wheeler Feb 2019

Archaeology In The Classroom At A New England Prep School, Ryan Wheeler

Journal of Archaeology and Education

In 1901 Robert S. Peabody lamented the lack of instruction in archaeology at his high school alma mater Phillips Academy, a prestigious New England boarding school. To rectify the situation, he used family funds and artifacts amassed by his personal curator Warren K. Moorehead to establish a Department of Archaeology at the school. A building was constructed and Moorehead and Peabody’s son, Charles, set about teaching classes. The pattern established by Moorehead and Peabody, however, was disrupted in 1914 when the school refocused the program exclusively on research. Classes were offered periodically over the next decades, and some students ...


Current Research: Building A Corpus Of Crockett Curvilinear Incised Vessels, Duncan P. Mckinnon Jan 2019

Current Research: Building A Corpus Of Crockett Curvilinear Incised Vessels, Duncan P. Mckinnon

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

As presented in an earlier report (McKinnon 2018), I have been compiling, with the help of several Caddo researchers, a comprehensive multi-state database of Caddo vessels (now close to 15,000). The on-going goal is to evaluate landscape scale social interactions and interregional relationships using this growing ceramic database. Some initial explorations have been productive in evaluating relationships between proposed Caddo communities (archaeological phases) and I suggest that these exercises have offered insights into Caddo interaction, identity, and ideological exchange in a visual and (continually) comprehensive way (McKinnon 2011, 2016).


An Ancestral Caddo Site (41cs125) On The Sulphur River At Lake Wright Patman, Cass County, Texas, Julian A. Sitters, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2019

An Ancestral Caddo Site (41cs125) On The Sulphur River At Lake Wright Patman, Cass County, Texas, Julian A. Sitters, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

ln December 2017, AmaTerra Environmental lnc. conducted an intensive archeological survey of 41CS125, a previously reported ancestral Caddo site at Lake Wright Patman in Cass County, Texas. The work was done at the request of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District in advance of a proposed bank stabilization pro}ect. The site was occupied from the Late Paleoindian period through historic times with extensive occupations during the Formative to Early Caddo and Late Caddo periods. Artifacts recovered in the investigations included both arrow and dart points, lithic debitage, bifaces, ground stone, a celt fragment, pitted stone ...


A Preliminary Comparison Of Two Caddo Mound Sites In Southwest Arkansas, Mary Beth D. Trubitt Jan 2019

A Preliminary Comparison Of Two Caddo Mound Sites In Southwest Arkansas, Mary Beth D. Trubitt

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Previous Arkansas Archeological Survey excavations at the Hedges site in the Ouachita River valley and the Hughes site in the Saline River valley uncovered evidence of burned structures adjacent to the mounds. An overview of the artifact analyses indicates that the sites were roughly contemporaneous, with intensive use by ancestral Caddo Indians during the Late Caddo period, between the AD 1400s and 1600s. This presentation summarizes the research .ftndings to emphasize comparisons in timing, activities, and community plans.


In Between Two Worlds: Past Perspectives On The Neosho Phase (A.D. 1400-1650), Paige Ford Jan 2019

In Between Two Worlds: Past Perspectives On The Neosho Phase (A.D. 1400-1650), Paige Ford

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Neosho phase (A.D. 1400-1650) in northeastern Oklahoma, northwestern Arkansas, southwestern Missouri, and southeastern Kansas represents Late Pre-contact peoples engaged in widespread trade from the Plains to groups in the southeastern United States. The phase has confounded researchers since its de.ftnition, although debates mainly concern one of two main questions concerning the identity of Neosho peoples: origins and cultural af.ftliation. Most research to date has focused simply on the question of emergence. Early in these debates, Orr (1946) suggested that Neosho peoples represented one or more plains-oriented groups that had migrated into the area, while Wyckoff (1980 ...


Caddo Pottery From Eight Sites In The Middle Ouachita River Valley, Mary Beth D. Trubitt Jan 2019

Caddo Pottery From Eight Sites In The Middle Ouachita River Valley, Mary Beth D. Trubitt

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Documentation and analysis of ceramic vessels in the Joint Educational Consortium's Hodges Collection has focused on reconstructing grave lots based on notes left by amateur archeologist Vere Huddleston in the 1930s and 1940s. Despite problems with the data, we can glean useful information from this collection. Here, l describe Caddo pottery and other artifacts in grave lots from eight sites in Clark and Hot Spring counties of west-central Arkansas. l then order the grave lots in time based on stylistic and technological characteristics (seriation) to re.ftne the ceramic chronology of the Middle Ouachita River valley and compare mortuary ...


