Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Art and Design Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2004

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Articles 1 - 30 of 69

Full-Text Articles in Art and Design

Symposium Program- Contents Oct 2004

Symposium Program- Contents

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Plenary Session

Handwork

Costume

Trade

Power of Pattern: Textiles, Politics & Persuasion (Panel)

Individual Papers—South America

Symbols of Influence

Threads of Change: The Transformation of Textiles in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Panel)

Mexico and Guatemala

Weaving

Embroidery


Traveling Stitches: Origins Of Fair Isle Knitting, Deborah Pulliam Apr 2004

Traveling Stitches: Origins Of Fair Isle Knitting, Deborah Pulliam

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The beginnings and "invention" of knitting has long fascinated knitters and amateur historians. Only recently has it come to be studied seriously, and there is still much folklore and fantasy repeated and published as history.

This paper (and discussion) considers some of the best known and most popular stories about the origins of Shetland and Fair Isle knitting and compares those with more recent considerations of color patterning in northern Europe, especially in the Baltic states and eastern Europe.

Fair Isle color patterning has been explained for many years as having been inspired by a wreck of the Spanish Armada ...


The Transformation Of Tusser Silk, Brenda M. King Jan 2004

The Transformation Of Tusser Silk, Brenda M. King

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

India and England enjoyed a mutually beneficial relationship through the silk trade during the British Empire. Thomas Wardle transformed aspects of India’s wild silk production, increasing demand for India’s yarn and providing employment for many thousands; this work should be better known.

Wardle was the first to print and dye Indian tusser almost any shade. At the Paris Exposition, 1878 he revealed tussser’s improved potential, gaining great publicity and a gold medal for India’s yarn. Thereafter, India increased exports of tusser yarn and cloth to Europe where it was demanded for furnishing, fashion and embroidery reads.


Appropriation, Transformation And Contemporary Fiber Art: An Artist’S Perspective, Claire Campbell Park Jan 2004

Appropriation, Transformation And Contemporary Fiber Art: An Artist’S Perspective, Claire Campbell Park

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Although founded on European assumptions of fine art, fiber art is equally grounded in textile traditions from around the globe. Issues of appropriation have evolved since fiber’s critical formative years in the 1960s and 70s, when an explosion in awareness of diverse cultures was reflected in the curriculum of California universities. The desire to mainstream into the fine art establishment gave rise to a trend in the 1980s and 90s, for some fiber artists to distance themselves from these traditions. It is this artist’s contention that the most appropriate of appropriations is a renewed appreciation of cultural values ...


A Ping-Pong Example Of Cultural Authentication And Kalabari Cut-Thread Cloth, Joanne B. Eicher Jan 2004

A Ping-Pong Example Of Cultural Authentication And Kalabari Cut-Thread Cloth, Joanne B. Eicher

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The concept of cultural authentication was first introduced to analyze the check and plaid textile called Indian madras used by the Kalabari people of the Niger Delta of Nigeria to produce a design by subtraction on the cloth which they subsequently call pelete bite (Erekosima, 1979; Erekosima and Eicher, 1981). Although the Kalabari are part of a much larger group of Niger Delta peoples, this cut-thread cloth is original and peculiar to them. They depend on the supply of madras from India to produce pelete bite to wear as men’s and women’s wrappers, to cover the face of ...


History Of Research On African Factory-Printed Cloth And Current Approaches In The Field, Michelle Willard Jan 2004

History Of Research On African Factory-Printed Cloth And Current Approaches In The Field, Michelle Willard

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper examines the significance of factory-printed cloth in Africa and its potential to communicate various messages through its use as clothing. Factory-printed cloth also has unintended communicative value when it is displayed outside Africa in museum contexts. I will introduce the topic with a brief history of research carried out on African factory-printed cloth and its appearance in museum and gallery exhibitions. This has led to contemporary forms of art historical and anthropological research. Some of the latter, including my own, has involved field collecting of commemorative cloths in West Africa. My research resulted in a museum exhibition of ...


