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Full-Text Articles in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Studies

Same-Sex Sexual Coercion Among Women: The Impact Of Minority Stress On Perpetration And Victimization Experiences Of Women Of Diverse Sexual Identities, Allison Kirschbaum Jul 2019

Same-Sex Sexual Coercion Among Women: The Impact Of Minority Stress On Perpetration And Victimization Experiences Of Women Of Diverse Sexual Identities, Allison Kirschbaum

Dissertations

The purpose of the current study was to investigate women’s experiences with same-sex sexual coercion perpetration and victimization. Specifically, I sought to explore the role that the stress of living as a sexual minority plays in these experiences as well as to determine whether the psychological variables of perceived powerlessness, psychological distress, social support, and alcohol use mediate the relationship between minority stress and perpetration and victimization experiences. Data were collected online from self-identified women and individuals assigned female at birth who reported experiencing genital sexual contact with another woman (N=339). Of the cisgender women in the sample ...


Intersectional Identities And Microaggressions: The Experience Of Transgender Females, Cory Daniel Gerwe Jul 2019

Intersectional Identities And Microaggressions: The Experience Of Transgender Females, Cory Daniel Gerwe

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

Historically, attention given to privileged LGBT minorities such as white LGBT individuals, renders those who experience multiple minority identities as unacknowledged. There is a scarcity of research exploring the intersectional experiences of transgender individuals and how these experiences impact their mental health and well-being. For that reason, the intent of this study was to learn more about transgender females who hold additional minority statuses, their transition experiences, their circumstances, and the nature of their social environment. Specifically, I investigated trans female experiences of transitioning with a specific focus on the intersection of gender identity, race, socioeconomic status (SES), and age ...


Dmt And “The Man Box:” Provoking Change And Encouraging Authentic Living, An Arts-Based Project, Steven Reynolds May 2019

Dmt And “The Man Box:” Provoking Change And Encouraging Authentic Living, An Arts-Based Project, Steven Reynolds

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This thesis explores the mind-body experience through an arts-based research approach to examine, and redefine the emotional capacity and usefulness of males through societal determinants that limits and hinders men from living their authentic selves. Through the lens of a metaphoric “Man Box” 112 men participated in a workshop recreating their personal narratives of socialization through, style of dress, coping mechanisms, belief systems and who they should be as men through society's standards. In the “Man Box,” male bonding, and emotional feelings are discouraged, while the objectification of women, material property and physical/emotional strength are encouraged. This research ...


Queerness, Witchcraft, And Embodied Presence: Aesthetic Knowings Of What A Body Can Do, Megan Bigelow May 2019

Queerness, Witchcraft, And Embodied Presence: Aesthetic Knowings Of What A Body Can Do, Megan Bigelow

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Taking as a point of entry the critique of representation and affirming the limitations of the cuts that language makes, this capstone project explores the imbrications and assemblages between Foucault’s concept of subjugated knowledges, witchcraft and other body-based ways of knowing and being, and the consciousness of non-human forms such as plants and through the framework of non-representational theory, process philosophies, aesthetics, queerness, and the concept of difference itself.

Since such theories themselves are living, breathing entities, this capstone project explores the ideological split that has occurred between sacred and secular beliefs, moving through different figures such as nuns ...


Harmony, Dissonance, Or Harm? The Psychological And Spiritual Promises And Perils Of Gay Christian Celibacy, Darren Jay Freeman-Coppadge Aug 2018

Harmony, Dissonance, Or Harm? The Psychological And Spiritual Promises And Perils Of Gay Christian Celibacy, Darren Jay Freeman-Coppadge

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Identity conflicts between sexuality and spirituality faced by religious lesbian and gay people have been described in literature, along with various methods to resolve such conflicts, including sexual orientation change efforts and identity integration. But a dearth of literature exists regarding celibacy as a means of resolving identity conflict. This study employed grounded theory to investigate the psychological and spiritual wellbeing of 12 current and former gay Christian celibates (GCCs). Results revealed how celibacy could harmonize sexuality and Christian spirituality, benefiting some celibates by providing them peace, satisfaction, and spiritual vibrancy. However, for many others, celibacy instigated dissonance between their ...