Report: Abstracts From The 2018 Caddo Conference In Idabel, Oklahoma, Amanda L. Regnier Jan 2019

Report: Abstracts From The 2018 Caddo Conference In Idabel, Oklahoma, Amanda L. Regnier

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The 2018 Caddo Conference was held March 8-10, 2018 at the Museum of the Red River in Idabel, Oklahoma. Fifty attendees registered for the conference. The conference began with a reception at the museum on Thursday evening. On Friday, the program included eight papers and presentations covering archaeological work in Texas and Oklahoma and a longer presentation on the rebuilding of the Caddo house at Caddo Mounds State Park in Texas. A poster session was also held on Friday afternoon. Conference attendees were given a tour of the collections housed at the museum, which include a large collection of Caddo ...


Current Research: Discovery And Recovery Of A 14th Century Dugout Canoe On The Red River, Caddo Parish, Louisiana, Jeffrey S. Girard, Charles R. Mcgimsey Jan 2019

Current Research: Discovery And Recovery Of A 14th Century Dugout Canoe On The Red River, Caddo Parish, Louisiana, Jeffrey S. Girard, Charles R. Mcgimsey

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In June 2017, Jenna Bradley and Robert Cornett were boating down the Red River in northern Caddo Parish, Louisiana, when they noticed an unusual log protruding from a sandy bank near the town of Belcher. After realizing that it was a dugout canoe, they contacted the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, and eventually word of the find was transmitted to state archaeologist Chip McGimsey at the Louisiana Division of Archaeology. The following day, Bradley and Cornett led Jeffrey Girard and Jameel Damlouji of the Louisiana Archaeological Society to the site. It was obvious that it was a dugout canoe ...


Current Research: Organic Residues On Engraved Vessels From Ancestral Caddo Sites In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2019

Current Research: Organic Residues On Engraved Vessels From Ancestral Caddo Sites In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In the course of recently documenting ancestral Caddo ceramic vessels from sites dating to Late Caddo period Titus phase contexts (ca. A.D. 1430-1680) in East Texas, specifically on sites in the Big Cypress Creek and Sabine River basins, I have encountered a significant number (ca. 9.6 percent) of more than 1790 engraved fine ware vessels that have an exterior organic residue (Table 1), including carinated bowls, compound bowls, jars, bowls, and even bottles. In some cases, the exterior residue on certain carinated bowls and compound bowls is so thick that the engraved design is obscured and almost completely ...


Current Research: Renewing Research On Holman Springs (3sv29), A Caddo Saltworks In Western Arkansas, Carl G. Drexler, Fiona M. Taylor Jan 2019

Current Research: Renewing Research On Holman Springs (3sv29), A Caddo Saltworks In Western Arkansas, Carl G. Drexler, Fiona M. Taylor

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Holman Springs site (3SV29) lies in western Sevier County, Arkansas, near the Oklahoma border. It is, along with Bayou Sel (3CL27), one of two major excavations of Caddo saltworks that has not been substantially reported. Excavated between 1984 and 1986 by the Arkansas Archeological Society during their annual Training Program digs, the collections remain at the Arkansas Archeological Survey's research station (ARAS) at Southern Arkansas University (SAU) in Magnolia.

The collections lay dormant for many years. Then, in 2015, the station staff revived the project and started moving it towards completion. This is a daunting challenge, given the ...


Current Research: Archiving Our History, Publishing Results: Current Research At The Arkansas Archeological Survey's Henderson State University Research Station, Mary Beth D. Trubitt Jan 2019

Current Research: Archiving Our History, Publishing Results: Current Research At The Arkansas Archeological Survey's Henderson State University Research Station, Mary Beth D. Trubitt

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

At the Arkansas Archeological Survey's Henderson State University (HSU) Research Station, we continue to inventory curated artifact collections. The research station has been on the HSU campus in Arkadelphia since 1967, and our collections include artifacts, photographs, maps, and field and lab records from projects as well as artifact donations from local residents. Field notes and lab forms have been scanned and archived on the server, and we are in the process of scanning the station's collection of 14,000 color slides. Assisted by volunteers, we have been inventorying artifacts, updating station databases, and submitting site revisit forms ...


