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Articles 121 - 145 of 145

Full-Text Articles in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Studies

Editor's Note, Padraig O'Malley Jan 1988

Editor's Note, Padraig O'Malley

New England Journal of Public Policy

On occasion, the New England Journal of Public Policy will devote an entire issue to consideration of a public policy matter of major importance. The AIDS epidemic is such a matter, with a likely impact of overwhelming consequence well into the twenty-first century. The epidemic raises fundamental questions regarding the nature of individual freedom, our responsibilities to others, the always delicate balance between private rights and the public interest, and society's obligation to its "out" groups — whose members it has stigmatized, discriminated against, ridiculed, and treated as less than full and equal citizens. Indeed, it requires us to ask ...


Aids: An Overview, Loretta Mclaughlin Jan 1988

Aids: An Overview, Loretta Mclaughlin

New England Journal of Public Policy

"We stand nakedly in front of a very serious pandemic, as mortal as any pandemic there ever has been," said Halfdan Mahler, director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO). "I don't know of any greater killer than AIDS, not to speak of its psychological, social and economic maiming. Everything is getting worse and worse with AIDS and all of us have been underestimating it, and I in particular. We're running scared. I cannot imagine a worse health problem in this century." When asked to compare AIDS to other epidemics, such as smallpox, that have infected and killed over ...


Epidemiology And Health Policy Imperatives For Aids, Katherine Hill Chavigny, Sarah L. Turner, Anne K. Kibrick Jan 1988

Epidemiology And Health Policy Imperatives For Aids, Katherine Hill Chavigny, Sarah L. Turner, Anne K. Kibrick

New England Journal of Public Policy

The purpose of this article is to describe the statistics and epidemiological facts about the most virulent epidemic of our age, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The discussion argues for broadened public policy to promote the surveillance of communities in order to enhance the effectiveness of data gathering for epidemiological reasoning, analysis, and control measures. To accomplish these goals, the essential characteristics of epidemiology are defined. The use of deductive and inductive reasoning is applied to describe and analyze known facts concerning the AIDS epidemic. Hypotheses are suggested from current amorphous and continually changing information to assist in further explanations of ...


The Hiv Seropositive State And Progression To Aids: An Overview Of Factors Promoting Progression, Paul H. Black, Elinor M. Levy Jan 1988

The Hiv Seropositive State And Progression To Aids: An Overview Of Factors Promoting Progression, Paul H. Black, Elinor M. Levy

New England Journal of Public Policy

We have considered factors that predispose to infection by the human immunodeficiency virus as well as the clinical consequences of infection. We have also reviewed what is known about the virological status of the asymptomatic carrier, particularly the female, and the fact that pregnancy may be a cofactor for progression of HIV disease in seropositive women. Additionally, we have discussed several other cofactors that may promote the progression of HIV infection. These include intercurrent infection, excessive use of recreational drugs and alcohol, malnutrition, and stress. With respect to stress, we have reviewed evidence indicating that certain personality factors, by buffering ...


The Quest For An Aids Vaccine, Robert T. Schooley Jan 1988

The Quest For An Aids Vaccine, Robert T. Schooley

New England Journal of Public Policy

More than fifty thousand cases of AIDS have been reported in the United States since the disease wasfirst described in 1981. Many times this number of people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which has been identified as the agent responsible for the illness. The seriousness of the disease, coupled with the relatively rapid spread of HIV, has fueled the effort for development of an effective vaccine.

Much is now known about the life cycle of the virus, and about its structural components. This information, and information about methods of transmission of the virus, form the basis for a ...


Understanding The Psychological Impact Of Aids: The Other Epidemic, Marshall Forstein Jan 1988

Understanding The Psychological Impact Of Aids: The Other Epidemic, Marshall Forstein

New England Journal of Public Policy

HIV has created two epidemics, one of disease, the other the consequence of the psychological response to that disease. Thus far, behavioral change is the only effective means of interrupting the transmission of HIV. The underlying psychological dimensions of the societal and individual responses to AIDS are discussed, with suggestions for how both rational thinking and irrational fears and anxiety contribute to the development of public policy. Examples are given of how short-term solutions to reduce anxiety may actually create long-term problems, potentially increasing the risk of transmission of HIV. Specific psychological mechanisms that contribute to the epidemic of fear ...


Hiv Antibody Screening: An Ethical Framework For Evaluating Proposed Programs, Ronald Bayer, Carol Levine, Susan M. Wolf Jan 1988

Hiv Antibody Screening: An Ethical Framework For Evaluating Proposed Programs, Ronald Bayer, Carol Levine, Susan M. Wolf

New England Journal of Public Policy

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) poses a compelling ethical challenge to medicine, science, public health, the legal system, and our political democracy. This report focuses on one aspect of that challenge: the use of blood tests to identify individuals who have been infected with the retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this article, we follow the terminology recently proposed by the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses; that is, we use the term human immunodeficiency virus. This replaces the more cumbersome dual terminology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV).

The issue is urgent: the ...