Restoring Navajo-Churro Sheep: Acculturation And Adaptation Of A Traditional Fiber Resource, Susan M. Strawn Jan 2004

Restoring Navajo-Churro Sheep: Acculturation And Adaptation Of A Traditional Fiber Resource, Susan M. Strawn

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Factors that contribute to artisan sustainability are of critical importance to the world’s artisans who depend on hand-produced textiles for income and livelihood, and for whom textile production is closely intertwined with cultural identity. For Navajo (Diné) weavers, outside influences on their traditional fiber resource, Navajo- Churro sheep, have proven one critical factor in the quality, characteristics, and sustainability of Navajo handwoven textiles. The Diné acculturated a pastoral lifestyle and adapted wool for weaving from the desert sheep introduced into the American Southwest by Spanish explorers in the 1500s. Sheep proved critical to Diné weaving, cultural identity, and independence ...


Transformative Prospects: Textile Structure And The Social Organization Of Pre-Columbian And Colonial Andean Production, Blenda Femenías Jan 2004

Transformative Prospects: Textile Structure And The Social Organization Of Pre-Columbian And Colonial Andean Production, Blenda Femenías

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The pre-Columbian Andean material culture record is especially crucial for trying to understand social organization because Andean societies apparently did not employ what Europeans recognized as “writing.” The evidence contained in the objects themselves thus bears a larger burden in helping scholars analyze how social life was structured to enable a huge volume of cultural production. For pre-Columbian textiles in particular, the analysis of embroidered figures and their relationship to the ground fabric on which they were positioned has played crucial roles. In effective and original ways, Anne Paul used the evidence in textile objects, especially from the Paracas culture ...


460 Years Of Silk In Oaxaca, Mexico, Leslie Grace Jan 2004

460 Years Of Silk In Oaxaca, Mexico, Leslie Grace

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The origin of cultivated silk in Mexico can be traced to Cortez’s first shipment from Spain of Bombyx mori eggs in 1523. For the following 60 years three urban centers, Mexico City, Puebla and Oaxaca City were exclusively awarded the right for Spanish weavers to create silk satins, velvets and taffetas to be worn by the recent invaders. The indigenous people did the field work required for production of the fiber but were forbidden to weave on the newly introduced floor looms.

Sometime over the ensuing centuries silk fiber was adopted and used in Oaxaca by indigenous groups. Recent ...


Copyright Statement Jan 2004

Copyright Statement

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

appropriation • acculturation • transformation

Proceedings of the 9th Biennial Symposium of the Textile Society of America, Inc.

© 2005 Textile Society of America, Inc.

Copyright of individual papers remains with each author.

All rights reserved. Published 2005. Printed in the United States of America.

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, except brief excerpts for the purpose of review, without written permission from the Textile Society of America. Students and researchers wishing to cite the work of specific authors are encouraged to communicate directly with those individuals, as many of these papers represent work in progress. This volume ...


About Textile Society Of America Jan 2004

About Textile Society Of America

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The Textile Society of America, Inc. provides an international forum for the exchange and dissemination of information about textiles worldwide from artistic, cultural, economic, historic, political, social and technical perspectives.

National Office

TSA Board of Directors 2004-2005

Officers

TSA Publications


Javanesque Effects: Appropriation Of Batik And Its Transformations In Modern Textiles, Abby Lillethun Jan 2004

Javanesque Effects: Appropriation Of Batik And Its Transformations In Modern Textiles, Abby Lillethun

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

American batik practice emerged in the early twentieth century based on traditional techniques from Java and those filtered through Dutch Nieuwe Kunst. The promotion of batik through the Arts and Crafts movement in North America fostered egalitarian endorsement from artisans, individual practitioners, and consumers, across geographic locales, social milieu, and skill levels. Encouraged by manuals, magazine articles, and exhibitions, enthusiasm for batik grew across the nation and in the avant-garde enclave of Greenwich Village. While practitioners were cautioned to avoid excessive veining or crackle in their works in emulation of fine tradition, commercial enterprises helped to transform the aesthetic of ...


West Anatolian Carpet Designs: The Effect Of Carpet Trade Between Ottoman Empire And Great Britain, Elvan Anmac, Filiz Adigüzel Toprak Jan 2004

West Anatolian Carpet Designs: The Effect Of Carpet Trade Between Ottoman Empire And Great Britain, Elvan Anmac, Filiz Adigüzel Toprak

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

West Anatolia is a region that holds diverse precincts of carpet weaving in terms of colour, motif and composition features the carpets display throughout history. The carpet weaving tradition of West Anatolia till the middle of the 19th century had continued as a home industry which was manufactured by the villagers. The weaving style followed a sample rug called “örneklik” (a sampler with many motifs on it); the weaver was selecting the type of design she wanted to use. It was not the custom to draw the design of the carpet on a design paper.

