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2004

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

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Symposium Program- Contents Oct 2004

Symposium Program- Contents

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Plenary Session

Handwork

Costume

Trade

Power of Pattern: Textiles, Politics & Persuasion (Panel)

Individual Papers—South America

Symbols of Influence

Threads of Change: The Transformation of Textiles in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Panel)

Mexico and Guatemala

Weaving

Embroidery


Traveling Stitches: Origins Of Fair Isle Knitting, Deborah Pulliam Apr 2004

Traveling Stitches: Origins Of Fair Isle Knitting, Deborah Pulliam

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The beginnings and "invention" of knitting has long fascinated knitters and amateur historians. Only recently has it come to be studied seriously, and there is still much folklore and fantasy repeated and published as history.

This paper (and discussion) considers some of the best known and most popular stories about the origins of Shetland and Fair Isle knitting and compares those with more recent considerations of color patterning in northern Europe, especially in the Baltic states and eastern Europe.

Fair Isle color patterning has been explained for many years as having been inspired by a wreck of the Spanish Armada ...


Tradition And Innovation In Contemporary Lao Textiles, Rebecca Hall Jan 2004

Tradition And Innovation In Contemporary Lao Textiles, Rebecca Hall

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In this presentation I assess the physical changes that have transpired in Lao textiles within a context of tradition and commercialization. Through understanding of the characteristics of both “traditional” and commoditized textiles, I found that multiple changes are transpiring at once. The most important elements of this research are the textiles themselves, with the perception that textiles reveal the context and intention of their makers. Examination and comparison of over 100 Lao textiles from select U.S. museums and private collections and market observations conducted in Laos resulted in the material cultural analysis presented here. Salient aesthetic and symbolic elements ...


We Pieced Together Cloth, We Pieced Together Culture: Reflections On Tongan Women’S Textile-Making In Oakland, Ping-Ann Addo Jan 2004

We Pieced Together Cloth, We Pieced Together Culture: Reflections On Tongan Women’S Textile-Making In Oakland, Ping-Ann Addo

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Tapa, or barkcloth, is central to the cultural identity, social relations, politics, history, and contemporary religion of people from the South Pacific Kingdom of Tonga. Large and ornate textiles made from the beaten inner bark of the paper mulberry tree are designed and made only by women. During 2003–04, the Center for Art and Public Life at the California College of the Arts completed a collaborative project entitled Pieces of Cloth, Pieces of Culture: Tongan Tapa Cloth. Under the direction of Ping-Ann Addo, The Center’s 2003–04 Scholar-in-Residence, Tongan women tapa-cloth artists from Oakland produced a full-sized ...


Restoring Navajo-Churro Sheep: Acculturation And Adaptation Of A Traditional Fiber Resource, Susan M. Strawn Jan 2004

Restoring Navajo-Churro Sheep: Acculturation And Adaptation Of A Traditional Fiber Resource, Susan M. Strawn

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Factors that contribute to artisan sustainability are of critical importance to the world’s artisans who depend on hand-produced textiles for income and livelihood, and for whom textile production is closely intertwined with cultural identity. For Navajo (Diné) weavers, outside influences on their traditional fiber resource, Navajo- Churro sheep, have proven one critical factor in the quality, characteristics, and sustainability of Navajo handwoven textiles. The Diné acculturated a pastoral lifestyle and adapted wool for weaving from the desert sheep introduced into the American Southwest by Spanish explorers in the 1500s. Sheep proved critical to Diné weaving, cultural identity, and independence ...


The Evolution Of Yuzen-Dyeing Techniques And Designs After The Meiji Restoration, Yuko Fukatsu-Fukuoka Jan 2004

The Evolution Of Yuzen-Dyeing Techniques And Designs After The Meiji Restoration, Yuko Fukatsu-Fukuoka

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper will explore how the introduction of chemical dyes to Japan influenced the technique and designs of yuzen dyeing. Yuzen-zome, a resist-dyeing technique in which freehand designs were created with multiple colors, developed during the mid-Edo period, at the end of the 17th or beginning of the 18th century. The technique allowed for the creation of large pictorial images, unburdened by the repetitive patterns that characterize most textile techniques. It revolutionized kosode decoration.

