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Confucianism

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Xi Jinping And Confucianism: Legitimacy And A National Moral Identity, Makenna Zoglmann Jan 2019

Xi Jinping And Confucianism: Legitimacy And A National Moral Identity, Makenna Zoglmann

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Decades after the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) demonized Confucianism as a backwards philosophy, Confucianism has once again become popular in Chinese political culture and society. This paper investigates how the president of the People's Republic of China, Xi Jinping, is using Confucian rhetoric to legitimize himself and the CCP. The paper explores the Chinese people's search for a national moral identity, the resurgence of Confucianism, and finally examines the speech Xi gave on the 40th Anniversary of the Reforms and Opening-up.


Succor In Smoke: A Historical And Comparative Analysis Of Incense And Moxibustion As Similar Agents Of Edification And Self-Cultivation, Hannah E. Matulek Jan 2018

Succor In Smoke: A Historical And Comparative Analysis Of Incense And Moxibustion As Similar Agents Of Edification And Self-Cultivation, Hannah E. Matulek

Black & Gold

Since its origins in the Shang Dynasty nearly 3,000 years ago, traditional Chinese medicine has undergone many dramatic shifts and adapted to a wide range of cultural, social, religious and foreign pressures. One of the most notable changes is the attribution of the etiology of disease (as well as general poor health and behaviors) from volatile and dissatisfied external forces to manageable internal forces. This allowed for a flourishing of thought in Chinese medicine, for once granting an individual the power to influence his or her own health. Three religions—Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism—were also introduced to China ...


The Development Of Chinese Feminism On Weibo, Mengmeng Liu Jun 2016

The Development Of Chinese Feminism On Weibo, Mengmeng Liu

Global Honors Theses

Developed from Western feminism(s), Chinese feminism is based on a belief in gender equality. This paper unwraps a brief history of the development of Chinese feminism through the aspects of Confucianism and communism, which reinforced patriarchy as the dominant ideology in the society. Under the influence of Confucianism, the traditional culture in China considers women as reproductive tools, and believes that men are superior to women. The patriarchy essentially undermines the development of Chinese feminism that has influenced not only the imbalanced gender distribution in modern society, but also people’s perspectives on Chinese feminism. However, compared to their ...


Confucian Thought And Care Ethics: An Amicable Split?, Andrew Lambert Jan 2016

Confucian Thought And Care Ethics: An Amicable Split?, Andrew Lambert

Publications and Research

Since Chenyang Li’s (1994) groundbreaking article there has been interest in reading early Confucian ethics through the lens of care ethics. In this paper, I examine the prospects for dialogue between the two in light of recent work in both fields.

I argue that, despite some similarities, early Confucian ethics is not best understood as a form of care ethics, of the kind articulated by Nel Noddings (1984, 2002) and others. Reasons include incongruence deriving from the absence in the Chinese texts of a developed account of need, and doubts about whether the parent-child relationship in Confucian thought is ...


The Religious Imperative Of Confucianism, Samuel Davies Jan 2015

The Religious Imperative Of Confucianism, Samuel Davies

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Confucianism prescribes for society an immensely rich, sophisticated, and utilitarian modality of social relationship. Not only has this served as China's social and political bedrock, but it has actually evolved from, and thus suggests, the deep religious dimensionality of Confucian thought. I aim to, through the medium of Confucianism, unveil the social entity of this religious dimension as an intuitive depth and unifying reciprocity which has since the dawn of civilization been preserved and expressed as the most quintessential aspect of human life.

With an exploratory dive into the farthest metaphysics that underlie the foundational Confucian society, the true ...


Book Review: The Religious Thought Of Chu Hsi, Julia Ching, Deborah Sommer Apr 2014

Book Review: The Religious Thought Of Chu Hsi, Julia Ching, Deborah Sommer

Deborah A. Sommer

Julia Ching's Religious Thought of Chu Hsi is one of several Western-language works in recent years to address issues of religiosity and spirituality in the Confucian tradition. Somewhat earlier are several full-length books devoted to the thought of one particular thinker, much of which could be considered "religious," although the authors do not necessarily focus on that theme. Zhu Xi's religious beliefs and practices have been the subject of several chapter-length studies in Western languages. And Zhu's studies of ritual have been translated in Patricia Buckley Ebrey's Chu Hsi's Family Rituals. Neither of those works ...