Together with the increase in ...


Something Borrowed, Something Red –Textiles In Colonial And Soviet Central Asia, Kate Fitz- Gibbon Jan 2004

Something Borrowed, Something Red –Textiles In Colonial And Soviet Central Asia, Kate Fitz- Gibbon

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Turkoman and other tribal groups in Central Asia have used specific textile patterns from carpet weaving and embroidery as identity markers for centuries. Under late 19th century Russian rule, these designs were used as decorative elements on publications to represent an exotic, foreign, central Asian identity. In the Soviet period tribal patterns were utilized as formal symbols of Central Asian provincial sub-identities within the Soviet Union. They were incorporated into in architecture, used in theater set design, in painting, as a sort of tribalidentity- prop in every form of visual artistic expression. Similarly, a standardized “national costume” only superficially related ...


‘Rafoogari’ Of Najibabad, Priya Ravish Mehra Jan 2004

‘Rafoogari’ Of Najibabad, Priya Ravish Mehra

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper will discuss the still continuous and centuries old skill of “Rafoogari” or the Darning and Maintenance of Pashmina Shawls by the Rafoogars or Darners of Najibabad, an historical town in western Uttar Pradesh. It is the home of several ‘Rafoogar’ families and the hub of the kani shawl trade. While Kashmiri pashmina shawls have been elaborately researched, the important role of darners in the maintenance of these priceless shawls has not yet been recognized. Although darning is a highly intricate and laborious task necessary to the maintenance, restoration, and renewal of the shawls, the role of the darners ...


Darning: A Visible Thread, Liz Williamson Jan 2004

Darning: A Visible Thread, Liz Williamson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper documents the transformation of cloth through the repair process by examining the impact of darning on the cloth’s surface. It looks at historical precedents for the translation of a darn into a decorative embellishment and the application of this translation as a concept for contemporary textiles.

Darning is a repair process for cloth, used to prolong the life of a garment out of necessity, sentimental reasons or on principle. Darning aims to make new, re-new and restore by the insertion of additional threads into the warp and weft of a cloth to repair holes and tears. An ...


The Tale Of The Two-Tailed Mermaid A Case Study In The Origins Of The Cretan Embroidery Style, Sumru Belger Krody Jan 2004

The Tale Of The Two-Tailed Mermaid A Case Study In The Origins Of The Cretan Embroidery Style, Sumru Belger Krody

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

It is fascinating to trace the style and motifs of embroidered textiles from the Greek islands back to the political powers that held the islands in their control for centuries. Among these islands Crete has a special place in the study of Greek island embroidery. Because of its geographic location among trade routes and its political and artistic history, Crete presents an entirely different embroidery style from that of the other Greek islands. Through focusing on one motif, the two-tailed mermaid, this paper will try to construct a history of influences seen in Cretan embroidery.

The first section of the ...


Lillian Elliott, Pat Hickman Jan 2004

Lillian Elliott, Pat Hickman

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Whenever she taught, Lillian Elliott (1930-1994) arrived for class carrying bags bulging with historic world textiles–to illustrate a technique, a crazy, unexpected juxtaposition of color, a thread gone wild–all to suggest new possibilities. Abundance and generosity dominated; they fed her visual ideas and those of her students. Elliott valued most her teaching in the Department of Design at UC Berkeley, as a colleague of Ed Rossbach’s. Her curious mind led her in multiple directions simultaneously, as did his. Those of us lucky enough to study with both of them, entered the field as artists and teachers, changed ...


The Impact Of Synthetic Dyes On The Luxury Textiles Of Meiji Japan, Pamela A. Parmal Jan 2004

The Impact Of Synthetic Dyes On The Luxury Textiles Of Meiji Japan, Pamela A. Parmal

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Almost as soon as they were invented in 1858, chemical dyes were introduced to Japanese artists and craftsmen. Chemically dyed red, purple, orange and blue silk yarns were woven into elaborate textiles used to furnish the Meiji palaces, costume Noh actors, and wrap Buddhist priests, while dyers adapted resist techniques such as yuzen and stencil resist. Japanese wood-block print artists also responded to the new colors and incorporated them into their work creating vibrant scenes of life during the Meiji period. The bright, bold colors produced with the early synthetic dyes became emblematic of the technological advances of the Meiji ...