Traditional yuzen-zome was a true handcraft, extremely labor intensive and, as a result, very expensive. Only the wealthy could afford kosode patterned in this method. As ...


Nets, Bags And The Transformation Of Headdress In The Southern Andes, Ann H. Peters Jan 2004

Nets, Bags And The Transformation Of Headdress In The Southern Andes, Ann H. Peters

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Anne Paul opened the pandora’s box of Andean headdress history in “The Symbolism of Paracas Turbans: A consideration of Style, Serpents and Hair” (Ñawpa Pacha 1982). Mary Frame’s work on the multiple textile significations of twisted strands, looping, diagonal interlacing and other techniques used to create headdress bands has led to new insights on the relationships among textile practice, visual design, and concepts and philosophical premises encoded in many forms of Andean material culture.

This paper looks at the associations of form, practice, and textile history embodied in netted and looped head coverings preserved in burials on the ...


The Fate Of The Xam Nuea Healing Cloths, Patricia Cheesman Jan 2004

The Fate Of The Xam Nuea Healing Cloths, Patricia Cheesman

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The healing cloths of Xam Nuea, Laos P. D. R. were once used in ceremonies conducted by shamans who traveled to the other realms in trance to seek cures. These textiles embodied powerful symbols of the animal and supernatural world, beliefs that held strong despite the invasions of the Chinese Ho, the Siamese, and even the establishment of French Indochina. However, during the American-Vietnam war weaving was made impossible in the northeast region and many people, including shamans, fled to Vientiane. Here new communities flourished, weaving elaborate textiles in the Xam Nuea style, which later became the newest fashion after ...


Interpreting Social Change And Changing Production Through Examinations Of Textiles Of Xam Nuea And Surin, Charles Carroll Jan 2004

Interpreting Social Change And Changing Production Through Examinations Of Textiles Of Xam Nuea And Surin, Charles Carroll

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper explores the transformation of the Lao Xam Nuea style sin muk through two different approaches to the examination of change in practice. In the process, the paper reveals ways in which changing handloom production in Southeast Asia are inextricably embedded within broader changing social practices. The first part of this paper presents an historical and structural analysis of revolutionary migration and technological transformation of the Lao Xam Nuea style sin muk. The analysis examines the adaptation of techniques in the adoption of the Xam Nuea style through the comparison of Vientiane and Xam Nuea sin muk. This initial ...


Contemporary Phuthai Textiles, Linda S. Mcintosh Jan 2004

Contemporary Phuthai Textiles, Linda S. Mcintosh

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper examines the hand-woven textiles of the Phuthai ethnic group made in the last thirty years or after the Communist Revolution of 1975. If one asks a Phuthai woman to describe Phuthai dress, she will answer, “sin mii lae suea lap lai,” or a skirt decorated with weft ikat technique and a fitted blouse of indigo dyed cotton, decorated with hand-woven, patterned red silk. Despite the use of synthetic dyes that are readily available in the local markets, many Phuthai women still grow indigo and cotton, and indigo-stained hands and the repetitious sounds of weaving are still found in ...


Tradition And Transformation In Chicahuaxtla Trique Textiles, Cecilia Gunzburger Jan 2004

Tradition And Transformation In Chicahuaxtla Trique Textiles, Cecilia Gunzburger

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

San Andres Chicahuaxtla is a Trique-speaking village in the mountains of the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca. This paper explores changes in Chicahuaxtla Trique textiles and costume over the previous half century as women incorporated newly available commercial products into their indigenous weaving tradition.

Contact with the outside world and access to manufactured goods gradually accelerated, yet hand-woven clothing remains a strong component of women’s cultural identity. Although trade in textiles between Mesoamerican villages is certainly nothing new, the 20th century brought new materials like factory-spun and – dyed cotton and acrylic yarn in a wide range of colors ...


It's In The Bag: Transformation In Guatemala, Kathy Rousso Jan 2004

It's In The Bag: Transformation In Guatemala, Kathy Rousso

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Morrales or net bags are an important man’s accessory in rural Guatemala, and many are made from maguey fibers using the ancient techniques of thigh spinning, and simple looping. Adaptations to these styles probably began when neighboring Mayan and Xinca tribes exchanged ideas as they came in contact with each other in times of trade and conflict. With Spain’s colonization, new tools such as spinning wheels, knitting needles, and looms, along with their uses, were incorporated into bag construction. The sailors who transported these early explorers likely introduced the strap methods of braiding, and knotwork, and with the ...


