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2017

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Articles 1 - 30 of 117

Full-Text Articles in Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque Art and Architecture

Finding Lost & Found: Designer’S Notes From The Process Of Creating A Jewish Game For Learning, Owen Gottlieb Dec 2017

Finding Lost & Found: Designer’S Notes From The Process Of Creating A Jewish Game For Learning, Owen Gottlieb

Articles

This article provides context for and examines aspects of the design process of a game for learning. Lost & Found (2017a, 2017b) is a tabletop-to-mobile game series designed to teach medieval religious legal systems, beginning with Moses Maimonides’ Mishneh Torah (1180), a cornerstone work of Jewish legal rabbinic literature. Through design narratives, the article demonstrates the complex design decisions faced by the team as they balance the needs of player engagement with learning goals. In the process the designers confront challenges in developing winstates and in working with complex resource management. The article provides insight into the pathways the team found ...


Keeping Our Eyes Open: Visualizing Networks And Art History, Stephanie Porras Nov 2017

Keeping Our Eyes Open: Visualizing Networks And Art History, Stephanie Porras

Artl@s Bulletin

Network visualizations have the potential to translate messy archival work into clouds of connection, powerful maps of relations that can reveal hidden agents or nodes of production. But network visualizations must also be understood as artifacts of our own visual culture, laden with the biases and limits of both past and present knowledge systems. Rather than seeing networks as uniform webs of connection, social network analysis must productively interrogate how biopolitical, cultural and social power are manifested within these visualizations, reinforcing the biases and lacunae of the archive.


Continuity And Disruption In European Networks Of Print Production, 1550-1750, Matthew D. Lincoln Nov 2017

Continuity And Disruption In European Networks Of Print Production, 1550-1750, Matthew D. Lincoln

Artl@s Bulletin

Computational analysis of the potential historical professional networks inferred from surviving print impressions offers novel insight into the evolution of early modern artistic printmaking in Europe. This analysis traces a longue durée print production history that examines the changing ways in which different regional printmaking communities interacted between 1550 and 1750, highlighting the powerful impact of demographic forces and calling in to question narratives based on single key individuals or the emergence of specific national schools.


Building Heaven On Earth: Bishop Maurice And The Novam Fabricam Of Burgos Cathedral, Teresa Witcombe Nov 2017

Building Heaven On Earth: Bishop Maurice And The Novam Fabricam Of Burgos Cathedral, Teresa Witcombe

Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies

The cathedral of Burgos, founded in 1221, was one of the first Gothic cathedrals to be constructed in the kingdom of Castile. Built by French masons and craftsmen, it stands as a monument to the introduction of the opus francigenum into Spain, and the convergence of French architectural models with Spanish ecclesiastical culture. As the thirteenth century progressed, this foreign style was adopted in a number of new cathedrals, including those of Toledo and León. Yet, although the architectural history of Burgos has been discussed in detail, far less is known about the cathedral’s founder and patron, Maurice, bishop ...


Administration, Interaction, And Identity In Lydia Before The Persian Empire: A New Seal From Sardis, Elspeth Dusinberre Nov 2017

Administration, Interaction, And Identity In Lydia Before The Persian Empire: A New Seal From Sardis, Elspeth Dusinberre

Classics Faculty Contributions

A stamp seal excavated at Sardis in 2011 is a local product dating to the period of the Lydian Kingdom. It was found in a churned-up deposit along with artifacts dating before the mid-6th century BCE, including a large proportion of high-status items: the seal itself and an ivory furniture inlay showing a female figure holding a lion upside down, as well as fine pottery, bronze arrowheads, a few scattered human bones, and other items. The deposit seems to be destruction debris from the Persian sack of the city in ca. 550 b.c.e. The seal is unique and ...