Book Review: Mencius And Early Chinese Thought, Kwong-Loi Shun, Deborah Sommer Apr 2014

Book Review: Mencius And Early Chinese Thought, Kwong-Loi Shun, Deborah Sommer

Deborah A. Sommer

This is the first of a projected three-volume series on "the nature of Confucian-Mencian ethical thought." This volume, as well as a projected second volume, highlights important passages and concepts from the Mencius for close exegetical analysis, and compares them insightfully with such works as the Analects, the Guanzi, and the Mozi. Comparative philosophical interpretation of these concepts is planned for a projected volume three. By separating textual analysis from modem philosophical interpretation, Shun attempts to consider early Chinese concepts on their own terms, as far as that is possible, without viewing them through the lens of contemporary Western categories ...


Book Review: Transformations Of The Confucian Way, John Berthrong, Deborah Sommer Apr 2014

Book Review: Transformations Of The Confucian Way, John Berthrong, Deborah Sommer

Deborah A. Sommer

This book is part of Westview's series Explorations: Contemporary Perspectives on Religion. However, Transformations of the Confucian Way focuses not on the religious aspects of the literati tradition, but on "the intellectual development of the Confucian Way in East Asia." Transformations is a concise survey, based primarily on English language sources, of the main figures of literati intellectual history from Confucius to Okada Takehiko.

Berthrong first begins by trying to define what being "a Confucian" is, and places such attempts at definition within a comparative context. He states that being a Confucian means "being dedicated to the canon and ...


Confucianism And The Arts, Deborah Sommer Apr 2014

Confucianism And The Arts, Deborah Sommer

Deborah A. Sommer

This essay is Chapter 29 of The Oxford Handbook of Religion and the Arts edited by Frank Burch Brown (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, pages 388-395). Religion and the Arts is one of the newest additions to the Oxford Handbook series, a project that explores reviews of recent academic research across disciplines. This edited volume of essays examines intersections between the visual and spiritual realms as they are expressed in religious traditions around the globe. Sommer's article was commissioned for Part III of this volume, "Religious Ways of Being Artistic," and it is a state-of-the-field review of recent ...


Ecological Issues: A Daoist Confucian Perspective, Pamela Herron Feb 2014

Ecological Issues: A Daoist Confucian Perspective, Pamela Herron

Pamela Herron

Abstract: The Dao De Jing is the foundation of Daoism while the Lun Yu, or the Analects of Confucius, is the central text for Confucianism. The Dao De Jing in particular has long been a popular text within the new age spiritual movement in Western culture. Both classic Chinese texts emphasize working toward a harmony with nature without the assumption of man set above plants, animals, mountains, water and other aspects of nature; rather man is a part of this greater whole. This paper explores specific references in both classic texts that reinforce this idea of man being simply part ...


Becoming Confucian In America Today, Pamela Herron Dec 2013

Becoming Confucian In America Today, Pamela Herron

Pamela Herron

Is Confucianism relevant to students in America in the twenty-first century? Does a 2,500 year old philosophy have anything to offer contemporary society? This paper examines the methodology behind teaching Confucianism and Daoism to students at the University of Texas at El Paso where this course has been taught successfully for the past two years. Using translations of the Daodejing (Roger T. Ames and David Hall) and The Analects of Confucius (Roger T. Ames and Henry Rosemont, Jr.) students are asked to examine and analyze these ancient texts with the intention of determining their relevance to today’s people ...


The Historical Value Of The Chun/Chyou, A. Brooks Dec 2009

The Historical Value Of The Chun/Chyou, A. Brooks

A. Taeko Brooks

The Spring and Autumn period (late 08th to early 05th centuries) is of interest in its own right, and for Chinese historiography in general. I here argue that the Chun/Chyou (CC) or “Spring and Autumn” text, ostensibly a Lu court chronicle, is the best, and the only primary, source for the period.1 I also dispute the competing claim of the Dzwo Jwan (DJ), which some view as a fuller, and a more accurate, account of the Spring and Autumn centuries.2


Defeat In The Chun/Chyou, A. Brooks, E. Brooks Dec 2009

Defeat In The Chun/Chyou, A. Brooks, E. Brooks

A. Taeko Brooks

We here consider how victory and defeat are treated in the Chun/Chyou. We find that the Lu court of Spring and Autumn times viewed military operations not in a chivalric or moralizing way, like characters in Dzwo Jwan (DJ) narratives of Spring and Autumn events, but in a cold-eyed military advantage way.


Military Capacity In Spring And Autumn, A. Brooks Dec 2009

Military Capacity In Spring And Autumn, A. Brooks

A. Taeko Brooks

It has been said that the states of Spring and Autumn (0770-0479) deployed large armies, drawn in part from the general populace.1 But our only contemporary source, the Lu chronicle Chun/Chyou (CC), implies a more limited situation: small elite chariot forces, few battles,2 and tactical frugality. The size of these forces did increase over the period,3 but no major state was destroyed by them. I here review the major features of the military system of the time, noting the limits on what it could achieve – limits that were surpassed only by reorganizing the state itself, a ...


