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Articles 1 - 30 of 212

Full-Text Articles in Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque Art and Architecture

Patronage And Portable Portraits: Early English Miniatures: 1520-1544, Ashley Owens May 2019

Patronage And Portable Portraits: Early English Miniatures: 1520-1544, Ashley Owens

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Creative Activity, School of Art, Art History and Design

This thesis examines function and patronage of early sixteenth-century portrait miniatures by Lucas Horenbout (d. 1544) and Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/8-1543). Portrait miniatures, a unique form of portraiture emerging in the sixteenth century, have a long tradition in England, but hold an ambiguous place within art history because of their size, variety, and multifaceted function. Scholarship on the topic of early English portrait miniatures defines and discusses the tradition as it applies to the Elizabethan miniatures of Nicholas Hilliard (1547-1619), the first major English-born artist. Therefore, the miniatures prior to Hilliard have been studied as predecessors to his ...


Sub Lege To Sub Gratia: An Iconographic Study Of Van Eyck’S Annunciation, Christopher J. Condon Oct 2018

Sub Lege To Sub Gratia: An Iconographic Study Of Van Eyck’S Annunciation, Christopher J. Condon

Student Publications

When the Archangel Gabriel descended from heaven to inform the Virgin Mary of her status as God’s chosen vehicle for the birth of Jesus Christ, she was immediately filled with a sense of apprehension. Gabriel’s words, “...invenisti enim gratiam apud Deum [you have found favor with God],” reassured the Virgin that she would face no harm, and the scene of the Annunciation (what this moment has come to be called) has forever been immortalized in Christian belief as a watershed moment in the New Testament. While many Byzantine icons of the Medieval period sought to depict this snapshot ...


An Iconographical Analysis Of The Madonna And Child With Saints In The Enclosed Garden, Paige L. Deschapelles Oct 2018

An Iconographical Analysis Of The Madonna And Child With Saints In The Enclosed Garden, Paige L. Deschapelles

Student Publications

The Madonna and Child with Saints in the Enclosed Garden, created approximately between the 1440s and 1460s, is a perfect representation of the highly iconographical images produced during the Renaissance. Although it continues to remain unknown as to who the specific artist responsible for this painting is, it has been attributed to either Robert Campin or one of his many followers. Nevertheless, the depiction of the Virgin Mary holding baby Christ on her lap is heightened as the scene takes place within an enclosed garden, otherwise known as hortus conclusus. Throughout the image itself, one is able to understand how ...


Depictions Of Damnation In The Beatus Manuscripts: Painting Adoptionism As Heresy, Kristin A. Rawlings Oct 2018

Depictions Of Damnation In The Beatus Manuscripts: Painting Adoptionism As Heresy, Kristin A. Rawlings

Lake Forest Papers

No abstract provided.


Archaeology And Conservation Of The Middle Phrygian Gate Complex At Gordion, Turkey, Semih Gönen, Richard F. Liebhart, Naomi F. Miller, Elspeth Dusinberre May 2018

Archaeology And Conservation Of The Middle Phrygian Gate Complex At Gordion, Turkey, Semih Gönen, Richard F. Liebhart, Naomi F. Miller, Elspeth Dusinberre

Classics Faculty Contributions

In 2016, a project was undertaken at Gordion, Turkey, to stabilize and conserve the remains of a rubble platform built early in the Middle Phrygian period (ca. 800–700 b.c.e.) under the vast Gate Complex leading to the megarons on the Citadel Mound. In the process, aspects of Middle Phrygian building strategies came to light that enhanced our understanding gained from the original excavation in the 1950s. This article outlines the archaeology of the Middle Phrygian Gate Complex and the sophisticated internal structures that lent stability to the rubble platform upon which it was built, and examines the ...


