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2004

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

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Full-Text Articles in Art and Design

The Tale Of The Two-Tailed Mermaid A Case Study In The Origins Of The Cretan Embroidery Style, Sumru Belger Krody Jan 2004

The Tale Of The Two-Tailed Mermaid A Case Study In The Origins Of The Cretan Embroidery Style, Sumru Belger Krody

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

It is fascinating to trace the style and motifs of embroidered textiles from the Greek islands back to the political powers that held the islands in their control for centuries. Among these islands Crete has a special place in the study of Greek island embroidery. Because of its geographic location among trade routes and its political and artistic history, Crete presents an entirely different embroidery style from that of the other Greek islands. Through focusing on one motif, the two-tailed mermaid, this paper will try to construct a history of influences seen in Cretan embroidery.

The first section of the ...


Editor's Introduction Notes On Editing Acknowledgments Jan 2004

Editor's Introduction Notes On Editing Acknowledgments

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Introduction

The Textile Society of America’s 9th Biennial Symposium took place October 7–9, 2004, at the Oakland Marriott City Center Hotel in Oakland, California. The theme as reflected in the title, appropriation • acculturation • transformation, offered a stimulating approach to the study of historic and contemporary textiles from many cultures and diverse perspectives. Of eighty presentations in twenty-four sessions, seventy are represented in this CD-ROM. Sixty-seven authors have contributed sixty-two papers. Together with more than seventy abstracts, they reflect in text and image the substance and intellectual vibrancy that characterized this symposium.

Geographically, the San Francisco Bay Area is ...


Copyright Statement Jan 2004

Copyright Statement

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

appropriation • acculturation • transformation

Proceedings of the 9th Biennial Symposium of the Textile Society of America, Inc.

© 2005 Textile Society of America, Inc.

Copyright of individual papers remains with each author.

All rights reserved. Published 2005. Printed in the United States of America.

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, except brief excerpts for the purpose of review, without written permission from the Textile Society of America. Students and researchers wishing to cite the work of specific authors are encouraged to communicate directly with those individuals, as many of these papers represent work in progress. This volume ...


Churchill Weavers 80 Years Of American Handweaving, Philis Alvic Jan 2004

Churchill Weavers 80 Years Of American Handweaving, Philis Alvic

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In 1922 Eleanor and David Carroll Churchill founded Churchill Weavers in Berea, Kentucky, and it still continues as a unique American handweaving company over 80 years later. While a missionary in India, D. C. Churchill tackled problems within handweaving, the country’s second largest industry next to agriculture. He put to use his MIT education, adapting the loom’s fly-shuttle attachment for greater efficiency. After abandoning his short teaching career at Berea College, the Churchills began a business to employ local people that had few job opportunities. D.C. manufactured the loom he had designed in India and compartmentalized weaving ...


Piecing Together A New Home: Needlework In Kvinden Og Hjemmet Magazine, Laurann Gilbertson, Karen Olsen Jan 2004

Piecing Together A New Home: Needlework In Kvinden Og Hjemmet Magazine, Laurann Gilbertson, Karen Olsen

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Kvinden og Hjemmet was a magazine for women published in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, from 1888 to 1947. “The Woman and the Home” contained patterns for clothing and fancywork, as well as household hints, recipes, serialized novels, short stories, and poetry. Everything was written in, or translated into, Norwegian.

Ida Hanson, the editor of Kvinden og Hjemmet, had emigrated from Norway in 1870. She knew first-hand the trials of adjusting to a new way of life and she wanted to ease the transition for other Norwegians by providing information on how to make clothing and household textiles in the American style ...


From Rags To Riches To Revolution: A Social History Of 19th Irish Lace, Shiralee Hudson Jan 2004

From Rags To Riches To Revolution: A Social History Of 19th Irish Lace, Shiralee Hudson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Cultural theorist Daniel Miller writes, “The deeply integrated place of the artefact in constituting culture and human relations has made discussion of it one of the most difficult of all areas to include in abstract academic discourse” (“Artefacts in Their Contexts,” Material Culture and Mass Consumption, Oxford 1987, p. 130). This is, however, the very task this discussion of nineteenth century Irish lace undertakes. This paper outlines the establishment of the lace industry in Ireland in such centers as Carrickmacross, Limerick and Youghal. It also examines both its makers and users, revealing how artefact can indeed provide a powerful symbolism ...


