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Full-Text Articles in Chinese Studies

What Explains The Rise Of Majority-Minority Tensions And Conflict In Xinjiang?, Reza Hasmath Dec 2018

What Explains The Rise Of Majority-Minority Tensions And Conflict In Xinjiang?, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

In the past few years there has been a rise of inter-ethnic violence in China. While ethno-cultural repression and ineffective state policies are correctly attributed as key culprits behind this reality, this article suggests that socio-economic factors play a fundamental contributory role as well. Using the Xinjiang case, the article maps ethnic tensions and violence as a manifestation and expression of a growing and heighten ethno-cultural consciousness stemming from ethnic minorities’ low socio-economic status due, in part, to internal Han migration, and a labour market process – involving agency and structure – that has shaped a split and segmented labour market.


A Maturing Civil Society In China? The Role Of Knowledge And Professionalization In The Development Of Ngos, Jennifer Yj Hsu, Reza Hasmath Dec 2016

A Maturing Civil Society In China? The Role Of Knowledge And Professionalization In The Development Of Ngos, Jennifer Yj Hsu, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article suggests that Chinese NGO do not have the conviction that they are part of an epistemic community in mainland China. Interviews conducted in four cities, Chongqing, Kunming, Nanjing and Shanghai, suggests that this can be attributed to a lack of set standards and professionalization governing their sector of operation. Further, the study finds that Chinese NGOs do not see their primary role is to produce knowledge within their organizational development life cycle. This may indicate a varying path towards the maturation of the civil society sector in China, whereby Chinese NGOs do not conform to the organizational development ...


When A Joke Is More Than A Joke: Humor As A Form Of Networked Practice In The Chinese Cyber Public Sphere, Mathew Yates, Reza Hasmath Dec 2016

When A Joke Is More Than A Joke: Humor As A Form Of Networked Practice In The Chinese Cyber Public Sphere, Mathew Yates, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

Received wisdom views political humor, viz. egao, in the Chinese cyber public sphere as a form of resistance. This study creates and tests a framework that best conceptualizes how different functions of egao are connected with one another: to analyze the patterns of ties that link the different facets of the phenomenon together. The study contends that by framing egao within network society theory, we can appreciate its fluidity and better understand its online ubiquity. Analysis of survey data suggests that it is not the content solely but the networked practice of egao that dictates its true function. Namely, the ...


The Impact Of The European Union’S Policy Towards China’S Intellectual Property Regime, Natalia Wyzycka, Reza Hasmath Dec 2016

The Impact Of The European Union’S Policy Towards China’S Intellectual Property Regime, Natalia Wyzycka, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article evaluates the effectiveness of two major European Union technical assistance programmes, IPR2 and IP Key, in shaping China’s regional intellectual property (IP) enforcement. It argues that although technical assistance programmes have been effective in influencing the national IP legal framework, it has been less successful in assisting regional policy enforcement. This is primarily the result of divergent economic priorities at the sub-national level. The article further assesses potential priorities for future IP technical assistance.


What Drives Contemporary Eu-China Strategic Engagement?, Natalia Wyzycka, Reza Hasmath Dec 2015

What Drives Contemporary Eu-China Strategic Engagement?, Natalia Wyzycka, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This study examines the determinants of the European Union’s strategic engagement with China, with reference to three competing analytical approaches: institutional, social, and agency/stakeholder. The article examines the utility of each claim and outlines complementary variables amongst the three approaches, with the aid of recent evidence looking at the E.U.’s arms embargo on China, E.U.-China engagement in Africa, and the E.U.’s longstanding dispute on granting China market economy status. The findings can reduce the misunderstandings and uncertainties embedded in European Union-China interactions by demystifying the factors and variables that drive their relationship.


Navigating Uncertainty: The Survival Strategies Of Religious Ngos In China, Jonathan Tam, Reza Hasmath Dec 2014

Navigating Uncertainty: The Survival Strategies Of Religious Ngos In China, Jonathan Tam, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article looks at the strategies religious non-governmental organizations (RNGOs) with strong transnational linkages use to maintain a continued presence in mainland China. It does so by utilizing neo-institutional theory as an instrument for analysis, with an emphasis on outlining the coercive, mimetic, and normative pressures RNGOs face. One of the key findings of the study is that there is creative circumvention of isomorphic pressures by working with local agents, fostering trust with the local government, and keeping a low profile. Moreover, RNGOs dealt with the uncertain institutional environment in China through staff exchanges, denominational supervision, tapping into global platforms ...


Job Acquisition, Retention, And Outcomes For Ethnic Minorities In Urban China, Reza Hasmath, Benjamin Ho Dec 2014

Job Acquisition, Retention, And Outcomes For Ethnic Minorities In Urban China, Reza Hasmath, Benjamin Ho

Reza Hasmath

This article estimates wage differentials between ethnic minorities and the Han majority in China. While Han-minority wage differentials estimated with regression analysis demonstrate little evidence for ethnic minority disadvantages, evidence looking at the process of ethnic minority job acquisition and retention suggests that minorities perceive they are at a disadvantage in the job search process. The article assesses potential factors for perceived disadvantages in China’s labor market such as discrimination, social network capital, and working culture.