Prosocial Religion And Games: Lost & Found, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber Jan 2018

Prosocial Religion And Games: Lost & Found, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber

Articles

In a time when religious legal systems are discussed without an understanding of history or context, it is more important than ever to help widen the understanding and discourse about the prosocial aspects of religious legal systems throughout history. The Lost & Found (www.lostandfoundthegame.com) game series, targeted for an audience of teens through twentysomethings in formal, learning environments, is designed to teach the prosocial aspects of medieval religious systems—specifically collaboration, cooperation, and the balancing of communal and individual/family needs. Set in Fustat (Old Cairo) in the 12th century, the first two games in the series address laws ...


Art Of Jerusalem: Power And Piety In The Holy Land, Abby M. Kornfeld Jan 2018

Art Of Jerusalem: Power And Piety In The Holy Land, Abby M. Kornfeld

Open Educational Resources

This course explores the art and architecture of Jerusalem from the reign of Herod through the Crusades, a period in which the city came under successive Jewish, Roman, Byzantine, Islamic, and Latin domination. Particular attention will be given to the repeated transformation of the landscape of Jerusalem through the destruction, construction, and modification of important religious and cultural monuments. We will gauge the role of Jerusalem as an object of desire for the dispossessed and for pilgrims of three faiths. In addition, we will explore how the accretion of myth and memory shaped the city’s symbolic identity, and how ...


Soaring Without Safety, David Keck, Elyse M. Miata Jan 2018

Soaring Without Safety, David Keck, Elyse M. Miata

Publications

When pilots and avi­ation enthusiasts find themselves in Washington, D.C., they often plan a trip to the Mall to visit the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. But those who love the skies might also want to walk directly across the Mall and visit the Nation­al Gallery of Art, where we recommend taking a look at one of our favorite paintings: Peter Paul Rubens's The Fall of Phaeton. This piece of Ba­roque art speaks powerfully to aviators, as it shows what happens if the rules of the sky are disregarded.


The Medieval Pottery, Camilla Mackay Jan 2018

The Medieval Pottery, Camilla Mackay

Library Staff Research and Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Sebald Beham And The Augsburg Printer Niclas Vom Sand: New Documents On Printing And Frankfurt Before 1550, Alison Stewart Jan 2018

Sebald Beham And The Augsburg Printer Niclas Vom Sand: New Documents On Printing And Frankfurt Before 1550, Alison Stewart

Faculty Publications and Creative Activity, School of Art, Art History and Design

This essay makes known two unpublished documents from the last years of the life of Sebald Beham (1500 Nuremberg–1550 Frankfurt) and uses them as a means to explore Beham’s relationship to printing, the town of Frankfurt, and the Augsburg printer Niclas vom Sand, who remains an unwritten part of the history of the period. The essay is organized as an autobiographical retrospective by an older man forced in prior decades to move from Nuremberg and seek employment and a new life elsewhere. The end of the essay evaluates the documents and aspects of them.


Finding Lost & Found: Designer’S Notes From The Process Of Creating A Jewish Game For Learning, Owen Gottlieb Dec 2017

Finding Lost & Found: Designer’S Notes From The Process Of Creating A Jewish Game For Learning, Owen Gottlieb

Articles

This article provides context for and examines aspects of the design process of a game for learning. Lost & Found (2017a, 2017b) is a tabletop-to-mobile game series designed to teach medieval religious legal systems, beginning with Moses Maimonides’ Mishneh Torah (1180), a cornerstone work of Jewish legal rabbinic literature. Through design narratives, the article demonstrates the complex design decisions faced by the team as they balance the needs of player engagement with learning goals. In the process the designers confront challenges in developing winstates and in working with complex resource management. The article provides insight into the pathways the team found ...


Administration, Interaction, And Identity In Lydia Before The Persian Empire: A New Seal From Sardis, Elspeth Dusinberre Nov 2017

Administration, Interaction, And Identity In Lydia Before The Persian Empire: A New Seal From Sardis, Elspeth Dusinberre

Classics Faculty Contributions

A stamp seal excavated at Sardis in 2011 is a local product dating to the period of the Lydian Kingdom. It was found in a churned-up deposit along with artifacts dating before the mid-6th century BCE, including a large proportion of high-status items: the seal itself and an ivory furniture inlay showing a female figure holding a lion upside down, as well as fine pottery, bronze arrowheads, a few scattered human bones, and other items. The deposit seems to be destruction debris from the Persian sack of the city in ca. 550 b.c.e. The seal is unique and ...