Heterosexist Discrimination And Lgbq Activism: Examining A Moderated Mediation Model, Trevor Lee Dunn Aug 2018

Heterosexist Discrimination And Lgbq Activism: Examining A Moderated Mediation Model, Trevor Lee Dunn

Doctoral Dissertations

Although the negative outcomes of heterosexist discrimination have been well researched in the psychological literature, positive coping mechanisms and outcomes, such as engagement in activism aimed at improving the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) individuals, are understudied. The present study examined potential mediators (i.e., LGBQ relational connectedness, search for meaning, and heterosexism awareness), moderators (i.e., LGBQ identity centrality and perceived efficacy for collective action), and moderated mediation of the link between heterosexist discrimination and activism among 867 LGBQ adults. Results revealed that heterosexist discrimination was directly and indirectly (via search for meaning and heterosexism awareness ...


Affirmative Consent Endorsement And Peer Norms Supporting Sexual Violence Among Vulnerable Students On College Campuses, Alyssa Marie Glace Jul 2018

Affirmative Consent Endorsement And Peer Norms Supporting Sexual Violence Among Vulnerable Students On College Campuses, Alyssa Marie Glace

Dissertations and Theses

Understanding how students endorse affirmative consent in their sexual relationships is essential to sexual violence prevention. Some research has indicated that LGBT students and students with disabilities may negotiate and endorse consent uniquely because of socially constructed traditional sexual scripts. Research indicates gender differences may exist as well. The proposed research examines differences based on gender, LGBT status, and disability in affirmative consent endorsement and peer norms around sexual violence. Results indicated that women, nonbinary students, LGBT students, and students with disabilities were significantly less likely than their privileged counterparts to indicate low endorsement of affirmative consent. Results also indicated ...


Queer And Flourishing: Understanding The Psychosocial Well-Being Of Non-Heterosexual Men, Philip James Cooke Jul 2018

Queer And Flourishing: Understanding The Psychosocial Well-Being Of Non-Heterosexual Men, Philip James Cooke

Dissertations (2009 -)

Non-heterosexual populations often face the additional stress of discrimination, harassment, and social rejection due to their sexual identity. These prejudicial experiences, along with other factors such as internalized homonegativity, negative appraisal of one’s sexual identity, and poor social support, contribute to an increased risk for negative mental health outcomes for sexual minority individuals (King et al., 2008; Meyer, 2003). While much is known about factors predicting psychosocial distress in LGB populations, less is known about the factors that predict psychosocial well-being in this group. The present study investigated the minority stress model’s (Meyer, 1995; 2003) hypothesis that minority ...


Bisexuality And Motherhood: An Investigation Of Psychological Distress, Parenting Efficacy, And Self Esteem Through Identity Theory, Laurin B. Roberts Apr 2018

Bisexuality And Motherhood: An Investigation Of Psychological Distress, Parenting Efficacy, And Self Esteem Through Identity Theory, Laurin B. Roberts

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Bisexual individuals are more likely to be parenting as compared to other sexual minority individuals, however a review of the current research on sexual minority parenting and families demonstrates a limited understanding of the experiences unique to this population. Furthermore, the socialization of parenthood as both a heterosexual practice, and one that is intertwined with womanhood suggests bisexual mothers may encounter unique challenges and experiences in negotiating these two identities. Therefore the current study seeks to expand upon the literature with a primary aim of understanding the relationship between bisexuality and motherhood identities, psychological distress, parenting efficacy, and self-esteem from ...


Race, Sexuality, And Masculinity On The Down Low, Stephen Kochenash Feb 2018

Race, Sexuality, And Masculinity On The Down Low, Stephen Kochenash

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In a so-called post-racial America, a new gay identity has flourished and come into the limelight. However, in recent years, researchers have concluded that not all men who have sex with other men (MSM) self-identify as gay, most noticeably a large population of Black men. It is possible that a tainted history of Black enslavement in this country that is inextricably linked with ideas of space, surveillance, subversion, and survival inform a Black male’s self-identification as being “on the down low” (DL). This begs the question: What does mainstream society view as gay-ness and how is the DL ...