Enfiefment Renewal In Lu, A. Taeko Brooks Dec 2009

Enfiefment Renewal In Lu, A. Taeko Brooks

A. Taeko Brooks

Three times in the Chun/Chyou chronicle, the Jou King confers a mandate (ming ) on a Lu ruler. The details of these incidents shed light on the nature of Jou enfiefment, as it persisted after the loss of Jou military power in 0771.


The League Of The North, A. Taeko Brooks Dec 2009

The League Of The North, A. Taeko Brooks

A. Taeko Brooks

Among the 104 “covenants” (mvng ) in the Chun/Chyou (CC) chronicle, what distinguishes the 16 tung-mvng (Legge “covenanted together”)? The commentaries give no convincing answer.1 But there must have been some feature that made these covenants different for those entering into them. On considering the political context, I find that the tung-mvng covenants were a sort of collective security agreement, meant to enforce solidarity among the northern states against the military threat from southern and non-Sinitic Chu. I also note that this north/south polarity virtually defines the middle period of Spring and Autumn.


The History And Historiography Of Jyw, A. Taeko Brooks Dec 2009

The History And Historiography Of Jyw, A. Taeko Brooks

A. Taeko Brooks

Non-Sinitic Jyw was located at 35 35’ N, 118! 50’ E, east of the Lu capital and astride the upper Shu River valley, the major north/south route to the lowlands of eastern Chi. Jyw appears often in the Lu chronicle Chun/Chyou (CC), but it was not one of the great states of the age. I here compare the treatment of Jyw in the CC, which acknowledges it routinely, and in the Dzwo Jwan (DJ), which reshapes Jyw into a textbook example of misrule and deserved destruction.


The Syi-Gung Transition, A. Taeko Brooks Dec 2009

The Syi-Gung Transition, A. Taeko Brooks

A. Taeko Brooks

George Kennedy inaugurated the rational study of the Chun/Chyou (CC) by suggesting that the completeness of CC data for the deaths of non-Lu rulers need not be a coded message from some later moral arbiter, but may simply reflect the information available to the Lu court, and that this in turn might depend on the quality of interstate communications.1 I here develop this suggestion, and argue for a turning point under Syi-gung (r 0659-0627), within Kennedy’s “gradually widening horizon” – a change, part of which indeed entailed a wider geographical awareness, in the position of Lu as one ...


早期儒家的仪式和牺牲:与精神世界的联系 (Ritual And Sacrifice In Early Confucianism: Contacts With The Spirit World), Deborah A. Sommer (司馬黛蘭) Dec 2005

早期儒家的仪式和牺牲:与精神世界的联系 (Ritual And Sacrifice In Early Confucianism: Contacts With The Spirit World), Deborah A. Sommer (司馬黛蘭)

Deborah A. Sommer

No abstract provided.


Guarding Moral Boundaries: Shame In Early Confucianism, Jane Geaney Jan 2004

Guarding Moral Boundaries: Shame In Early Confucianism, Jane Geaney

Religious Studies Faculty Publications

Claims that China is a ‘‘shame culture’’ tend to presume that guilt is the superior moral motivation. Such claims characterize guilt as internally motivated and operative even if no outsider is aware of any wrongdoing. By contrast, they assume that shame occurs only when someone is observed. The observer represents the moral opinion of an outsider, and, as a result, shame is said to be externally motivated. In this view, genuinely moral motivation is internal. Internality is seen as a requirement for moral autonomy (the ability to make decisions independent of particular social norms), and only guilt cultures are thought ...


The Original Analects, A. Brooks, E. Brooks Dec 1997

The Original Analects, A. Brooks, E. Brooks

A. Taeko Brooks

No abstract provided.


Reflections On "Human Nature And Human Virtue", Lawrence E. Frizzell D.Phil. Dec 1995

Reflections On "Human Nature And Human Virtue", Lawrence E. Frizzell D.Phil.

Reverend Lawrence E. Frizzell, S.T.L., S.S.L., D.Phil.

Reflections on "Human Nature and Human Virtue" is Lawrence Frizzell's response to Dr. Chin-Tai Kim's article, Human Nature and Human Virtue: Some Reflections on Confucius.

Both articles appeared in the same issue of The ISKSA Bulletin and are re-published here.


Images Into Words: Ming Confucian Iconoclasm, Deborah A. Sommer (司馬黛蘭) Dec 1993

Images Into Words: Ming Confucian Iconoclasm, Deborah A. Sommer (司馬黛蘭)

Deborah A. Sommer

No abstract provided.