Javanesque Effects: Appropriation Of Batik And Its Transformations In Modern Textiles, Abby Lillethun Jan 2004

Javanesque Effects: Appropriation Of Batik And Its Transformations In Modern Textiles, Abby Lillethun

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

American batik practice emerged in the early twentieth century based on traditional techniques from Java and those filtered through Dutch Nieuwe Kunst. The promotion of batik through the Arts and Crafts movement in North America fostered egalitarian endorsement from artisans, individual practitioners, and consumers, across geographic locales, social milieu, and skill levels. Encouraged by manuals, magazine articles, and exhibitions, enthusiasm for batik grew across the nation and in the avant-garde enclave of Greenwich Village. While practitioners were cautioned to avoid excessive veining or crackle in their works in emulation of fine tradition, commercial enterprises helped to transform the aesthetic of ...


Shifting Sands: Costume In Rajasthan, Vandana Bhandari Jan 2004

Shifting Sands: Costume In Rajasthan, Vandana Bhandari

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Rajasthan in Western India has a history of turbulent political conditions. This is an outcome of Rajasthan being a frontier region of India’s borders. Therefore, its people have had a continued interaction with outsiders entering India in successive waves of migration (from the time of Aryans – 1000 BC). Costume of the region is an assimilation of many historical and foreign influences and has evolved to present a unique tradition.

This paper aims to study dress in this region by taking examples of different ethnic groups like Marwaris, Rabari and Rajputs and examine influences that have led to change. The ...


Pleated Skirts Of Miao In Guizhou Province, China, Tomoko Torimaru, Tomoko Torimaru Jan 2004

Pleated Skirts Of Miao In Guizhou Province, China, Tomoko Torimaru, Tomoko Torimaru

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The Miao of Guizho China are a people with no written script and therefore no written historical record. Of their pre-history, scholars are certain of only one thing: "…that the Miao were in China before the Chinese, for it is the latter themselves who indicate the presence of the Miao in the land, which they, the Chinese, were gradually infiltrating" (J. Mottin). With no written scripts, textiles are at once the Miao’s cultural identity, their history of migration, and a communication tool. For these reasons, Miao textile traditions survive to this day.

Although it is true the Miao have ...


Textile Exchange And Cultural And Gendered Cross-Dressing At Palmyra, Syria (100 Bc—Ad 272), Cynthia Finlayson Jan 2004

Textile Exchange And Cultural And Gendered Cross-Dressing At Palmyra, Syria (100 Bc—Ad 272), Cynthia Finlayson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

For millennia, textiles have been utilized by human civilizations to define gendered identities as well as ethnic and political affiliations. Textiles have also been utilized as lucrative objects of trade. As such, their utilization in societies foreign to their origin of manufacture presents an interesting study in the power of trade textiles to transform the very essence of both gendered and cultural manifestations of identity through the absorption of foreign clothing styles and textile motifs.

Perhaps no society utilized the influence of trade textiles with more eclectic creativeness than the ancient citizens of the Palmyrene trade oasis of Tadmor, Syria ...


West Anatolian Carpet Designs: The Effect Of Carpet Trade Between Ottoman Empire And Great Britain, Elvan Anmac, Filiz Adigüzel Toprak Jan 2004

West Anatolian Carpet Designs: The Effect Of Carpet Trade Between Ottoman Empire And Great Britain, Elvan Anmac, Filiz Adigüzel Toprak

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

West Anatolia is a region that holds diverse precincts of carpet weaving in terms of colour, motif and composition features the carpets display throughout history. The carpet weaving tradition of West Anatolia till the middle of the 19th century had continued as a home industry which was manufactured by the villagers. The weaving style followed a sample rug called “örneklik” (a sampler with many motifs on it); the weaver was selecting the type of design she wanted to use. It was not the custom to draw the design of the carpet on a design paper.

Together with the increase in ...