Discrimination, Mental Health, And Preparedness For Aging In Trans(Gender)/Gender-Nonconforming Adults, Richard S. Henry Jan 2018

Discrimination, Mental Health, And Preparedness For Aging In Trans(Gender)/Gender-Nonconforming Adults, Richard S. Henry

Theses and Dissertations

This cross-sectional study examined relationships among discrimination, mental health (i.e., depression and anxiety), preparation for aging (i.e., familiarity and planning), social support, death attitudes, and aging anxiety among TGNC adults (N = 154). Neither discrimination nor mental health predicted preparation for aging familiarity or planning. Discrimination did, however, predict both anxiety and depression, although only the non-affirmation subscale was a unique predictor of both. As discrimination and mental health were not a significant predictor of preparedness for aging in the previous regressions, the hypothesized mediation model and subsequent moderated mediation models were not conducted. Additional exploratory multiple regressions were ...


Factors Impacting Parental Acceptance Of An Lgbt Child, Dani E. Rosenkrantz Jan 2018

Factors Impacting Parental Acceptance Of An Lgbt Child, Dani E. Rosenkrantz

Theses and Dissertations--Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology

Chrisler’s (2017) Theoretical Framework of Parental Reactions When a Child Comes Out as Lesbian, Gay, or Bisexual suggests that parental reactions to having a non-heteronormative child are impacted by a process of cognitively appraising information about their child’s identity and experiencing and coping with emotional responses, both of which are influenced by contextual factors such as a parent’s value system. However, some religious values can challenge parents in the process of accepting a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) child. The purpose of this study was to test a model that examines the influence of cognitive-affective factors ...


Whether Or Not 'It Gets Better'…Coping With Parental Heterosexist Rejection, Cara Herbitter Dec 2017

Whether Or Not 'It Gets Better'…Coping With Parental Heterosexist Rejection, Cara Herbitter

Graduate Masters Theses

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people face the burden of additional stressors as a result of their experiences of stigma and discrimination regarding their sexual minority status. Parental rejection of LGB people in the context of heterosexism serves as a powerful minority stressor associated with poorer mental health (e.g., Bouris et al., 2010; Ryan, Huebner, Diaz, & Sanchez, 2009). Few contemporary theories exist to describe the experience of parental rejection. In addition, the extant empirical research has focused primarily on youth experiences among White and urban LGB samples, signaling the need for research across the lifespan investigating more diverse samples. Moreover, prior published studies have not focused directly on how LGB people cope with parental rejection, but rather on the negative consequences associated with the rejection more generally. For the current study, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 LGB and queer (LGBQ) people about their experiences coping with parental rejection using retrospective recall questions. I sought to maximize diversity in the realms of experiences of parental rejection, race, ethnicity, class, sexual orientation, gender, age, and U.S. regions. I analyzed the data using an adaptation of grounded theory methodology based upon the work of psychologist David Rennie (e.g., Rennie, Phillips, & Quartaro, 1988). The core category that emerged was: Parental rejection was experienced as harmfully corrective and then internalized; reframing the rejection as heterosexism mitigated internalized heterosexism and enabled adaptive acceptance strategies. The findings documented the common experiences shared by participants, which led to an original stage model of coping with heterosexism parental rejection, a central contribution of this study. In addition ...


Girls Are Us: A Collection Of Oral Histories From The Jmu Community, Anne M. Sherman May 2017

Girls Are Us: A Collection Of Oral Histories From The Jmu Community, Anne M. Sherman

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

On a campus where women make up a majority of the student population, it is especially important that female voices are heard and given a platform on which they can control their own narrative. I wanted to give those female-identifying voices that platform. I conducted a series of interviews to examine how college-aged female-identifying students feel about their identity and how they construct that identity within the climate of the JMU community. I was particularly interested in the intersections of gender, race, ethnicity, class, sexual preference, and ability. I asked each person to share their stories of times when they ...