Romanticism And Religion: The Superb Lily, Alexis Marie Michelle Zilen Oct 2017

Romanticism And Religion: The Superb Lily, Alexis Marie Michelle Zilen

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

“The Superb Lily,” was donated by Geoff Jackson, class of 1991 and beloved benefactor of Gettysburg College, to Special Collections. This first edition piece was published in the twenty first page of the book, Temple of Flora. This text is considered the greatest and most famous florilegia of the twentieth century due to its accuracy of descriptions and vast size. It contained a total of thirty five floral prints. The publisher, Robert Thornton, produced numerous copies of this book in the same year, however, the exact number of copies is unknown. (excerpt)


Carved Ivory Puzzle Balls, Erica M. Schaumberg Oct 2017

Carved Ivory Puzzle Balls, Erica M. Schaumberg

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The Chinese Carved Ivory Puzzle Balls reference the interest in combing art and nature while designating curiosity in Chinese craftsmanship and imagery affecting a European market.The Chinese Ivory Carved Puzzle Balls have been beloved items in the Gettysburg College collection since they were donated in 1959 by Frank Kramer and John Hampshire. The Puzzle Balls, featuring nine balls were displayed in the Schmucker Hall Library. Alumni love the items and regularly ask about the collection in Special Collections as they represent an aspect of the college they continue to love. [excerpt]


Immolation Of The Phoenix, James H. Raphaelson Oct 2017

Immolation Of The Phoenix, James H. Raphaelson

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The time period of wunderkammer opened a plethora of sciences that scholars devoted their lives to. Among these were botany, zoology, ethnography – studies that had already been somewhat established before. But there were some fields that had not been tapped into, one of them being the study of human anatomy. Up until the late 15th century, the most legitimate writing on anatomy was the Fasciculus medicinae which had very crude illustrations and professed incorrect, archaic theories about the human body. [excerpt]


Botanical Illustrations, Emily N. Roush Oct 2017

Botanical Illustrations, Emily N. Roush

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Botanical illustrations were an integral facet of botany in the Renaissance era. Many naturalists and physicians studied plants in collections to observe and record the naturalia. In many collections, specimens were displayed for visitors to draw and then create illustrations or prints. With an illustration, detail in plants could be captured and visually understood instead of learning through text. The great feature of illustrations was the fact that the specimens could be exotic yet still studied. Kusukawa says, “Pictures enabled scholars to access unobtainable objects, build knowledge of rare objects over time, and study them long after the live specimens ...


Quintus Curtius, Francesca M. Costa Oct 2017

Quintus Curtius, Francesca M. Costa

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

This book would have been created and read during the 1600’s, and throughout the European Enlightenment period. Written in Latin, it was made to be consumed by a wealthy and educated gentleman. This example was donated to the exhibit by Charles Emmons. It is covered in not-so-well-tooled vellum and gold leaf. All in all, it is in good condition with no marginalia, so while the vellum cover in the Renaissance is sometimes used on textbooks or other travel-appropriate tomes, this was probably only in a stationary location for a long period of time. [excerpt]


Crocodiles - The Singular Beast In The Renaissance Cabinet, Peter Zhang Oct 2017

Crocodiles - The Singular Beast In The Renaissance Cabinet, Peter Zhang

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Stuffed crocodiles often predominated many famous cabinets, hanging in the center of the ceiling. Crocodilians are the largest reptiles and the largest predator that spends time on land. They have existed for about 240 million years, and today there are 23 species of crocodilians in total, categorized in three families: 13 species of crocodiles, two species of alligators, and six species of caimans. Archaeologists found a “Supercroc” fossil as long as 40 feet (12 meters) and weighting 17,500 pounds in Niger. They believe that the crocodile lived alongside dinosaurs about 100 million years ago. [excerpt]


16th Century Antiphon, Abigail K. Major Oct 2017

16th Century Antiphon, Abigail K. Major

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The Renaissance era, which spanned from the 14th century until the 16th century, served as a transitional period. Considered to be a period of rebirth, the Renaissance commenced a revival in culture, literature, and the arts throughout Europe. The 16th century antiphon not only signifies that music was indeed an important aspect during the Renaissance, but is also tangible evidence that choral music, and more specifically Gregorian chant, were prominent forms of musical expression.