Changes In Nomadic Arab Weaving Due To Outside And Internal Influences, Joy May Hilden Jan 2004

Changes In Nomadic Arab Weaving Due To Outside And Internal Influences, Joy May Hilden

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Centuries of tradition in the weaving of the Bedouin, using sheepswool and goat hair, has changed dramatically in the last fifty years. With the decline of nomadism, due directly and indirectly to the discovery of oil, techniques and products have fallen to disuse or have been transformed with new materials and put to new uses.

Bedouin weaving was formerly used for tents, rugs and animal gear by nomadic Arab tribes in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Palestine/Israel and Egypt. Lifestyles among and influences on the bedu vary by region, but the decline of nomadism is common to ...


Churchill Weavers 80 Years Of American Handweaving, Philis Alvic Jan 2004

Churchill Weavers 80 Years Of American Handweaving, Philis Alvic

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In 1922 Eleanor and David Carroll Churchill founded Churchill Weavers in Berea, Kentucky, and it still continues as a unique American handweaving company over 80 years later. While a missionary in India, D. C. Churchill tackled problems within handweaving, the country’s second largest industry next to agriculture. He put to use his MIT education, adapting the loom’s fly-shuttle attachment for greater efficiency. After abandoning his short teaching career at Berea College, the Churchills began a business to employ local people that had few job opportunities. D.C. manufactured the loom he had designed in India and compartmentalized weaving ...


Piecing Together A New Home: Needlework In Kvinden Og Hjemmet Magazine, Laurann Gilbertson, Karen Olsen Jan 2004

Piecing Together A New Home: Needlework In Kvinden Og Hjemmet Magazine, Laurann Gilbertson, Karen Olsen

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Kvinden og Hjemmet was a magazine for women published in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, from 1888 to 1947. “The Woman and the Home” contained patterns for clothing and fancywork, as well as household hints, recipes, serialized novels, short stories, and poetry. Everything was written in, or translated into, Norwegian.

Ida Hanson, the editor of Kvinden og Hjemmet, had emigrated from Norway in 1870. She knew first-hand the trials of adjusting to a new way of life and she wanted to ease the transition for other Norwegians by providing information on how to make clothing and household textiles in the American style ...


From Rags To Riches To Revolution: A Social History Of 19th Irish Lace, Shiralee Hudson Jan 2004

From Rags To Riches To Revolution: A Social History Of 19th Irish Lace, Shiralee Hudson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Cultural theorist Daniel Miller writes, “The deeply integrated place of the artefact in constituting culture and human relations has made discussion of it one of the most difficult of all areas to include in abstract academic discourse” (“Artefacts in Their Contexts,” Material Culture and Mass Consumption, Oxford 1987, p. 130). This is, however, the very task this discussion of nineteenth century Irish lace undertakes. This paper outlines the establishment of the lace industry in Ireland in such centers as Carrickmacross, Limerick and Youghal. It also examines both its makers and users, revealing how artefact can indeed provide a powerful symbolism ...


Shifting Sands: Costume In Rajasthan, Vandana Bhandari Jan 2004

Shifting Sands: Costume In Rajasthan, Vandana Bhandari

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Rajasthan in Western India has a history of turbulent political conditions. This is an outcome of Rajasthan being a frontier region of India’s borders. Therefore, its people have had a continued interaction with outsiders entering India in successive waves of migration (from the time of Aryans – 1000 BC). Costume of the region is an assimilation of many historical and foreign influences and has evolved to present a unique tradition.

This paper aims to study dress in this region by taking examples of different ethnic groups like Marwaris, Rabari and Rajputs and examine influences that have led to change. The ...


Pleated Skirts Of Miao In Guizhou Province, China, Tomoko Torimaru, Tomoko Torimaru Jan 2004

Pleated Skirts Of Miao In Guizhou Province, China, Tomoko Torimaru, Tomoko Torimaru

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The Miao of Guizho China are a people with no written script and therefore no written historical record. Of their pre-history, scholars are certain of only one thing: "…that the Miao were in China before the Chinese, for it is the latter themselves who indicate the presence of the Miao in the land, which they, the Chinese, were gradually infiltrating" (J. Mottin). With no written scripts, textiles are at once the Miao’s cultural identity, their history of migration, and a communication tool. For these reasons, Miao textile traditions survive to this day.