Current Research: Analysis Of Ceramic Vessel Residues From The Washington Square Mound Site (41na49) For Evidence Of Peyote Use By The Caddo In The 13th-15th Centuries A.D., Timothy K. Perttula, Martin Terry Jan 2019

Current Research: Analysis Of Ceramic Vessel Residues From The Washington Square Mound Site (41na49) For Evidence Of Peyote Use By The Caddo In The 13th-15th Centuries A.D., Timothy K. Perttula, Martin Terry

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In 2012, Perttula requested permission from to the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma's Repatriation Committee to analyze small samples (ca. 1-2 grams of ceramic paste, or sherds ca. 1-2 square centimeters in size) from the paste of five vessels from Features 31 and 95 at the Washington Square Mound site (41NA49) (Perttula et al. 2010) in East Texas to identify residue traces of the Caddo's use of peyote in the 13th-15th centuries A.D. The Caddo Nation of Oklahoma gave their permission to conduct these ceramic vessel residue studies.


Current Research: Spiro And Caddoan Connections On The Northern Frontier Of Southwest Missouri, Jack H. Ray Jan 2019

Current Research: Spiro And Caddoan Connections On The Northern Frontier Of Southwest Missouri, Jack H. Ray

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Excavations during the construction of Table Rock Lake in the late 1950s resulted in a proposition that there was a colonization of peoples into the upper White River drainage from Caddoan areas to the southwest (Chapman 1980; Chapman et al. 1960). This colonization, which resulted in the formulation of the Loftin phase, is widely accepted today (O'Brien and Wood 1998; Perttula 1983, 1989; Sabo and Early 1990). Later, James Brown (1984) exposed the myth that the southwestern Ozarks was a cultural enclave that lagged behind Mississippian developments in other parts of the Trans-Mississippi South.


Among The Ancestors At Aidonia, Lynne Kvapil, Kim Shelton Dec 2018

Among The Ancestors At Aidonia, Lynne Kvapil, Kim Shelton

Lynne A. Kvapil

No abstract provided.


A Comparative Analysis Of Non-Invasive Exploration Techniques Lidar Vs. Aerial Photography – Kincaid Mounds Archaeological Site, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr. Oct 2018

A Comparative Analysis Of Non-Invasive Exploration Techniques Lidar Vs. Aerial Photography – Kincaid Mounds Archaeological Site, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

KINCAID MOUNDS - A Comparative Analysis of Non-invasive Exploration Techniques is a journal of my efforts to conduct non-invasive site investigations at the Kincaid Mounds Archaeological site in Southern Illinois. Through the utilization of tools such as; drones, photography, satellite imaging, light distance and ranging, and powerful analysis software, I will demonstrate a number of useful techniques which one can utilize to conduct independent site investigations without disturbing a sites landscape or structural integrity. Thus, illustrating differences between those techniques and pointing out their strengths and weaknesses in their various applications.

During this journey, I will also venture into the world ...


Modeling Sound In Ancient Maya Cities: Moving Towards A Synesthetic Experience Using Gis & 3d Simulation, Graham Goodwin Aug 2018

Modeling Sound In Ancient Maya Cities: Moving Towards A Synesthetic Experience Using Gis & 3d Simulation, Graham Goodwin

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

Digital technologies enable modeling of the potential role of sound in past environments. While digital approaches have limitations in objectively rendering reality, they provide an expanded platform that potentially increases our understanding of experience in the past and enhances the investigation of ancient landscapes. Digital technologies enable new experiences in ways that are multi-sensual and move us closer toward reconstructing holistic views of past landscapes. Archaeologists have successfully employed 2D and 3D tools to measure vision and movement within cityscapes. However, built environments are often designed to invoke synesthetic experiences that also include sound and other senses. Geographic Information Systems ...


Heroes Of Indian Head Rock, Rick Duncan Jul 2018

Heroes Of Indian Head Rock, Rick Duncan

Indian Head Rock Project

A series of posters created by Rick Duncan to commemorate the Heroes of Indian Head Rock in July of 2018.


Representation Of The Human Musculature In The Bronze Age Aegean, Emily R Brower May 2018

Representation Of The Human Musculature In The Bronze Age Aegean, Emily R Brower

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Bronze Age sculptures range from abstract to realistic, but how accurate are the realistic sculptures? To answer this question, it is useful to compare three pieces of artwork: Prince of Lilies from Knossos, Kouros from Palaikastro, and the Boxer Rhyta from Ayia Triadha to a musculature replica. These pieces originate from the Bronze Age in the Aegean. What this comparison will tell us is how much the ancient peoples were studying the human body, along with the reasons as to why these sculptures were portrayed with such realistic characteristics. To accomplish this goal this paper takes the artifacts background into ...