“Safe From Destruction By Fire”: Isabella Stewart Gardner’S Venetian Manuscripts, Anne-Marie Eze Oct 2017

“Safe From Destruction By Fire”: Isabella Stewart Gardner’S Venetian Manuscripts, Anne-Marie Eze

Manuscript Studies

The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston houses over thirty Venetian manuscripts dating from the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries. They comprise official documents issued by the Doges; histories of the Republic of Venice, its government, and the patriciate; diplomas; and a statute book of a lay confraternity. Most volumes contain complete and dated texts, are illuminated, and survive in their original bindings. The collection, therefore, charts the evolution over three centuries of Venetian book production, and provides a wealth of sources for the study of Venetian history, portraiture, iconography, genealogy, and heraldry.

Isabella Stewart Gardner (1840–1924) purchased many of ...


Romanticism And Religion: The Superb Lily, Alexis Marie Michelle Zilen Oct 2017

Romanticism And Religion: The Superb Lily, Alexis Marie Michelle Zilen

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

“The Superb Lily,” was donated by Geoff Jackson, class of 1991 and beloved benefactor of Gettysburg College, to Special Collections. This first edition piece was published in the twenty first page of the book, Temple of Flora. This text is considered the greatest and most famous florilegia of the twentieth century due to its accuracy of descriptions and vast size. It contained a total of thirty five floral prints. The publisher, Robert Thornton, produced numerous copies of this book in the same year, however, the exact number of copies is unknown. (excerpt)


Carved Ivory Puzzle Balls, Erica M. Schaumberg Oct 2017

Carved Ivory Puzzle Balls, Erica M. Schaumberg

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The Chinese Carved Ivory Puzzle Balls reference the interest in combing art and nature while designating curiosity in Chinese craftsmanship and imagery affecting a European market.The Chinese Ivory Carved Puzzle Balls have been beloved items in the Gettysburg College collection since they were donated in 1959 by Frank Kramer and John Hampshire. The Puzzle Balls, featuring nine balls were displayed in the Schmucker Hall Library. Alumni love the items and regularly ask about the collection in Special Collections as they represent an aspect of the college they continue to love. [excerpt]


Immolation Of The Phoenix, James H. Raphaelson Oct 2017

Immolation Of The Phoenix, James H. Raphaelson

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The time period of wunderkammer opened a plethora of sciences that scholars devoted their lives to. Among these were botany, zoology, ethnography – studies that had already been somewhat established before. But there were some fields that had not been tapped into, one of them being the study of human anatomy. Up until the late 15th century, the most legitimate writing on anatomy was the Fasciculus medicinae which had very crude illustrations and professed incorrect, archaic theories about the human body. [excerpt]


Botanical Illustrations, Emily N. Roush Oct 2017

Botanical Illustrations, Emily N. Roush

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Botanical illustrations were an integral facet of botany in the Renaissance era. Many naturalists and physicians studied plants in collections to observe and record the naturalia. In many collections, specimens were displayed for visitors to draw and then create illustrations or prints. With an illustration, detail in plants could be captured and visually understood instead of learning through text. The great feature of illustrations was the fact that the specimens could be exotic yet still studied. Kusukawa says, “Pictures enabled scholars to access unobtainable objects, build knowledge of rare objects over time, and study them long after the live specimens ...


Quintus Curtius, Francesca M. Costa Oct 2017

Quintus Curtius, Francesca M. Costa

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

This book would have been created and read during the 1600’s, and throughout the European Enlightenment period. Written in Latin, it was made to be consumed by a wealthy and educated gentleman. This example was donated to the exhibit by Charles Emmons. It is covered in not-so-well-tooled vellum and gold leaf. All in all, it is in good condition with no marginalia, so while the vellum cover in the Renaissance is sometimes used on textbooks or other travel-appropriate tomes, this was probably only in a stationary location for a long period of time. [excerpt]


Crocodiles - The Singular Beast In The Renaissance Cabinet, Peter Zhang Oct 2017

Crocodiles - The Singular Beast In The Renaissance Cabinet, Peter Zhang

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Stuffed crocodiles often predominated many famous cabinets, hanging in the center of the ceiling. Crocodilians are the largest reptiles and the largest predator that spends time on land. They have existed for about 240 million years, and today there are 23 species of crocodilians in total, categorized in three families: 13 species of crocodiles, two species of alligators, and six species of caimans. Archaeologists found a “Supercroc” fossil as long as 40 feet (12 meters) and weighting 17,500 pounds in Niger. They believe that the crocodile lived alongside dinosaurs about 100 million years ago. [excerpt]