The Interactions Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath Dec 2013

The Interactions Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

Drawing on six years of fieldwork in Beijing, this article looks at the daily interactions of ethnic minorities in local neighbourhoods and places of economic activities. Moreover, it examines ethnic minorities’ negotiations with public institutions, the Han majority and other ethnic minority groups. The article suggests that celebratory ethno-festivals and ethnic oriented restaurants that showcase minority traditions serve as a mechanism to encourage Han interactions with ethnic minority groups. However, the attendant risk in utilizing this practice is that the socio-economic struggles of many ethnic minority groups are being masked when a celebratory version of their culture and traditions are ...


同构压力,认知群体,政府-Ngo 合作在中国, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu Dec 2013

同构压力,认知群体,政府-Ngo 合作在中国, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu

Reza Hasmath

该论文指出,中国政府与非政府组织(NGO)之间合作的缺乏并不能完全归咎于政府对该领域发展的限制,或是出于对一个潜在的政府反对者的害怕。与北京和上海的NGO 访谈显示, 政府与NGO 之间缺乏有意义的合作的部分原因是同构压力,以及政府对于NGO 活动认知的缺乏。事实上,证据显示,一旦政府获得了对NGO 工作的认知,它将会更加愿意与NGO 建立联系。当然必须说明的是,政府想要利用的是NGO 的物质资源,而非他们的象征性,阐释性,或是地理上的资本。


Isomorphic Pressures, Epistemic Communities And State-Ngo Collaboration In China, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu Dec 2013

Isomorphic Pressures, Epistemic Communities And State-Ngo Collaboration In China, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu

Reza Hasmath

This article suggests that a lack of meaningful collaboration between the state and NGOs in China is not solely a result of the state seeking to restrict the development of the sector, or fear of a potential opposing actor to the state. Instead, interviews with NGOs in Beijing and Shanghai suggests that a lack of meaningful engagement between the state and NGOs can be partially attributed to isomorphic pressures within state-NGO relations, and insufficient epistemic awareness of NGO activities on the part of the state. In fact, the evidence suggests that once epistemic awareness is achieved by the state, they ...


The Local Corporatist State And Ngo Relations In China, Jennifer Yj Hsu, Reza Hasmath Dec 2013

The Local Corporatist State And Ngo Relations In China, Jennifer Yj Hsu, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article examines the Chinese state’s interactions and influences on the development of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) through a corporatist framework. It suggests that not only is the central state actively involved in the development of NGOs, but increasingly the successes of NGOs are determined by their interactions with the local state. We profile NGOs in Shanghai, of varying sizes, budgets, and issue-areas, as a case study to understand the interplay between NGOs and the local state. The article further discusses reasons behind the growing shift from central to local state influences, and the potential future implications for state-NGO relations ...


中国统和主义地方政府与非政府组织关系, Jennifer Yj Hsu, Reza Hasmath Dec 2013

中国统和主义地方政府与非政府组织关系, Jennifer Yj Hsu, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

该论文利用统和主义的理论框架来研究中国政府对非政府组织(NGOs)发展的影响及两者的互动。文章指出,中国中央政府积极参与非政府组织的发展之余,地方政府与NGO之间的互动越来越成为决定非政府组织成功与否的关键因素。我们以上海的众多规模、预算、活动范围各不相同的非政府组织为案例,试图理解NGO与地方政府的相互联系。该论文进一步讨论了政府影响力不断从中央向地方转移这一趋势的原因及后果。


From Job Search To Hiring To Promotion: The Labour Market Experiences Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath Dec 2010

From Job Search To Hiring To Promotion: The Labour Market Experiences Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

Drawing on micro-level census data and interviews with individual workers and employers, this article examines the job-search, hiring and promotion experiences of ethnic minority workers and jobseekers in Beijing. Labour market data indicate that ethnic minorities are at a disadvantage relative to the dominant Han ethnic group, particularly when it comes to employment in high-wage, skilled jobs. The evidence provided here suggests this may be attributable to gaps in the institutional framework that encourage reliance on social-network capital for job search, hiring and promotion. [Winner of the Society for the Study of Social Problems’ Poverty, Class, and Inequality Division Paper ...


The Education Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath Dec 2010

The Education Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article investigates the operations of minority schools, and the subsequent on-the-ground experiences of ethnic minorities in Beijing at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The article suggests that the ‘inter-sectionality’ of ethnic identities, particularly minority-majority, rich-poor and urban-rural, must be factored in when examining the varying differences between minorities who have graduated from Beijing’s minority schools and non-Beijing ethnic minorities, who have enrolled in the capital city’s universities. The article draws upon recent statistical data, interviews with minority actors and public stakeholders, and participant observation in the city’s schools and universities.