Psychopathology In Sexual Minority Individuals: Prevalence, Treatment Utilization, And Association With Relationship Quality, Angela Li Jan 2017

Psychopathology In Sexual Minority Individuals: Prevalence, Treatment Utilization, And Association With Relationship Quality, Angela Li

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Overall, this study was designed to explore differences in the prevalence of and service utilization for mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual individuals, as well as to examine the association between romantic relationship quality and psychopathology among LGB individuals. For Study 1, we compared the prevalence of meeting DSM-IV criteria for a mood, anxiety, substance use, comorbid, and any disorder between LGB and heterosexual individuals using data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R; N = 6,404). We found that compared to heterosexual individuals, there was a higher prevalence of mood, anxiety ...


Bye Bye Binary: Exploring Non-Binary Youths' Experiences Of Mental Health, Discrimination, And Community Belongingness, Ellis Furman Jan 2017

Bye Bye Binary: Exploring Non-Binary Youths' Experiences Of Mental Health, Discrimination, And Community Belongingness, Ellis Furman

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In recent years, there has been an increase in research focusing on the impacts of social exclusion and discrimination on the mental health of transgender populations. Despite this, few studies have focused on the experiences of gender non-conforming, or “non-binary” individuals. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) study (N = 10) used the arts-informed method of body mapping, individual interviews, and group discussions to examine non-binary young peoples’ experiences of discrimination in relation to mental health. Participants consisted young people (ages 16-25) living in Waterloo, Ontario. A visual analysis, thematic analysis, and member-checking session were employed to analyze collected data. In the ...


Preparedness To Counsel Transgender College Students: Perceptions Of College Mental Health Clinicians, Valerie G. Couture Dec 2016

Preparedness To Counsel Transgender College Students: Perceptions Of College Mental Health Clinicians, Valerie G. Couture

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived preparedness levels of college mental health clinicians to counsel transgender college students. Multicultural counseling competency is required of professional counselors and transgender individuals are considered to be part of the multicultural population. A survey was completed by college mental health counselors (N = 84) from across the United States. The results showed a moderate amount of preparedness overall with no significant differences based on years of counseling experience nor graduation from a CACREP accredited program. Results did show the participants believed they do have a professional duty to be knowledgeable about ...


The One Exhibition The Roots Of The Lgbt Equality Movement One Magazine & The First Gay Supreme Court Case In U.S. History 1943-1958, Joshua R. Edmundson Jun 2016

The One Exhibition The Roots Of The Lgbt Equality Movement One Magazine & The First Gay Supreme Court Case In U.S. History 1943-1958, Joshua R. Edmundson

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The ONE Exhibition explores an era in American history marked by intense government sponsored anti-gay persecution and the genesis of the LGBT equality movement. The study begins during World War II, continues through the McCarthy era and the founding of the nation’s first gay magazine, and ends in 1958 with the first gay Supreme Court case in U.S. history.

Central to the story is ONE The Homosexual Magazine, and its founders, as they embarked on a quest for LGBT equality by establishing the first ongoing nationwide forum for gay people in the U.S., and challenged the government ...


Initial Development And Validation Of The Transgender Ally Identity Scale For Counselors, Jamie D. Bower Apr 2016

Initial Development And Validation Of The Transgender Ally Identity Scale For Counselors, Jamie D. Bower

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

The Transgender Ally Identity Scale for Counselors (TAISC) is a 35-item scale measuring counselors’ ally identity for working with transgender individuals. The purpose of the current study was to develop and initially validate the TAISC. Using a non-experimental survey design, the scale was developed (i.e., item development, external review, pilot study) and validation analyses were performed (i.e., exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency, validity, and social desirability analyses). Electronic data were collected from a nationwide sample of counseling students, professional counselors, and counselor educators (N=285). Participants completed a survey packet consisting of the TAISC, Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and ...