Darning: A Visible Thread, Liz Williamson Jan 2004

Darning: A Visible Thread, Liz Williamson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper documents the transformation of cloth through the repair process by examining the impact of darning on the cloth’s surface. It looks at historical precedents for the translation of a darn into a decorative embellishment and the application of this translation as a concept for contemporary textiles.

Darning is a repair process for cloth, used to prolong the life of a garment out of necessity, sentimental reasons or on principle. Darning aims to make new, re-new and restore by the insertion of additional threads into the warp and weft of a cloth to repair holes and tears. An ...


Boro No Bi : Beauty In Humility—Repaired Cotton Rags Of Old Japan, Yoshiko Iwamoto Wada Jan 2004

Boro No Bi : Beauty In Humility—Repaired Cotton Rags Of Old Japan, Yoshiko Iwamoto Wada

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Using examples from the Nukata Collection of Japanese “boro,” or rags, this paper assesses how such extensively repaired, patched, and pieced utilitarian textiles reflect Japan’s social stratification, agriculture, economy, and trade. These humble cloths, tangible remnants of stories lived by the common people – farmers, fishermen, and lumberjacks – who lived in rural areas along the Sea of Japan and northeastern Honshu Island until several decades ago, point to a material’s aesthetic and functional transformation.

A majority of pieces in the collection are futon, bedding which are made of or patched with various shades of blue fabric pieces mostly recycled ...


The Transformation Of Tusser Silk, Brenda M. King Jan 2004

The Transformation Of Tusser Silk, Brenda M. King

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

India and England enjoyed a mutually beneficial relationship through the silk trade during the British Empire. Thomas Wardle transformed aspects of India’s wild silk production, increasing demand for India’s yarn and providing employment for many thousands; this work should be better known.

Wardle was the first to print and dye Indian tusser almost any shade. At the Paris Exposition, 1878 he revealed tussser’s improved potential, gaining great publicity and a gold medal for India’s yarn. Thereafter, India increased exports of tusser yarn and cloth to Europe where it was demanded for furnishing, fashion and embroidery reads.


Disconnecting The Tais: Responses To Trade, Training And Tourism, Mary F. Connors Jan 2004

Disconnecting The Tais: Responses To Trade, Training And Tourism, Mary F. Connors

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper examines the responses of Tai speaking groups in Laos and Vietnam to outside influences and their increasing awareness of the commercial value of their handwoven fabrics. Based on the author’s field work in Luang Namtha Province, Laos, Nghe An Province, Vietnam and Vientiane and Luang Prabang cities, Laos, the weavers in the three regions are compared and their responses to challenges presented such as the availability of yarns and dyes and access to input from the target market and outlets for their products are examined.

In northern Laos live the Tai-speaking Lue, Tai Dam, Tai Khao and ...


Evidence Of The Individual In The Cultural Material Of Tapestry, Joyce Hulbert Jan 2004

Evidence Of The Individual In The Cultural Material Of Tapestry, Joyce Hulbert

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In research for support material for a presentation on my conservation of an important Pre-Columbian tunic of the Huari people of Peru, I came upon a statement that intrigued me as an artist and conservator. The statement comes from Rebecca Stone Miller in her PhD thesis on Huari tunics, completed at Yale in 1987:

The sheer elaboration of imagery made possible through material and technical choices bespeaks both an investment of importance of the images depicted and a corollary investment of labor in their creation. The importance of the woven images takes place in the realm of beliefs and ritual ...


Tapestry Translations In The Twentieth Century: The Entwined Roles Of Artists, Weavers, And Editeurs, Ann Lane Hedlund Jan 2004

Tapestry Translations In The Twentieth Century: The Entwined Roles Of Artists, Weavers, And Editeurs, Ann Lane Hedlund

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Historically, European tapestry making involved collaboration among artists, designers, draftsmen, cartoon makers, spinners, dyers, weavers, patrons, dealers, and other professionals. This specialized system of labor continued in modified form into the twentieth century in certain European weaving studios. This paper explores the negotiations involved and results achieved in the design, creation, and marketing of a group of twentieth century tapestries, in which painted imagery was translated into the handwoven textile medium.