De La Búsqueda De Empleo Al Ascenso. Experiencias De Las Minorías Étnicas En Pekín, Reza Hasmath Dec 2010

De La Búsqueda De Empleo Al Ascenso. Experiencias De Las Minorías Étnicas En Pekín, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

Valiéndose de datos del censo y de entrevistas personales, el autor estudia las experiencias laborales de los trabajadores y solicitantes de empleo de Pekín pertenecientes a minorías étnicas. Los datos del mercado de trabajo indican que estas personas se hallan en desventaja respecto de la etnia han, que es la dominante, sobre todo en el acceso a los puestos más cualificados y mejor remunerados. Las comprobaciones del autor dejan entrever que ello puede achacarse a las lagunas de que adolece el orden laboral y que fomentan la dependencia de las redes sociales en este terreno. [Winner of the Society for ...


Recherche D’Emploi, Embauche Et Promotions Le Vécu Des Minorités Ethniques Sur Le Marché Du Travail De Beijing, Reza Hasmath Dec 2010

Recherche D’Emploi, Embauche Et Promotions Le Vécu Des Minorités Ethniques Sur Le Marché Du Travail De Beijing, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

S'appuyant sur les microdonnées d'un recensement et les entretiens qu'il a menés auprès de travailleurs et d'employeurs, l'auteur examine la recherche d'emploi, l'embauche et la promotion des personnes issues des minorités ethniques à Beijing. Les données indiquent que les minorités ethniques sont défavorisées par rapport à l'ethnie dominante Han, notamment en ce qui concerne les emplois qualifiés offrant un salaire élevé. Les entretiens individuels menés par l'auteur montrent que ce handicap peut être dû aux failles de la structure institutionnelle qui favorisent le recours aux réseaux sociaux lors de la recherche ...


The Big Payoff? Educational And Occupational Attainments Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath Dec 2007

The Big Payoff? Educational And Occupational Attainments Of Ethnic Minorities In Beijing, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

Ethnic minority development in Beijing has been marred by deep-seated historical experiences of strained ethnic relations. In spite of this situation, this article demonstrates that ethnic minorities in the capital city have achieved greater educational attainments than the dominant, Han group. Yet, when it comes to their occupational outcomes in high-wage, education-intensive (HWEI) sectors, minorities seemingly pay an ‘ethnic penalty’. That is, the Han demographic are disproportionately represented in HWEI occupational sectors. Building upon previous evidence, this article discusses this discrepancy and offers suggestions for improvement. [Winner of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes’ Research Prize for ...


Ngos In China: Issues Of Good Governance And Accountability, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu Dec 2007

Ngos In China: Issues Of Good Governance And Accountability, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu

Reza Hasmath

Drawing on interviews conducted among leading local and international NGOs operating in China, this article examines how NGOs understand and implement good governance and accountability principles and practices. It also examines how Chinese constituents and the general public perceive local and international NGOs. The discussion provides a basis on which to assess ways of improving governance and accountability practices for NGOs operating in China.


对中国公民社会组织良好治理的研, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu Dec 2007

对中国公民社会组织良好治理的研, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu

Reza Hasmath

本文研究中国公民社会组织(CSOs)在良好治理方面的作为,比 如在诚信和透明方面的表现。通过对主要的国际及国内公民社会组织的访问,本文将关注中国的公民社会组织是如何理解和实施良好的治理的.此外,本文还将关注中国的乡官人群和公众是如何看待在中国工作的国际和国内公民社会组织.最后,将通过以上方面的研究为中国公民社会组织在未来实现良好治理提出建议.


The Paradox Of Ethnic Minority Development In Beijing, Reza Hasmath Dec 2006

The Paradox Of Ethnic Minority Development In Beijing, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

The educational attainments of Beijing’s permanent ethnic minority population out perform or are on par with the dominant, local Hans. Yet, the Han demographic disproportionately dominates the high-wage, education-intensive employment sectors. What accounts for this paradox? What does this signify regarding the management of ethnic difference in the capital city? And how do we improve this situation? Drawing upon recent research, this paper will offer sociological explanations to answer these questions. Moreover, it will further suggest strategies for enhancing the development of ethnic minorities in Beijing.


Social Development In The Tibet Autonomous Region: A Contemporary And Historical Analysis, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu Dec 2006

Social Development In The Tibet Autonomous Region: A Contemporary And Historical Analysis, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu

Reza Hasmath

This paper will historically examine social development outcomes in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) in respect to poverty eradication, education and employment, health care and social integration. Moreover, it will offer tangible advice for improving future social development work in TAR. The main theoretical approach is a literature and policy review of social development in TAR from 1951 to present. Seemingly Tibet’s social development strategy has been achieved through a strong top-down approach. However, the road ahead for TAR once basic needs are satisfactorily met, is a move towards a participatory approach, whereby Tibetans can directly contribute and have ...