The Tale Of The Two-Tailed Mermaid A Case Study In The Origins Of The Cretan Embroidery Style, Sumru Belger Krody Jan 2004

The Tale Of The Two-Tailed Mermaid A Case Study In The Origins Of The Cretan Embroidery Style, Sumru Belger Krody

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

It is fascinating to trace the style and motifs of embroidered textiles from the Greek islands back to the political powers that held the islands in their control for centuries. Among these islands Crete has a special place in the study of Greek island embroidery. Because of its geographic location among trade routes and its political and artistic history, Crete presents an entirely different embroidery style from that of the other Greek islands. Through focusing on one motif, the two-tailed mermaid, this paper will try to construct a history of influences seen in Cretan embroidery.

The first section of the ...


Copyright Statement Jan 2004

Copyright Statement

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

appropriation • acculturation • transformation

Proceedings of the 9th Biennial Symposium of the Textile Society of America, Inc.

© 2005 Textile Society of America, Inc.

Copyright of individual papers remains with each author.

All rights reserved. Published 2005. Printed in the United States of America.

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, except brief excerpts for the purpose of review, without written permission from the Textile Society of America. Students and researchers wishing to cite the work of specific authors are encouraged to communicate directly with those individuals, as many of these papers represent work in progress. This volume ...


Author Biographies Jan 2004

Author Biographies

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Author Biographies A-W

Ping-Ann Addo

Filiz Adıgüzel

Jeni Allenby

Philis Alvic...

Wendy Weiss

Lauren Whitley

Michelle Willard


Keynote Address—Summary Notes, Jack Lenor Larsen Jan 2004

Keynote Address—Summary Notes, Jack Lenor Larsen

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

San Francisco Bay as the Fountainhead and Wellspring

Jack Lenor Larsen led off the 9th Biennial Symposium of the Textile Society of America in Oakland, California, with a plenary session directed to TSA members and conference participants. He congratulated us, even while proposing a larger and more inclusive vision of our field, and exhorting us to a more comprehensive approach to fiber. His plenary remarks were spoken extemporaneously from notes and not recorded. We recognize that their inestimable value deserves to be shared more broadly; Jack has kindly provided us with his rough notes for this keynote address. The ...


Textile Exchange And Cultural And Gendered Cross-Dressing At Palmyra, Syria (100 Bc—Ad 272), Cynthia Finlayson Jan 2004

Textile Exchange And Cultural And Gendered Cross-Dressing At Palmyra, Syria (100 Bc—Ad 272), Cynthia Finlayson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

For millennia, textiles have been utilized by human civilizations to define gendered identities as well as ethnic and political affiliations. Textiles have also been utilized as lucrative objects of trade. As such, their utilization in societies foreign to their origin of manufacture presents an interesting study in the power of trade textiles to transform the very essence of both gendered and cultural manifestations of identity through the absorption of foreign clothing styles and textile motifs.

Perhaps no society utilized the influence of trade textiles with more eclectic creativeness than the ancient citizens of the Palmyrene trade oasis of Tadmor, Syria ...


Fashion, Tradition, And Cultural Authentication: Change In Hmong American Ethnic Textiles And Aesthetics At Hmong New Year, Susan J. Torntore Jan 2004

Fashion, Tradition, And Cultural Authentication: Change In Hmong American Ethnic Textiles And Aesthetics At Hmong New Year, Susan J. Torntore

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper discusses the concepts of fashion and tradition as they relate to the process of cultural authentication. Historically, in the context of Laos and Thailand, Hmong textiles were used to create distinctive ensembles worn as everyday dress. They were handwoven and embroidered by women, and specific patterns or color combinations in the cloth denoted membership in regional language groups. Today, Hmong ethnic textiles are used in the United States to express ethnic identity and display cultural heritage in a more general context, worn instead at festive occasions such as Hmong New Year. Significant changes in “traditional” Hmong textiles have ...