19th Century Miniature Landscape And Seascape, Kathleen C. Paul Oct 2017

19th Century Miniature Landscape And Seascape, Kathleen C. Paul

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

As a gift to Gettysburg College, known as Pennsylvania College at the time, Johann Heinrich Wilbrand Stuckenberg willed his vast estate including an extensive 17th-19th century map collection after his death in London in 1903. J.H.W. Stuckenberg, and his wife Mary, were fond of the college for its progressive curriculum and support of his philosophical endeavors in publication, sociology, religion, and his native politics and culture.Two items that were bequeathed to the college are a pair of small paintings, one a landscape, the other a seascape. [excerpt]


Veduta Del Tempio Di Antonino E Faustino In Campo Vaccino, Emma J. Conant-Hiley Oct 2017

Veduta Del Tempio Di Antonino E Faustino In Campo Vaccino, Emma J. Conant-Hiley

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Giovanni Battista Piranesi is one of history’s best etchers and architects. His two main series of copper etchings, I Carceri (The Prisons) and Vedute (The Views) spread out across the European continent and beyond both during his life and after his death. The “Wonders of Nature and Artifice” exhibition at Schmucker Art Gallery is lucky to have one of his original prints from the Vedute series generously on loan, from the Collection of Professor Charles F. Emmons, Professor of Sociology here at Gettysburg College. The print sizes in at 35 inches by 25 and a half inches, depicting a ...


Ortelius Map Of Africa, Meredith D. Staats Oct 2017

Ortelius Map Of Africa, Meredith D. Staats

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The “Presbiteri Iohannis Sive, Abissinorvm Imperii Descriptio,” or “Map of the Kingdom of Prester John,” is a work by Abraham Ortelius, a cartographer, cosmographer, and publisher who was born and died in Antwerp, Belgium. This map was published in the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, or Theater of the World, “the first uniformly sized and systematically collected set of maps by different mapmakers which is acknowledged as the first atlas,” published c. 1570 and edited into a number of languages posthumously through 1612. The atlas contained 70 maps engraved by Frans Hogenberg on 53 folio sheets. [excerpt]


Seutter Map Of America, Meredith D. Staats Oct 2017

Seutter Map Of America, Meredith D. Staats

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The map featured in our show, Novus Orbis sive America, was printed in 1730. The engraving measures 50 x 58 centimeters and is a 1:19,000,000 scale.1 The map was donated by John H.W. and Mary G. Stuckenberg. It shows the “New World,” North and South America; the copy Special Collections owns features hand-colored continents. Different states or regions are colored in yellow, pink, orange, and green. On either side of each continent are islands with trade routes highlighted across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Also present are two text boxes, both in Latin, one in ...


Jasper Skulls And Memento Mori, Kathleen C. Paul Oct 2017

Jasper Skulls And Memento Mori, Kathleen C. Paul

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The jasper skulls in this Curiosity Cabinet sit on the scale atop the touch-ables table. Jasper, a type of impure silica usually a reddish color, is commonly carved for small sculptures, as we see in the skulls.

The reddish tones of both skulls match the overall tone of the cabinet nicely, as well as complimenting the rich medium blue of the walls. Thematically, skulls perfectly align with other objects in the cabinet.

A ubiquitous theme of curiosity cabinets in the 16th and 17th century is the inevitability of death. Symbols of this notion in art work are known as Me ...


