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University of Nebraska - Lincoln

2004

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

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Full-Text Articles in Art and Design

It's In The Bag: Transformation In Guatemala, Kathy Rousso Jan 2004

It's In The Bag: Transformation In Guatemala, Kathy Rousso

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Morrales or net bags are an important man’s accessory in rural Guatemala, and many are made from maguey fibers using the ancient techniques of thigh spinning, and simple looping. Adaptations to these styles probably began when neighboring Mayan and Xinca tribes exchanged ideas as they came in contact with each other in times of trade and conflict. With Spain’s colonization, new tools such as spinning wheels, knitting needles, and looms, along with their uses, were incorporated into bag construction. The sailors who transported these early explorers likely introduced the strap methods of braiding, and knotwork, and with the ...


Tapestry Technology 1400-2004, Tina Kane Jan 2004

Tapestry Technology 1400-2004, Tina Kane

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

For the past 15 years my practice as a textile conservator and artist has stimulated an ongoing dialog between myself as a textile maker and the weavers of ancient textiles. A human hair caught in the web of a cloth, a weaver’s choice of interlacement patterns and the deliberate manipulation of woven motifs all mark the presence of “the weaver.” Who were these people, why do their creations make us marvel and how can our experience as contemporary weavers add to the scholarship of ancient textiles?

Because of the structural simplicity of tapestry weave, analyzing an intricate design from ...


The Distribution Of Cultural Identity A Canadian Case Study, Jennifer E. Salahub Jan 2004

The Distribution Of Cultural Identity A Canadian Case Study, Jennifer E. Salahub

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

A banner like this, hung in the central passage of a training institute … cannot fail to impress itself on the character of some, giving their tastes a bent in those directions which you would desire to push them into.

Albert Henry George, 4th Earl Grey (b.1851-d.1917). Letter, National Archives of Canada, Dated 13 March 1906.

This illustrated presentation introduces a series of early twentieth-century embroidered and appliquéd banners that were the inspiration of Lord Grey, Governor General of Canada between 1904–11. The medium – needlework – was specifically chosen because of its historic connotations. By literally fabricating material memories ...


Editor's Introduction Notes On Editing Acknowledgments Jan 2004

Editor's Introduction Notes On Editing Acknowledgments

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Introduction

The Textile Society of America’s 9th Biennial Symposium took place October 7–9, 2004, at the Oakland Marriott City Center Hotel in Oakland, California. The theme as reflected in the title, appropriation • acculturation • transformation, offered a stimulating approach to the study of historic and contemporary textiles from many cultures and diverse perspectives. Of eighty presentations in twenty-four sessions, seventy are represented in this CD-ROM. Sixty-seven authors have contributed sixty-two papers. Together with more than seventy abstracts, they reflect in text and image the substance and intellectual vibrancy that characterized this symposium.

Geographically, the San Francisco Bay Area is ...


Copyright Statement Jan 2004

Copyright Statement

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

appropriation • acculturation • transformation

Proceedings of the 9th Biennial Symposium of the Textile Society of America, Inc.

© 2005 Textile Society of America, Inc.

Copyright of individual papers remains with each author.

All rights reserved. Published 2005. Printed in the United States of America.

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, except brief excerpts for the purpose of review, without written permission from the Textile Society of America. Students and researchers wishing to cite the work of specific authors are encouraged to communicate directly with those individuals, as many of these papers represent work in progress. This volume ...


About Textile Society Of America Jan 2004

About Textile Society Of America

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The Textile Society of America, Inc. provides an international forum for the exchange and dissemination of information about textiles worldwide from artistic, cultural, economic, historic, political, social and technical perspectives.

National Office

TSA Board of Directors 2004-2005

Officers

TSA Publications


Katherine Westphal And Wearable Art, Jo Ann Stabb Jan 2004

Katherine Westphal And Wearable Art, Jo Ann Stabb

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper traces the influence of Katherine Westphal on the developments in textile design during the years between 1965-1985. As a member of the Berkeley community and wife of UC Berkeley Professor Ed Rossbach, Katherine’s activities were key to incorporating ‘wearable art’ into the dialogue and validating it as a serious component of the ‘textile revolution’ taking place in the San Francisco Bay Area. I trace her career as a painter and free-lance textile designer to when she joined the faculty at the University of California, Davis campus. She revitalized that textile program with her emphasis on surface design ...


Tradition And Innovation In Contemporary Lao Textiles, Rebecca Hall Jan 2004

Tradition And Innovation In Contemporary Lao Textiles, Rebecca Hall

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In this presentation I assess the physical changes that have transpired in Lao textiles within a context of tradition and commercialization. Through understanding of the characteristics of both “traditional” and commoditized textiles, I found that multiple changes are transpiring at once. The most important elements of this research are the textiles themselves, with the perception that textiles reveal the context and intention of their makers. Examination and comparison of over 100 Lao textiles from select U.S. museums and private collections and market observations conducted in Laos resulted in the material cultural analysis presented here. Salient aesthetic and symbolic elements ...