19th Century Miniature Landscape And Seascape, Kathleen C. Paul Oct 2017

19th Century Miniature Landscape And Seascape, Kathleen C. Paul

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

As a gift to Gettysburg College, known as Pennsylvania College at the time, Johann Heinrich Wilbrand Stuckenberg willed his vast estate including an extensive 17th-19th century map collection after his death in London in 1903. J.H.W. Stuckenberg, and his wife Mary, were fond of the college for its progressive curriculum and support of his philosophical endeavors in publication, sociology, religion, and his native politics and culture.Two items that were bequeathed to the college are a pair of small paintings, one a landscape, the other a seascape. [excerpt]


Veduta Del Tempio Di Antonino E Faustino In Campo Vaccino, Emma J. Conant-Hiley Oct 2017

Veduta Del Tempio Di Antonino E Faustino In Campo Vaccino, Emma J. Conant-Hiley

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Giovanni Battista Piranesi is one of history’s best etchers and architects. His two main series of copper etchings, I Carceri (The Prisons) and Vedute (The Views) spread out across the European continent and beyond both during his life and after his death. The “Wonders of Nature and Artifice” exhibition at Schmucker Art Gallery is lucky to have one of his original prints from the Vedute series generously on loan, from the Collection of Professor Charles F. Emmons, Professor of Sociology here at Gettysburg College. The print sizes in at 35 inches by 25 and a half inches, depicting a ...


Ortelius Map Of Africa, Meredith D. Staats Oct 2017

Ortelius Map Of Africa, Meredith D. Staats

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The “Presbiteri Iohannis Sive, Abissinorvm Imperii Descriptio,” or “Map of the Kingdom of Prester John,” is a work by Abraham Ortelius, a cartographer, cosmographer, and publisher who was born and died in Antwerp, Belgium. This map was published in the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, or Theater of the World, “the first uniformly sized and systematically collected set of maps by different mapmakers which is acknowledged as the first atlas,” published c. 1570 and edited into a number of languages posthumously through 1612. The atlas contained 70 maps engraved by Frans Hogenberg on 53 folio sheets. [excerpt]


Seutter Map Of America, Meredith D. Staats Oct 2017

Seutter Map Of America, Meredith D. Staats

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The map featured in our show, Novus Orbis sive America, was printed in 1730. The engraving measures 50 x 58 centimeters and is a 1:19,000,000 scale.1 The map was donated by John H.W. and Mary G. Stuckenberg. It shows the “New World,” North and South America; the copy Special Collections owns features hand-colored continents. Different states or regions are colored in yellow, pink, orange, and green. On either side of each continent are islands with trade routes highlighted across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Also present are two text boxes, both in Latin, one in ...


In Defense Of His Holiness: The Cellini Plaque, Christopher J. Condon Oct 2017

In Defense Of His Holiness: The Cellini Plaque, Christopher J. Condon

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The plaque depicting Cellini was donated to Gettysburg College by Reverend Jeremiah Zimmerman, Class of 1873, who later became a lecturer at Syracuse University and a frequent benefactor of Gettysburg College. A highly educated alum, Reverend Zimmerman became a clergyman and traveled the world for over a decade to further his studies, ranging from Asian culture to ancient coinage.

The plaque itself measures 32” x 26.75” x 2.5”, is of considerable weight for a porcelain plate, and is painted in the 19th century academic style to offer a dramatic interpretation of Benvenuto Cellini’s actions during the 1527 ...