Hiv Antibody Testing: Performance And Counseling Issues, Michael Gross Jan 1988

Hiv Antibody Testing: Performance And Counseling Issues, Michael Gross

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article assesses the performance of currently used tests for exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the infectious agent associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); suggests, in view of that information, guidelines for counseling people seeking HIV antibody testing; and evaluates the claim that because antibody test results will effect behavior change in those who are infected, all members of high-risk groups should be tested.

HIV testing is likely to yield a high proportion of false-positive results in low-risk populations and infants born to infected mothers. A negative result may not establish freedom from infection in high-risk groups or the ...


Covering The Plague Years: Four Approaches To The Aids Beat, James Kinsella Jan 1988

Covering The Plague Years: Four Approaches To The Aids Beat, James Kinsella

New England Journal of Public Policy

AIDS reporting has changed dramatically since 1981. But it was not until mid-1985, when Rock Hudson was diagnosed with the disease, that media outlets began playing the epidemic as a story of major proportions.

Because almost no major media institution embraced the AIDS story as an important issue, coverage of the epidemic was often the result of a reporter's initiative. Consequently, the connection the individual journalist had with the epidemic became a much stronger influence on what appeared in the news and on what Americans knew about the crisis than in any other recent major health story. This article ...


The Aids Epidemic: A Prism Distorting Social And Legal Principles, Alec Gray Jan 1988

The Aids Epidemic: A Prism Distorting Social And Legal Principles, Alec Gray

New England Journal of Public Policy

The AIDS epidemic is affecting American society in far-reaching and unexpected ways. It touches our institutions, our value systems, and our private lives. Social issues seem to change and become distorted by the epidemic 's prismlike effect. This article examines some of the major public health issues raised by the epidemic, ranging from testing to contact tracing and quarantine. It argues that while the civil rights of individuals may have to be sacrificed to stem the spread of the disease, those rights should not be abandoned unless a clear benefit to the public health would result.

Issues of discrimination in ...


Behavioral Change In Homosexual Men At Risk Of Aids: Intervention And Policy Implications, Suzanne B. Montgomery, Jill G. Joseph Jan 1988

Behavioral Change In Homosexual Men At Risk Of Aids: Intervention And Policy Implications, Suzanne B. Montgomery, Jill G. Joseph

New England Journal of Public Policy

With more than fifty thousand cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosed since its initial recognition in 1981 and no cure or vaccine in sight, experts agree that prevention is of the utmost importance. Yet very little research has investigated how existing social-psychological and health behavioral knowledge can be applied to the special circumstances of programmatic responses to AIDS. One of the central aims of our own research group has been to describe the psychosocial determinants of successful behavioral risk reduction among homosexual men, the largest affected group. This work is reviewed and its implications for the development of intervention ...


Accounts Of An Illness: Extracts, Ron Schreiber Jan 1988

Accounts Of An Illness: Extracts, Ron Schreiber

New England Journal of Public Policy

The following pieces, with an introduction by the author, are from a work in progress entitled John, to be published in the fall of 1988 by Hanging Loose Press and Calamus Books, New York City. In this work, Ron Schreiber, John's lover of nine years, writes a chronicle of a terminal illness from diagnosis to death.

Ron Schreiber's poems first appeared in Radical America's "Facing AIDS," a special issue devoted to AIDS.


The Aids Project Newsletter (December 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project Dec 1987

The Aids Project Newsletter (December 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project

The AIDS Project Newsletter

No abstract provided.


The Aids Project Newsletter (November 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project Nov 1987

The Aids Project Newsletter (November 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project

The AIDS Project Newsletter

No abstract provided.


The Aids Project Newsletter (October 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project Oct 1987

The Aids Project Newsletter (October 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project

The AIDS Project Newsletter

No abstract provided.


The Aids Project Newsletter (September 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project Sep 1987

The Aids Project Newsletter (September 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project

The AIDS Project Newsletter

No abstract provided.


The Aids Project Newsletter (August 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project Aug 1987

The Aids Project Newsletter (August 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project

The AIDS Project Newsletter

No abstract provided.


The Aids Project Newsletter (July 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project Jul 1987

The Aids Project Newsletter (July 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project

The AIDS Project Newsletter

No abstract provided.


The Aids Project Newsletter (June 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project Jun 1987

The Aids Project Newsletter (June 1987), David Ketchum, The Aids Project

The AIDS Project Newsletter

No abstract provided.


The Aids Project News (November 1986), The Aids Project Nov 1986

The Aids Project News (November 1986), The Aids Project

The AIDS Project News

No abstract provided.


The Aids Project News (October 1986), The Aids Project Oct 1986

The Aids Project News (October 1986), The Aids Project

The AIDS Project News

No abstract provided.


The Aids Project News (September 1986), The Aids Project Sep 1986

The Aids Project News (September 1986), The Aids Project

The AIDS Project News

No abstract provided.


The Aids Project News (August 1986), The Aids Project Aug 1986

The Aids Project News (August 1986), The Aids Project

The AIDS Project News

No abstract provided.


The Aids Project News (July 1986), The Aids Project Jul 1986

The Aids Project News (July 1986), The Aids Project

The AIDS Project News

No abstract provided.


The Aids Project News (June 1986), The Aids Project Jun 1986

The Aids Project News (June 1986), The Aids Project

The AIDS Project News

No abstract provided.