A case study based on the Gloria F. Ross Archive of unpublished letters, contracts, sketches, invoices, photographs, and other materials is presented. Serving as editeur (analogous to a film ...


Keynote Address—Summary Notes, Jack Lenor Larsen Jan 2004

Keynote Address—Summary Notes, Jack Lenor Larsen

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

San Francisco Bay as the Fountainhead and Wellspring

Jack Lenor Larsen led off the 9th Biennial Symposium of the Textile Society of America in Oakland, California, with a plenary session directed to TSA members and conference participants. He congratulated us, even while proposing a larger and more inclusive vision of our field, and exhorting us to a more comprehensive approach to fiber. His plenary remarks were spoken extemporaneously from notes and not recorded. We recognize that their inestimable value deserves to be shared more broadly; Jack has kindly provided us with his rough notes for this keynote address. The ...


Author Biographies Jan 2004

Author Biographies

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Author Biographies A-W

Ping-Ann Addo

Filiz Adıgüzel

Jeni Allenby

Philis Alvic...

Wendy Weiss

Lauren Whitley

Michelle Willard


About Textile Society Of America Jan 2004

About Textile Society Of America

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The Textile Society of America, Inc. provides an international forum for the exchange and dissemination of information about textiles worldwide from artistic, cultural, economic, historic, political, social and technical perspectives.

National Office

TSA Board of Directors 2004-2005

Officers

TSA Publications


Abstracts Of Papers Jan 2004

Abstracts Of Papers

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

We Pieced Together Cloth, We Pieced Together Culture: Reflections on Tongan Women’s Textile-making in Oakland

Symbolic Defiance: Questions of Nationalism and Tradition in Middle Eastern Textiles

Churchill Weavers: 80 Years of American Handweaving

West Anatolian Carpet Designs: The Effect of Carpet Trade Between Ottoman Empire and Great Britain

California and the Fiber Art Revolution

Shifting Sands—Costume in Rajasthan

Pattern Power: Textiles and the Transmission of Knowledge

The Ubiquitous T-Shirt and Fashionable “Islamic Dress”: Cultural Authentication in Turkey


California And The Fiber Art Revolution, Suzanne Baizerman Jan 2004

California And The Fiber Art Revolution, Suzanne Baizerman

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The 1960s and 1970s were critical years in the development of American fiber art. One of the major and most exciting centers of change was California. This paper will look at California’s transforming role in the fiber revolution. One noteworthy indicator of change in fiber art was the series of twelve exhibitions entitled California Design. They were held at the Pasadena Art Museum from 1954 to 1971 and at another venue in 1976. Exhibition catalogs were published for the last five exhibitions (1962, 1965, 1968, 1971 and 1976). The catalog pages document the movement within the fiber area - away ...


Lillian Elliott, Pat Hickman Jan 2004

Lillian Elliott, Pat Hickman

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Whenever she taught, Lillian Elliott (1930-1994) arrived for class carrying bags bulging with historic world textiles–to illustrate a technique, a crazy, unexpected juxtaposition of color, a thread gone wild–all to suggest new possibilities. Abundance and generosity dominated; they fed her visual ideas and those of her students. Elliott valued most her teaching in the Department of Design at UC Berkeley, as a colleague of Ed Rossbach’s. Her curious mind led her in multiple directions simultaneously, as did his. Those of us lucky enough to study with both of them, entered the field as artists and teachers, changed ...


Katherine Westphal And Wearable Art, Jo Ann Stabb Jan 2004

Katherine Westphal And Wearable Art, Jo Ann Stabb

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper traces the influence of Katherine Westphal on the developments in textile design during the years between 1965-1985. As a member of the Berkeley community and wife of UC Berkeley Professor Ed Rossbach, Katherine’s activities were key to incorporating ‘wearable art’ into the dialogue and validating it as a serious component of the ‘textile revolution’ taking place in the San Francisco Bay Area. I trace her career as a painter and free-lance textile designer to when she joined the faculty at the University of California, Davis campus. She revitalized that textile program with her emphasis on surface design ...