Reconstructing Ancient Lives Using 3d Technology: A Case Study Of Pork And Doughboy Point, Belize, Jane Fiegel May 2018

Reconstructing Ancient Lives Using 3d Technology: A Case Study Of Pork And Doughboy Point, Belize, Jane Fiegel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation

3D technology can preserve cultural heritage resources and enhance museum collections and exhibits. Through 3D scanning, an exact digital replica of an artifact is created, which can be printed out or used to create a digital display. For this project, 3D scanning was used to reconstruct ancient Maya lives at Pork and Doughboy Point, Belize. By studying and classifying an inventory of selected artifacts, we were able to determine what activities occurred at the site. goal of this project was to showcase the growing importance of 3D technology in cultural preservation and the variety of ways in which it can ...


Current Research: Current Research In The Upper Mcgee Creek Drainage, Oklahoma, James Briscoe Jan 2018

Current Research: Current Research In The Upper Mcgee Creek Drainage, Oklahoma, James Briscoe

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In recent years the Choctaw Nation has acquired a roughly 80 square mile ranch in the western edge of the Winding Stair Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma. The land is currently a working ranch and timber management area. Choctaw Forestry manages timber activities and range management with the intention of returning the land to an oak savanna setting. Active logging of pine and selected hardwoods and on-going controlled surface burns are included in Forestry activity on the ranch. The project is supported by the Choctaw Nation Historic Preservation Department, which is responsible for the inventory and protection of the cultural resources ...


Middle Caddo Whole Vessels From The Ferguson Site (3he63), Pritam Chowdhury Jan 2018

Middle Caddo Whole Vessels From The Ferguson Site (3he63), Pritam Chowdhury

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Ferguson site (3HE63) is a Caddo ceremonial center in Hempstead County, Arkansas. The Arkansas Archeological Survey and Arkansas Archeological Society excavated Ferguson between 1972 and 1974, under the direction of Dr. Frank Schambach. The site has a middle Caddo Haley phase (A.D. 1200- 1400) component consisting of two mounds, several structures, and a small cemetery area, set atop a 2-acre Woodland period Fourche Maline village. One of the mounds included several elite Caddo shaft graves rich with ceramic artifacts. My recent research with Ferguson site collections included a metric and stylistic analysis of whole vessel ceramics from the ...


Current Research: Toward A Collaborative Development Of A Truly Comprehensive Multi-State Material Culture Database, Duncan P. Mckinnon Jan 2018

Current Research: Toward A Collaborative Development Of A Truly Comprehensive Multi-State Material Culture Database, Duncan P. Mckinnon

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Throughout the past several years, I have been compiling, with the help of several Caddo researchers, a comprehensive multi-state database primarily composed of whole Caddo vessels from published excavations, private collections, and archaeological reports. At present, the database contains over 13,000 vessel entries from over 500 sites ranging from a single vessel recorded at a site to hundreds. Over the years, the database has evolved to contain, where applicable, attribute fields on type, variety, motif designs (largely using the Glossary of Motifs published in the Spiro shell engravings, collegiate assignment, form, temper, decorative method (incised, brushed, etc.), context (burial ...


Current Research: Ceramic Production And Distribution During The Formative Caddo Period: A Stylistic And Provenance Investigation Of The Arkansas River Valley, Shawn Lambert Jan 2018

Current Research: Ceramic Production And Distribution During The Formative Caddo Period: A Stylistic And Provenance Investigation Of The Arkansas River Valley, Shawn Lambert

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Formative Caddo Period (A.D. 850-1100) of eastern Oklahoma was marked by dramatic material and ritual changes, culminating in the construction of aggregated villages and ceremonial centers. Formative Caddo groups are notable for their highly complex and ritually-charged ceramic vessels that were unlike anything archeologists have seen in the American Southeast. Tracing the rapid development and spread of this early fine ware assemblage across a variety of social, ritual, and mortuary contexts is key to understanding the shared religious and ritual traditions of the pre-Columbian Arkansas River valley and surrounding Coastal Plain drainages. Yet despite nearly 60 years of ...


The Effects Of Horses And Raiding On The Salt Industry In Northwest Louisiana, Paul N. Eubanks Jan 2018

The Effects Of Horses And Raiding On The Salt Industry In Northwest Louisiana, Paul N. Eubanks

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

When French explorers first arrived in northwest Louisiana, the local Caddo Indians had already earned a reputation for being important players in the salt trade. Likewise, many western Caddo groups living near the southern Plains were known for their involvement in the horse trade. In the first part of this paper, the relationship between the local salt industry and the introduction of the horse is considered. It is suggested that at least some of the salt made in northwest Louisiana was being fed to horses and other livestock acquired either directly or indirectly from the Spanish. In addition to its ...