Although it is true the Miao have ...


Textile Exchange And Cultural And Gendered Cross-Dressing At Palmyra, Syria (100 Bc—Ad 272), Cynthia Finlayson Jan 2004

Textile Exchange And Cultural And Gendered Cross-Dressing At Palmyra, Syria (100 Bc—Ad 272), Cynthia Finlayson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

For millennia, textiles have been utilized by human civilizations to define gendered identities as well as ethnic and political affiliations. Textiles have also been utilized as lucrative objects of trade. As such, their utilization in societies foreign to their origin of manufacture presents an interesting study in the power of trade textiles to transform the very essence of both gendered and cultural manifestations of identity through the absorption of foreign clothing styles and textile motifs.

Perhaps no society utilized the influence of trade textiles with more eclectic creativeness than the ancient citizens of the Palmyrene trade oasis of Tadmor, Syria ...


Indonesian Fashion Designers-----Transformation From Traditional Textiles, Yuka Matsumoto Jan 2004

Indonesian Fashion Designers-----Transformation From Traditional Textiles, Yuka Matsumoto

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Indonesian fashion designers who emerged in the 1970s have been creating various designs through uniting traditional and Western designs in accordance with the cultural policy of the country. Designs uniting traditional culture with Western culture symbolize Indonesia’s hybrid cultural background which consists of various ethnic cultures. In the 1980s, with the development of the economy, Indonesian fashion design was presented globally. But since 1997, because of the Asian economic crisis and the collapse of Soeharto’s administration, Indonesian designers have begun to present their designs to domestic consumers who have become aware and appreciative of the rich creative potential ...


Calico Trade Shirts On The Journey Of Discovery With Lewis And Clark, Margo Krager Jan 2004

Calico Trade Shirts On The Journey Of Discovery With Lewis And Clark, Margo Krager

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In the spring of 1803, Meriwether Lewis traveled to Philadelphia to prepare for his journey west. During a busy month there, he gathered thirty-five hundred pounds of supplies. His shopping list included “Indian Presents”: beads, tomahawks, fishing hooks, combs, and “30 calico shirts.”

Israel Whelan, Purveyor of Public Supplies, purchased from twenty-eight Philadelphia merchants many of the needed items, including the calico shirts. Where did he get them, were they ready-made and what did they look like?

The North American marketplace of 1803 offered a wide variety of fabrics. Canoe manifests from the customs house at Michilimackinac in 1802 listed ...


Cultural Authentication And Fashion In The Global Factory: A Panel Of Four Papers, Hazel A. Lutz Jan 2004

Cultural Authentication And Fashion In The Global Factory: A Panel Of Four Papers, Hazel A. Lutz

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Erekosima and Eicher (1981) first published a cultural authentication (CA) analysis. Of the Kalabaris’ adoption of Indian madras cloth, they asked four questions. Selection: how was the new cloth selected by society members? Characterization: what is the adopted cloth now called? Incorporation: how has the cloth’s use changed vis-à-vis categories of persons who wear it, occasions of wear, and its meaning? Transformation: how has the cloth been physically transformed?

Lutz (2003) incorporated the four CA questions into her study of the producers and traders of Indian cloth exported to the now transnational Kalabari market. She found Indian workers culturally ...


The Ubiquitous T-Shirt And Fashionable "Islamic Dress" Cultural Authentication In Turkey, Marlene R. Breu Jan 2004

The Ubiquitous T-Shirt And Fashionable "Islamic Dress" Cultural Authentication In Turkey, Marlene R. Breu

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

From both rural and urban traditions, the dress of Turkey is rich in historical forms that have been transformed over the years. Transformation occurred as individuals and groups reacted to the external influences of trade, technology and political events. With the incorporation of the global market economy and a greater variety of inspirations and products available in rural and urban areas, individuals and groups combined elements of traditional dress with modern forms to create dress that is distinctively Turkish. These multi-layered cultural authentications are incorporated into use with meanings that function to maintain a social order and act as a ...