Small Asian Wonders, Gabriella A. Bucci Oct 2017

Small Asian Wonders, Gabriella A. Bucci

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

As curiosity grew in the Renaissance, so did the scope of collections of wonders. The Cricket Cage, Jade Screen, and Iron Dragon are three examples of rare collection items from the Far East. While these three east Asian small wonders may have been commonplace in their country of origin, they were considered marvelous to the collectors of Europe who had never seen objects such as these produced in their own countries. [excerpt]


Aurora: A Painting Of The Coming Dawn, Noa Leibson Oct 2017

Aurora: A Painting Of The Coming Dawn, Noa Leibson

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

While collectors and scientists sought out the rarest and best preserved naturalia for their collections, others sought out and commissioned paintings and other forms of artifice to go beside them. One artist held in high regard during the era of curiosity cabinets was Guido Reni, artist of the famed ‘Aurora,’ a copy of which remains in the gallery today. Paintings like this one would have hung regally on the walls of curiosity cabinets, the beauty showing the potential of man, and the themes of nature and classics fitting right in with other pieces surrounding them. [excerpt]


Quartz And Prehnite: Minerals During The Renaissance, Shannon R. Zeltmann Oct 2017

Quartz And Prehnite: Minerals During The Renaissance, Shannon R. Zeltmann

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Minerals were displayed in wonder rooms for their beauty and used by apothecaries for their medical properties and artists, for sculptures and pigments. Minerals during the Renaissance were collected and displayed in wonder rooms to illustrate the beauty of nature. Humanists would have categorized minerals by their external qualities- color, transparency, form, luster, and smell. Over time, geologists continue to study these external qualities when they are first analyzing minerals, and the internal properties. Today the six major factors in identifying minerals are cleavage, the tendency of minerals to break into flat surfaces; color; crystal form or how the form ...


Guardians Of Ink And Vellum: Ethiopian Magical Scrolls, Zachary A. Wesley Oct 2017

Guardians Of Ink And Vellum: Ethiopian Magical Scrolls, Zachary A. Wesley

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Ethiopian magical scrolls are powerful tools to combat sickness and demons in Ethiopian folk belief. As works of art, they display influences from Muslim, Jewish, and Christian sources. The scroll showcased in the “Wonders of Nature and Artifice” Exhibition was graciously donated by Mike Hobor, Gettysburg College Class of 1969. A prolific traveler, Mike purchased this piece in an art shop in Rome along with two other scrolls. 1 The scroll is believed to come from the city of Gondar, and is believed to date to the eighteenth-century. [excerpt]


Blue-And-White Wonder: Ming Dynasty Porcelain Plate, Laura G. Waters Oct 2017

Blue-And-White Wonder: Ming Dynasty Porcelain Plate, Laura G. Waters

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

This authentic Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) plate is a prime example of early export porcelain, a luminous substance that enthralled European collectors. The generous gift of Joyce P. Bishop in honor of her daughter, Kimberly Bishop Connors, Ming Dynasty Blue-and-White Plate is on loan from the Reeves Collection at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia. The plate itself is approximately 7.75 inches (20 cm) in diameter, and appears much deeper from the bottom than it does from the top. Gradually sloping forms are what make the dish so deceptively shallow. In fact, from the reverse, it appears closer in ...


Fossils: Digging Into The Past, Sidney N. Caccioppoli Oct 2017

Fossils: Digging Into The Past, Sidney N. Caccioppoli

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Fossils collected in Renaissance collection cabinets were items of wonder and curiosity. Although sometimes mistaken for other pieces of naturalia, they were widely collected by owners of princely cabinets and scholarly collections.Though naturalists and collectors often kept fossils in their collections, they did not have the same understanding as we do today of what they are. Due to their belief in mythological monsters and naturalia with magical properties, there were often misinterpretations or mislabeled objects to something they were not. According to Kenseth’s “A World of Wonders in One Closet Shut,” some collectors believed that fossilized shark’s ...


A Latin Letter, Francesca M. Costa Oct 2017

A Latin Letter, Francesca M. Costa

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

This manuscript was written sometime within the Renaissance, and can open up the world of a gentleman to us. Johannes Lampreicht would have been classically trained around the same time as he learned how to read, write, and count. Because of this, he could compose letters in Latin, and possibly Greek too. He mentions a few Greek authors, and seems well versed in their work. Throughout he uses many shorthand symbols to make writing faster, including an em-dash, and an ampersand. These do not help date the document, however, because they wereinvented by Cicero’s right-hand-slave Tiro in the first ...