Something Borrowed, Something Red –Textiles In Colonial And Soviet Central Asia, Kate Fitz- Gibbon Jan 2004

Something Borrowed, Something Red –Textiles In Colonial And Soviet Central Asia, Kate Fitz- Gibbon

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Turkoman and other tribal groups in Central Asia have used specific textile patterns from carpet weaving and embroidery as identity markers for centuries. Under late 19th century Russian rule, these designs were used as decorative elements on publications to represent an exotic, foreign, central Asian identity. In the Soviet period tribal patterns were utilized as formal symbols of Central Asian provincial sub-identities within the Soviet Union. They were incorporated into in architecture, used in theater set design, in painting, as a sort of tribalidentity- prop in every form of visual artistic expression. Similarly, a standardized “national costume” only superficially related ...


Protest To Persuasion: Chinese Textiles As Political Tools In The 19th And 20th Centuries, Diana Collins Jan 2004

Protest To Persuasion: Chinese Textiles As Political Tools In The 19th And 20th Centuries, Diana Collins

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Throughout history textiles have been used to demonstrate dissent towards political regimes and so it was in late 19th century China, when some civil officers expressed their frustration with decay and corruption during the decline of dynastic rule. Defiant modifications reflecting disrespect for the emperor were incorporated into embroidered badges of rank required by strict dress regulations to be worn conspicuously at the front and back of officials’ surcoats. When any insubordination could attract the penalty of death, wearing such rebellious statements against the Son of Heaven was undeniably bold.

With the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in 1911, centuries ...


California And The Fiber Art Revolution, Suzanne Baizerman Jan 2004

California And The Fiber Art Revolution, Suzanne Baizerman

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The 1960s and 1970s were critical years in the development of American fiber art. One of the major and most exciting centers of change was California. This paper will look at California’s transforming role in the fiber revolution. One noteworthy indicator of change in fiber art was the series of twelve exhibitions entitled California Design. They were held at the Pasadena Art Museum from 1954 to 1971 and at another venue in 1976. Exhibition catalogs were published for the last five exhibitions (1962, 1965, 1968, 1971 and 1976). The catalog pages document the movement within the fiber area - away ...


Joanne Segal Brandford, Barbara B. Goldberg Jan 2004

Joanne Segal Brandford, Barbara B. Goldberg

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper reviews the creative work of Joanne Segal Brandford. She received her BA in Decorative Art in 1955 and her MA in Design in 1967 from the University of California Berkeley with Ed Rossbach. Her work as artist, scholar, teacher, and curator was fueled by her interest and expertise in ethnic textiles, especially those of North, Central, and Andean America. Her widely exhibited innovative nets and sculptural forms were made by interlacing, knotting, and twining of primarily natural materials, sometimes dyed. Her mastery of handling materials in such a variety of ways was driven by the research and curatorial ...


Lillian Elliott, Pat Hickman Jan 2004

Lillian Elliott, Pat Hickman

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Whenever she taught, Lillian Elliott (1930-1994) arrived for class carrying bags bulging with historic world textiles–to illustrate a technique, a crazy, unexpected juxtaposition of color, a thread gone wild–all to suggest new possibilities. Abundance and generosity dominated; they fed her visual ideas and those of her students. Elliott valued most her teaching in the Department of Design at UC Berkeley, as a colleague of Ed Rossbach’s. Her curious mind led her in multiple directions simultaneously, as did his. Those of us lucky enough to study with both of them, entered the field as artists and teachers, changed ...


Dragon Covers – Mysterious Aberrations Of The Li, Lee J. Chinalai Jan 2004

Dragon Covers – Mysterious Aberrations Of The Li, Lee J. Chinalai

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Over a million Li people, representing approximately fifteen percent of the total population, live predominantly in the mountainous areas of Hainan, China. The island is rich in silk, hemp, ramie and cotton. The Li, a tribal people, began spinning, weaving and dyeing in ancient times and developed over the centuries a reputation for the quality and beauty of their textiles. Although the clothing and textiles of the various Li sub-tribes span a range of style and design, all – with one exception – clearly emanate from Li religion, culture and tradition, sharing roots with other Daic-speaking groups.