Five Degrees: A Short Story, Cassia E. Hinds Jan 2016

Five Degrees: A Short Story, Cassia E. Hinds

Honors Undergraduate Theses

An interwoven fiction piece representing four perspectives and its effects on self-awareness. The most effective way to blur the line of self in this structure is to braid the minds, voices, and stories, of each perspective. With a focal point where all the voices eventually drift to being the frame of the story, there will be a unique distance between the stories. This thesis explores the effects of different types of mental and physiological illnesses through fiction, highlighting the effect of perception on fact and the perspective of the mentally ill.


A Daily Diary Investigation Of Discrimination And Binge Eating Among Lesbian Women, Tyler Mason Jul 2015

A Daily Diary Investigation Of Discrimination And Binge Eating Among Lesbian Women, Tyler Mason

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Lesbian women may experience discrimination because of their gender and their sexual orientation termed sexism and heterosexism, respectively. Both sexism and heterosexism are associated with increased psychological distress and negative affect among lesbian women. Furthermore, preliminary evidence suggests that heterosexism is associated with binge eating among lesbian women. However, the relationship between discrimination and binge eating has received limited empirical examination. This study examined associations between sexism and heterosexism, negative affect, and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. Participants were recruited online through social media and LGBT organizations after completing an online eligibility survey with measures of demographics, binge ...


A Mixed Methods Study Of The Intersection Of Sexual Orientation And Spiritual Development In The College Experience, Kevin C. Snow Apr 2015

A Mixed Methods Study Of The Intersection Of Sexual Orientation And Spiritual Development In The College Experience, Kevin C. Snow

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

This two-phase, exploratory sequential mixed methods study explored the intersection of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning (LGBQQ) sexual orientation and spiritual development for college students. The first phase entailed a phenomenological study exploring the lived experiences of LGBQQ former college students (N= 10) concerning how their sexual orientation influenced, if at all, their spiritual development during college. Findings from this qualitative phase were used to develop a quantitative instrument to explore the spiritual-sexual orientation development of college students further (N= 171). This study provides suggestions for working with LGBQQ college students for college counselors and student affairs professionals working ...


Similarities And Differences Between Heterosexual And Homosexual Couples Based On Marq Data, Kraig S. Shattuck Jan 2015

Similarities And Differences Between Heterosexual And Homosexual Couples Based On Marq Data, Kraig S. Shattuck

Wayne State University Theses

There has been a lack of comparative research on homosexual couples, comparing them to heterosexual couples, which is also grounded in solid theory. In order to remedy this, evolutionary theory is used to make predictions on similarities and differences between heterosexual and homosexual couples within three domains, relationship satisfaction, jealousy, and mate guarding. It was predicted that 1) homosexual couples would not differ from heterosexual couples in relationship satisfaction; 2) some gender differences relating to jealousy would be the same and some would be reversed in homosexual individuals; 3) mate guarding would be present, but lower, in homosexual individuals as ...


Wanting It Told: Narrative Desire In Cather And Faulkner, Monroe Street Jan 2015

Wanting It Told: Narrative Desire In Cather And Faulkner, Monroe Street

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

This thesis explores the role played by narrative desire within two modernist experimentations with novel form: Willa Cather's 1918 novel My Antonia and William Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! (1936). In it, I argue that Cather and Faulkner utilize framing narratives in order to present the main plot of each novel as a product of multiple narrators' desire for a story to emerge. In My Antonia, it is the expressed wish of Jim Burden's nameless writer friend that compels him to finish writing his account of Antonia, which constitutes the main plot of the novel. Meanwhile, in Absalom, Absalom ...


Barriers To Help Seeking For Lesbian Victims Of Intimate Partner Violence, Maria Joanne Lovett Jan 2015

Barriers To Help Seeking For Lesbian Victims Of Intimate Partner Violence, Maria Joanne Lovett

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Lesbian intimate partner violence (IPV) is an understudied social and psychological problem in the United States. The purpose of this qualitative, comparative study was to understand any barriers of help-seeking behaviors for victims of lesbian IPV. The literature on lesbian IPV has not included the perspectives of both service provider and support person on why these barriers persist. Normative resource theory and the barriers model informed the study. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 8 providers and 5 support persons. Interviews were then transcribed and coded. The 7 themes that emerged among these 13 participants were an unawareness on ...