Current Research At Arkansas Archeological Survey’S Henderson State University Research Station, Mary Beth D. Trubitt, Chelsea Cinotto Jan 2018

Current Research At Arkansas Archeological Survey’S Henderson State University Research Station, Mary Beth D. Trubitt, Chelsea Cinotto

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

During 2017, the Arkansas Archeological Survey celebrated its 50th anniversary with a series of website postings (http://archeology.uark.edu/who-we-are/50moments/), a forum at the annual meeting of the Arkansas Archeological Society, and a symposium at the annual Southeastern Archaeological Conference in Tulsa. In addition, the Survey made strides in documenting and archiving its history and collections. The Survey’s Henderson State University (HSU) Research Station in Arkadelphia continued to inventory curated artifact collections and scan older paper records and color slides. Trubitt and Cinotto, assisted by volunteers during weekly Archeology Lab Days, are updating the station’s curated ...


Documentation Of Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Vessels And Other Artifacts From East Texas Sites In The George T. Wright Collection At The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum Of Natural History, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson Jan 2018

Documentation Of Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Vessels And Other Artifacts From East Texas Sites In The George T. Wright Collection At The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum Of Natural History, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

From the early 1900s to the mid-1940s George T. Wright was a landowner (Kiomatia Plantation) and Vice-President of the Kiomitia Mercantile Company: General Merchandise in Kiomatia and Paris, Texas. He was also an avid Indian artifact collector at sites along the Red River in Red River County, Texas, as well as in McCurtain County, Oklahoma, especially the collection of Caddo ceramic vessels, and also dug at sites he knew in the area, including the Wright Plantation site (41RR7), which he owned, and the Sam Coffman site (now known as Sam Kaufman, 41RR16, and for a short time known as the ...


Feature-Scale Analysis Using Ground-Penetrating Radar And Low Altitude Prospection At The Collins Mounds Site, Northwest Arkansas, Stephanie M. Sullivan, Tiago Attore Jan 2018

Feature-Scale Analysis Using Ground-Penetrating Radar And Low Altitude Prospection At The Collins Mounds Site, Northwest Arkansas, Stephanie M. Sullivan, Tiago Attore

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Geophysical survey and other non-invasive methods are, in some cases, the only options available for archaeological investigation. This is exemplified at the Collins site, a possible Late Woodland to Middle Mississippian period, multi-mound, civic ceremonial center in Northwest Arkansas. The site is located on private property and although excavation is not allowed, non-invasive survey methods are permitted on its northern section. This paper presents the results of a ground-penetrating radar survey over Mounds B, C, and D. The results reveal a number of features that are interpreted as mortuary structures as well as evidence of multiple building episodes over time ...


Kinetic Landscape And Unalloyed Potential: Rethinking The Extractive Landscape Of Michigan's Native Mass Copper Mining Industry, Sean Gohman Jan 2018

Kinetic Landscape And Unalloyed Potential: Rethinking The Extractive Landscape Of Michigan's Native Mass Copper Mining Industry, Sean Gohman

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This dissertation examines the extractive landscape and persistent lifespan of native mass copper mining in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. The historic native copper mining industry of Michigan lasted for over a century, though its impacts on the landscape can be broken into two distinct, though overlapping, phases of extractive practice: mass mining and disseminated lode mining. Each mined specific native copper deposits, utilized related but specialized technologies, and relied upon different sources of energy to power its practices. A first, formative phase of mass mining exploited fissures of pure metallic copper using traditional technology and organic sources of fuel. A ...


Fragments Of Identity: A Study Of Ceramic Figurines From The Terminal Formative Period In The Lower Río Verde Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico, Rachael Wedemeyer Jan 2018

Fragments Of Identity: A Study Of Ceramic Figurines From The Terminal Formative Period In The Lower Río Verde Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico, Rachael Wedemeyer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis is a descriptive study of 143 ceramic figurines from two different sites in the Coastal region of Oaxaca, Mexico, occupied during the Terminal Formative period (150BC-AD250). The site of Río Viejo operated as a large ceremonial center in the Lower Río Verde Valley during the Terminal Formative Period and attracted people from surrounding communities during large-scale rituals (Barber & Joyce 2015; Joyce 2016). The second site, Cerro de la Virgen, was a contemporary hilltop community in the region (Joyce et al. 2013). By studying ceramic figurines from two sites in this period, regional patterns can be discerned.

Studying the aesthetics, uses ...