Several years ago, large, silk-embroidered ...


Abstracts Of Papers Jan 2004

Abstracts Of Papers

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

We Pieced Together Cloth, We Pieced Together Culture: Reflections on Tongan Women’s Textile-making in Oakland

Symbolic Defiance: Questions of Nationalism and Tradition in Middle Eastern Textiles

Churchill Weavers: 80 Years of American Handweaving

West Anatolian Carpet Designs: The Effect of Carpet Trade Between Ottoman Empire and Great Britain

California and the Fiber Art Revolution

Shifting Sands—Costume in Rajasthan

Pattern Power: Textiles and the Transmission of Knowledge

The Ubiquitous T-Shirt and Fashionable “Islamic Dress”: Cultural Authentication in Turkey


Appropriation, Acculturation, Transformation, Janet Stoyel Jan 2004

Appropriation, Acculturation, Transformation, Janet Stoyel

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Investigation of high-tec processes for the manufacture of decorative materials for use in contemporary textile and fashion design. Photon Laser and Ultrasound techniques explored via engineered substrates to create patinated colour, structural surfaces, repetitive pattern, etched detailing and modernistic construction possibilities. Keywords: Photon Laser, Ultrasound, Ecological, Environmental, Sustainability, Substrates.


‘Rafoogari’ Of Najibabad, Priya Ravish Mehra Jan 2004

‘Rafoogari’ Of Najibabad, Priya Ravish Mehra

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper will discuss the still continuous and centuries old skill of “Rafoogari” or the Darning and Maintenance of Pashmina Shawls by the Rafoogars or Darners of Najibabad, an historical town in western Uttar Pradesh. It is the home of several ‘Rafoogar’ families and the hub of the kani shawl trade. While Kashmiri pashmina shawls have been elaborately researched, the important role of darners in the maintenance of these priceless shawls has not yet been recognized. Although darning is a highly intricate and laborious task necessary to the maintenance, restoration, and renewal of the shawls, the role of the darners ...


Darning: A Visible Thread, Liz Williamson Jan 2004

Darning: A Visible Thread, Liz Williamson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper documents the transformation of cloth through the repair process by examining the impact of darning on the cloth’s surface. It looks at historical precedents for the translation of a darn into a decorative embellishment and the application of this translation as a concept for contemporary textiles.

Darning is a repair process for cloth, used to prolong the life of a garment out of necessity, sentimental reasons or on principle. Darning aims to make new, re-new and restore by the insertion of additional threads into the warp and weft of a cloth to repair holes and tears. An ...


Tapestry Translations In The Twentieth Century: The Entwined Roles Of Artists, Weavers, And Editeurs, Ann Lane Hedlund Jan 2004

Tapestry Translations In The Twentieth Century: The Entwined Roles Of Artists, Weavers, And Editeurs, Ann Lane Hedlund

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Historically, European tapestry making involved collaboration among artists, designers, draftsmen, cartoon makers, spinners, dyers, weavers, patrons, dealers, and other professionals. This specialized system of labor continued in modified form into the twentieth century in certain European weaving studios. This paper explores the negotiations involved and results achieved in the design, creation, and marketing of a group of twentieth century tapestries, in which painted imagery was translated into the handwoven textile medium.

A case study based on the Gloria F. Ross Archive of unpublished letters, contracts, sketches, invoices, photographs, and other materials is presented. Serving as editeur (analogous to a film ...


Contemporary Tapestry In A Cross-Cultural Context And The Work Of Janet Moore, Christine Laffer Jan 2004

Contemporary Tapestry In A Cross-Cultural Context And The Work Of Janet Moore, Christine Laffer

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Weavings and their techniques and attributes, have constantly crossed cultural boundaries whether along trade routes or between neighboring communities. At the same time, they have been claimed as identifiers of their makers’ cultures and territorialized to prevent “stealing.” In contemporary art practice, an act of appropriation is often seen as an act of aggression. Appropriation, from the artist's perspective, serves the purpose of social critique, in particular aimed at the cultural arenas controlled by the art world. However, exchanges that take place through viewing and interpreting the textiles of another culture are under minimal political or social control.

Tapestries ...