The Effects Of Buddhist Psychological Practices On The Mental Health And Social Attitudes Of Lesbian, Gay, And Bisexual People, Jessica Lynn Fritzges Jan 2015

The Effects Of Buddhist Psychological Practices On The Mental Health And Social Attitudes Of Lesbian, Gay, And Bisexual People, Jessica Lynn Fritzges

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

This non-experimental, quantitative study explored the effects of the Buddhist-derived practices of mindfulness and loving-kindness meditations on the wellness of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people. LGB people are at higher risk of mental illness and increased social isolation due to minority stress; Buddhist-derived mindfulness practices mediate these effects in other groups. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping was the theoretical model explaining how positive cognitive appraisal induced by meditation can mediate effects of stress. This study examined whether mental health scores on the Emotional Symptoms Checklist (ESC), social attitudes measured on the Unjust World Views ...


The Complexities Of Female Sexuality: Narratives Of Women Who Have Experienced Both Heterosexual And Same-Sex Marriages, Krista Anne Butland Jan 2015

The Complexities Of Female Sexuality: Narratives Of Women Who Have Experienced Both Heterosexual And Same-Sex Marriages, Krista Anne Butland

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Due to social stigma, millions of sexual minorities have concealed their true sexual identities by entering into heterosexual relationships and marriages. Eventually, some transition to same-sex relationships and are able to live authentic lives. This latter group had identified as genuinely heterosexual, never questioning their sexuality until a particular time in their lives when same-sex desires spontaneously appeared. The experiences of transitioning from heterosexual to same-sex partners are not well known, particularly for women who have been legally married to both men and women. Diamond's dynamical systems theory for same-sex sexuality and McCarn and Fassinger's lesbian identity formation ...


School-Based Supports For Trans Youth In Ontario, Charlie E. C. Davis Jan 2015

School-Based Supports For Trans Youth In Ontario, Charlie E. C. Davis

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Trans youth are some of the most marginalized youths in schools. In 2012, the Ontario Government passed two legislations, one of which was the Accepting Schools Act, strengthening supports for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) students in schools. The other was Toby’s Act, an amendment to the Ontario Human Rights Code including protection from discrimination on the grounds of gender identity and gender expression. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how these two acts have created a political context supporting trans youth in schools. A comprehensive mixed-methods approach was used to examine provincial trends of ...


Coming Out, Coming Together, Coming Around: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Of Families' Experiences Adjusting To A Young Family Member's Disclosure Of Non-Heterosexuality, Denise M. Fournier Rodriguez Dec 2014

Coming Out, Coming Together, Coming Around: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Of Families' Experiences Adjusting To A Young Family Member's Disclosure Of Non-Heterosexuality, Denise M. Fournier Rodriguez

Department of Family Therapy Theses and Dissertations

Young people who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) are disclosing their sexual identity--or coming out--at progressively younger ages, making it more important than ever for the general population to understand, tolerate, and accept diversity in sexual identity. This study was designed to fill the gap in the existing literature about how the coming out process affects LGB young people's families of origin. Three LGB young people participated in the study, along with a member of each of their families. The researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with each of the participants, as well as a conjoint interview with each ...


Depressives And The Scenes Of Queer Writing, Allen Durgin Oct 2014

Depressives And The Scenes Of Queer Writing, Allen Durgin

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

My dissertation attempts to answer the question: What exactly does a reparative reading look like? The question refers to Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick's provocative essay on paranoid and reparative reading practices, in which Sedgwick describes how the hermeneutics of suspicion has become central to a whole range of intellectual projects across the humanities and social sciences. Criticizing this dominant critical mode for its political blindness and unintended replication of repressive social structures, Sedgwick looks for an alternative in what she calls reparative reading . Past attempts to expand on Sedgwick's brief yet suggestive remarks regarding reparative reading have foundered due ...