Picturing The Transformation Of A Nation’S Textile Traditions: Meiji Era Woodblock Prints, Donna F. Lavallee Jan 2004

Picturing The Transformation Of A Nation’S Textile Traditions: Meiji Era Woodblock Prints, Donna F. Lavallee

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Woodblock prints, photographs and contemporary sketches will be used to illustrate the rapid change to Western dress in Japan and its impact on the importation and imitation of Western textiles. Between 1853 and 1868, American Commodore Perry forced the opening of Japan to foreign trade. The old fashioned Shogun was overthrown, and young, forward thinking Emperor Meiji took the throne. Under Emperor Meiji, the Japanese government introduced the wearing of Western style clothing for all public occasions, both social and official. These events brought Western textiles to Japanese dress: military uniforms were the first to use both woolen cloth and ...


Dragon Covers – Mysterious Aberrations Of The Li, Lee J. Chinalai Jan 2004

Dragon Covers – Mysterious Aberrations Of The Li, Lee J. Chinalai

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Over a million Li people, representing approximately fifteen percent of the total population, live predominantly in the mountainous areas of Hainan, China. The island is rich in silk, hemp, ramie and cotton. The Li, a tribal people, began spinning, weaving and dyeing in ancient times and developed over the centuries a reputation for the quality and beauty of their textiles. Although the clothing and textiles of the various Li sub-tribes span a range of style and design, all – with one exception – clearly emanate from Li religion, culture and tradition, sharing roots with other Daic-speaking groups.

Several years ago, large, silk-embroidered ...


Appropriation, Acculturation, Transformation, Janet Stoyel Jan 2004

Appropriation, Acculturation, Transformation, Janet Stoyel

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Investigation of high-tec processes for the manufacture of decorative materials for use in contemporary textile and fashion design. Photon Laser and Ultrasound techniques explored via engineered substrates to create patinated colour, structural surfaces, repetitive pattern, etched detailing and modernistic construction possibilities. Keywords: Photon Laser, Ultrasound, Ecological, Environmental, Sustainability, Substrates.


Protest To Persuasion: Chinese Textiles As Political Tools In The 19th And 20th Centuries, Diana Collins Jan 2004

Protest To Persuasion: Chinese Textiles As Political Tools In The 19th And 20th Centuries, Diana Collins

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Throughout history textiles have been used to demonstrate dissent towards political regimes and so it was in late 19th century China, when some civil officers expressed their frustration with decay and corruption during the decline of dynastic rule. Defiant modifications reflecting disrespect for the emperor were incorporated into embroidered badges of rank required by strict dress regulations to be worn conspicuously at the front and back of officials’ surcoats. When any insubordination could attract the penalty of death, wearing such rebellious statements against the Son of Heaven was undeniably bold.

With the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in 1911, centuries ...


Something Borrowed, Something Red –Textiles In Colonial And Soviet Central Asia, Kate Fitz- Gibbon Jan 2004

Something Borrowed, Something Red –Textiles In Colonial And Soviet Central Asia, Kate Fitz- Gibbon

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Turkoman and other tribal groups in Central Asia have used specific textile patterns from carpet weaving and embroidery as identity markers for centuries. Under late 19th century Russian rule, these designs were used as decorative elements on publications to represent an exotic, foreign, central Asian identity. In the Soviet period tribal patterns were utilized as formal symbols of Central Asian provincial sub-identities within the Soviet Union. They were incorporated into in architecture, used in theater set design, in painting, as a sort of tribalidentity- prop in every form of visual artistic expression. Similarly, a standardized “national costume” only superficially related ...


Pattern Power: Textiles And The Transmission Of Knowledge, Carol Bier Jan 2004

Pattern Power: Textiles And The Transmission Of Knowledge, Carol Bier

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

If one makes an ontological distinction between patterns and textiles, an argument can be developed to assess the potential role that textiles may have played in the transmission of mathematical knowledge, concerning the spatial dimension. This paper seeks to address early Islamic textiles within the context of contemporary advances in the history of mathematics from the 8th – 10th centuries, which may have influenced, or been influenced by, technical developments in the production of pattern-woven textiles.

In particular, this paper explores patterns in woven textiles ascribed to the Sasanian Empire and its aftermath in Iran and Central Asia, with a view ...