Skeletons In The Closet, Kevin M. Isky Oct 2017

Skeletons In The Closet, Kevin M. Isky

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Among the collections cabinets of the Renaissance, fish, in the forms of naturalia and artificialia, can be widely found. They were sought after for their beauty as well as their relation to the natural world. In the famous frontispiece to Ferrante Imperato’s Dell’historia naturale (1599), fish of varying kinds are hung against and atop the ceiling on either side of a large alligator. They are mixed between an assortment of crustaceans and shells, also sea creatures, including the prized nautilus shell found so abundantly in Renaissance culture. As seen in this frontispiece, fish could be found as decoration ...


Wondrous Cetaceans, Logan D. S. Henley Oct 2017

Wondrous Cetaceans, Logan D. S. Henley

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The Renaissance was named for the cultural rebirth it witnessed. It meant a decrease in the widespread artistic and scientific suppression of the Middle Ages. As a result, Europeans enjoyed a new exploratory enthusiasm, which brought them to the far corners of the world. The concept of exoticism was renewed by European contact with places like China and Brazil. But as well as new cultural connections being bolstered, immense scientific discovery was going on. Science, then named natural philosophy, was seeing breakthrough after breakthrough. Scientists and interested persons brought knowledge and specimens from far and wide together in curiosity cabinets ...


19th Century Writings On The Grand Tour, Emily E. Wilcox Oct 2017

19th Century Writings On The Grand Tour, Emily E. Wilcox

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Two collections of writings, found in the glass cabinet on the left wall of our Wonder Cabinet, contain the descriptions of two travelers’ times abroad during the Grand Tour. The first item is a travel journal written by Henry Louis Baugher, son of Pennsylvania (now Gettysburg) College’s second president, Henry Lewis Baugher. The journal was generously donated to Gettysburg College’s Special Collections and College Archives by Gary Hawbaker, class of 1966. Beneath the travel journal you’ll find a collection of letters written by Louisa Augusta Webb about the tales of her and her sisters’ travels. This compilation ...


Ortelius's Map Of The World And Homann's Ship Model Map, Jane C, Fitzpatrick Oct 2017

Ortelius's Map Of The World And Homann's Ship Model Map, Jane C, Fitzpatrick

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Abraham Ortelius and Johann Baptist Homann were very successful cartographers who benefitted from the rising trend in curiosity cabinets during the Renaissance. Ortelius lived from 1527-1598 and was born in Antwerp, Belgium, and Homann became famous in Nuremberg, Germany during his life from 1663-1724. [excerpt]


Book Review: Baroque Naples And The Industry Of Painting: The World In The Workbench, Jesse Locker Oct 2017

Book Review: Baroque Naples And The Industry Of Painting: The World In The Workbench, Jesse Locker

Art and Design Faculty Publications and Presentations

A brief review of Christopher Marshall's "Baroque Naples and the Industry of Painting: The World in the Workbench," published by Yale University Press in 2016.


Wonders Of Nature And Artifice, Schmucker Art Gallery Oct 2017

Wonders Of Nature And Artifice, Schmucker Art Gallery

Schmucker Art Catalogs

A stuffed blowfish, a meticulously-drawn insect, a ravishing lily, and a rhinoceros horn carved with scenes of plants and animals—these were among the wonders of nature and artifice, the marvels that fueled the Renaissance quest for knowledge. This exhibition explores the intellectual and aesthetic motivations of Renaissance naturalists and collectors, whose wonders of nature and artifice were displayed in elaborate gardens, illustrated books, and remarkable cabinets of curiosities. Collectors were driven by curiosity and a sense of wonder about what seemed to be an ever-expanding world. Students from Prof. Felicia Else’s upper-level art history course and Kay Etheridge ...