Jasper Skulls And Memento Mori, Kathleen C. Paul Oct 2017

Jasper Skulls And Memento Mori, Kathleen C. Paul

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

The jasper skulls in this Curiosity Cabinet sit on the scale atop the touch-ables table. Jasper, a type of impure silica usually a reddish color, is commonly carved for small sculptures, as we see in the skulls.

The reddish tones of both skulls match the overall tone of the cabinet nicely, as well as complimenting the rich medium blue of the walls. Thematically, skulls perfectly align with other objects in the cabinet.

A ubiquitous theme of curiosity cabinets in the 16th and 17th century is the inevitability of death. Symbols of this notion in art work are known as Me ...


Rhinoceros Horn Libation Cup, Erin C. Harten Oct 2017

Rhinoceros Horn Libation Cup, Erin C. Harten

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

On display in the “Wonders of Nature and Artifice” exhibit at Gettysburg College is an exquisitely carved Chinese rhinoceros horn cup decorated with many images of animals, from dragons to tortoises.The rhinoceros horn has been noted by the Chinese as early as the T’ang dynasty (618-907) to have magical properties, and it was believed that when a poisonous liquid was poured into a rhino horn, the horn would change colors to alert to the presence of poison.Due to these magical properties, rhinoceros horns have been regarded as especially valuable. [excerpt]


Small Asian Wonders, Gabriella A. Bucci Oct 2017

Small Asian Wonders, Gabriella A. Bucci

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

As curiosity grew in the Renaissance, so did the scope of collections of wonders. The Cricket Cage, Jade Screen, and Iron Dragon are three examples of rare collection items from the Far East. While these three east Asian small wonders may have been commonplace in their country of origin, they were considered marvelous to the collectors of Europe who had never seen objects such as these produced in their own countries. [excerpt]


Aurora: A Painting Of The Coming Dawn, Noa Leibson Oct 2017

Aurora: A Painting Of The Coming Dawn, Noa Leibson

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

While collectors and scientists sought out the rarest and best preserved naturalia for their collections, others sought out and commissioned paintings and other forms of artifice to go beside them. One artist held in high regard during the era of curiosity cabinets was Guido Reni, artist of the famed ‘Aurora,’ a copy of which remains in the gallery today. Paintings like this one would have hung regally on the walls of curiosity cabinets, the beauty showing the potential of man, and the themes of nature and classics fitting right in with other pieces surrounding them. [excerpt]


Quartz And Prehnite: Minerals During The Renaissance, Shannon R. Zeltmann Oct 2017

Quartz And Prehnite: Minerals During The Renaissance, Shannon R. Zeltmann

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Minerals were displayed in wonder rooms for their beauty and used by apothecaries for their medical properties and artists, for sculptures and pigments. Minerals during the Renaissance were collected and displayed in wonder rooms to illustrate the beauty of nature. Humanists would have categorized minerals by their external qualities- color, transparency, form, luster, and smell. Over time, geologists continue to study these external qualities when they are first analyzing minerals, and the internal properties. Today the six major factors in identifying minerals are cleavage, the tendency of minerals to break into flat surfaces; color; crystal form or how the form ...


Guardians Of Ink And Vellum: Ethiopian Magical Scrolls, Zachary A. Wesley Oct 2017

Guardians Of Ink And Vellum: Ethiopian Magical Scrolls, Zachary A. Wesley

Wonders of Nature and Artifice

Ethiopian magical scrolls are powerful tools to combat sickness and demons in Ethiopian folk belief. As works of art, they display influences from Muslim, Jewish, and Christian sources. The scroll showcased in the “Wonders of Nature and Artifice” Exhibition was graciously donated by Mike Hobor, Gettysburg College Class of 1969. A prolific traveler, Mike purchased this piece in an art shop in Rome along with two other scrolls. 1 The scroll is believed to come from the city of Gondar, and is believed to date to the eighteenth-century. [excerpt]