The Impact Of Synthetic Dyes On The Luxury Textiles Of Meiji Japan, Pamela A. Parmal Jan 2004

The Impact Of Synthetic Dyes On The Luxury Textiles Of Meiji Japan, Pamela A. Parmal

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Almost as soon as they were invented in 1858, chemical dyes were introduced to Japanese artists and craftsmen. Chemically dyed red, purple, orange and blue silk yarns were woven into elaborate textiles used to furnish the Meiji palaces, costume Noh actors, and wrap Buddhist priests, while dyers adapted resist techniques such as yuzen and stencil resist. Japanese wood-block print artists also responded to the new colors and incorporated them into their work creating vibrant scenes of life during the Meiji period. The bright, bold colors produced with the early synthetic dyes became emblematic of the technological advances of the Meiji ...


Sa’Dan Toraja Supplementary Weft Weaving An Ethnographic Interpretation Of Acculturation And Assimilation Of Loom Technology And Weaving Techniques, Maria Christou Jan 2004

Sa’Dan Toraja Supplementary Weft Weaving An Ethnographic Interpretation Of Acculturation And Assimilation Of Loom Technology And Weaving Techniques, Maria Christou

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The Sa'dan Toraja loom is a variant of the body-tension loom with a continuous warp. A comparison is made between the Sa'dan loom to other looms found on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, based on ethnographic fieldwork I conducted there from June 1993 to June 1994. This research is done in order to situate the Sa'dan loom in a historical time frame. I suggest that loom type correlates with the materials and decorative techniques, and to a certain, but lesser, extent with design. This assemblage of material data offers insight into the cultural history of South Sulawesi ...


Keynote Address—Summary Notes, Jack Lenor Larsen Jan 2004

Keynote Address—Summary Notes, Jack Lenor Larsen

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

San Francisco Bay as the Fountainhead and Wellspring

Jack Lenor Larsen led off the 9th Biennial Symposium of the Textile Society of America in Oakland, California, with a plenary session directed to TSA members and conference participants. He congratulated us, even while proposing a larger and more inclusive vision of our field, and exhorting us to a more comprehensive approach to fiber. His plenary remarks were spoken extemporaneously from notes and not recorded. We recognize that their inestimable value deserves to be shared more broadly; Jack has kindly provided us with his rough notes for this keynote address. The ...


Piecing Together A New Home: Needlework In Kvinden Og Hjemmet Magazine, Laurann Gilbertson, Karen Olsen Jan 2004

Piecing Together A New Home: Needlework In Kvinden Og Hjemmet Magazine, Laurann Gilbertson, Karen Olsen

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Kvinden og Hjemmet was a magazine for women published in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, from 1888 to 1947. “The Woman and the Home” contained patterns for clothing and fancywork, as well as household hints, recipes, serialized novels, short stories, and poetry. Everything was written in, or translated into, Norwegian.

Ida Hanson, the editor of Kvinden og Hjemmet, had emigrated from Norway in 1870. She knew first-hand the trials of adjusting to a new way of life and she wanted to ease the transition for other Norwegians by providing information on how to make clothing and household textiles in the American style ...


Javanesque Effects: Appropriation Of Batik And Its Transformations In Modern Textiles, Abby Lillethun Jan 2004

Javanesque Effects: Appropriation Of Batik And Its Transformations In Modern Textiles, Abby Lillethun

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

American batik practice emerged in the early twentieth century based on traditional techniques from Java and those filtered through Dutch Nieuwe Kunst. The promotion of batik through the Arts and Crafts movement in North America fostered egalitarian endorsement from artisans, individual practitioners, and consumers, across geographic locales, social milieu, and skill levels. Encouraged by manuals, magazine articles, and exhibitions, enthusiasm for batik grew across the nation and in the avant-garde enclave of Greenwich Village. While practitioners were cautioned to avoid excessive veining or crackle in their works in emulation of fine tradition, commercial enterprises helped to transform the aesthetic of ...


Textile Exchange And Cultural And Gendered Cross-Dressing At Palmyra, Syria (100 Bc—Ad 272), Cynthia Finlayson Jan 2004

Textile Exchange And Cultural And Gendered Cross-Dressing At Palmyra, Syria (100 Bc—Ad 272), Cynthia Finlayson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

For millennia, textiles have been utilized by human civilizations to define gendered identities as well as ethnic and political affiliations. Textiles have also been utilized as lucrative objects of trade. As such, their utilization in societies foreign to their origin of manufacture presents an interesting study in the power of trade textiles to transform the very essence of both gendered and cultural manifestations of identity through the absorption of foreign clothing styles and textile motifs.

Perhaps no society utilized the influence of trade textiles with more eclectic creativeness than the ancient citizens of the Palmyrene trade oasis of Tadmor, Syria ...


Indonesian Fashion Designers-----Transformation From Traditional Textiles, Yuka Matsumoto Jan 2004

Indonesian Fashion Designers-----Transformation From Traditional Textiles, Yuka Matsumoto

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Indonesian fashion designers who emerged in the 1970s have been creating various designs through uniting traditional and Western designs in accordance with the cultural policy of the country. Designs uniting traditional culture with Western culture symbolize Indonesia’s hybrid cultural background which consists of various ethnic cultures. In the 1980s, with the development of the economy, Indonesian fashion design was presented globally. But since 1997, because of the Asian economic crisis and the collapse of Soeharto’s administration, Indonesian designers have begun to present their designs to domestic consumers who have become aware and appreciative of the rich creative potential ...


West Anatolian Carpet Designs: The Effect Of Carpet Trade Between Ottoman Empire And Great Britain, Elvan Anmac, Filiz Adigüzel Toprak Jan 2004

West Anatolian Carpet Designs: The Effect Of Carpet Trade Between Ottoman Empire And Great Britain, Elvan Anmac, Filiz Adigüzel Toprak

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

West Anatolia is a region that holds diverse precincts of carpet weaving in terms of colour, motif and composition features the carpets display throughout history. The carpet weaving tradition of West Anatolia till the middle of the 19th century had continued as a home industry which was manufactured by the villagers. The weaving style followed a sample rug called “örneklik” (a sampler with many motifs on it); the weaver was selecting the type of design she wanted to use. It was not the custom to draw the design of the carpet on a design paper.

Together with the increase in ...


Calico Trade Shirts On The Journey Of Discovery With Lewis And Clark, Margo Krager Jan 2004

Calico Trade Shirts On The Journey Of Discovery With Lewis And Clark, Margo Krager

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In the spring of 1803, Meriwether Lewis traveled to Philadelphia to prepare for his journey west. During a busy month there, he gathered thirty-five hundred pounds of supplies. His shopping list included “Indian Presents”: beads, tomahawks, fishing hooks, combs, and “30 calico shirts.”

Israel Whelan, Purveyor of Public Supplies, purchased from twenty-eight Philadelphia merchants many of the needed items, including the calico shirts. Where did he get them, were they ready-made and what did they look like?

The North American marketplace of 1803 offered a wide variety of fabrics. Canoe manifests from the customs house at Michilimackinac in 1802 listed ...


Cultural Authentication And Fashion In The Global Factory: A Panel Of Four Papers, Hazel A. Lutz Jan 2004

Cultural Authentication And Fashion In The Global Factory: A Panel Of Four Papers, Hazel A. Lutz

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Erekosima and Eicher (1981) first published a cultural authentication (CA) analysis. Of the Kalabaris’ adoption of Indian madras cloth, they asked four questions. Selection: how was the new cloth selected by society members? Characterization: what is the adopted cloth now called? Incorporation: how has the cloth’s use changed vis-à-vis categories of persons who wear it, occasions of wear, and its meaning? Transformation: how has the cloth been physically transformed?

Lutz (2003) incorporated the four CA questions into her study of the producers and traders of Indian cloth exported to the now transnational Kalabari market. She found Indian workers culturally ...


Something Borrowed, Something Red –Textiles In Colonial And Soviet Central Asia, Kate Fitz- Gibbon Jan 2004

Something Borrowed, Something Red –Textiles In Colonial And Soviet Central Asia, Kate Fitz- Gibbon

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Turkoman and other tribal groups in Central Asia have used specific textile patterns from carpet weaving and embroidery as identity markers for centuries. Under late 19th century Russian rule, these designs were used as decorative elements on publications to represent an exotic, foreign, central Asian identity. In the Soviet period tribal patterns were utilized as formal symbols of Central Asian provincial sub-identities within the Soviet Union. They were incorporated into in architecture, used in theater set design, in painting, as a sort of tribalidentity- prop in every form of visual artistic expression. Similarly, a standardized “national costume” only superficially related ...


Protest To Persuasion: Chinese Textiles As Political Tools In The 19th And 20th Centuries, Diana Collins Jan 2004

Protest To Persuasion: Chinese Textiles As Political Tools In The 19th And 20th Centuries, Diana Collins

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Throughout history textiles have been used to demonstrate dissent towards political regimes and so it was in late 19th century China, when some civil officers expressed their frustration with decay and corruption during the decline of dynastic rule. Defiant modifications reflecting disrespect for the emperor were incorporated into embroidered badges of rank required by strict dress regulations to be worn conspicuously at the front and back of officials’ surcoats. When any insubordination could attract the penalty of death, wearing such rebellious statements against the Son of Heaven was undeniably bold.

With the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in 1911, centuries ...


Pattern Power: Textiles And The Transmission Of Knowledge, Carol Bier Jan 2004

Pattern Power: Textiles And The Transmission Of Knowledge, Carol Bier

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

If one makes an ontological distinction between patterns and textiles, an argument can be developed to assess the potential role that textiles may have played in the transmission of mathematical knowledge, concerning the spatial dimension. This paper seeks to address early Islamic textiles within the context of contemporary advances in the history of mathematics from the 8th – 10th centuries, which may have influenced, or been influenced by, technical developments in the production of pattern-woven textiles.

In particular, this paper explores patterns in woven textiles ascribed to the Sasanian Empire and its aftermath in Iran and Central Asia, with a view ...


Culture On A Platter: Politicization Of Central Asian Ikat Patterns, Victoria Z. Rivers Jan 2004

Culture On A Platter: Politicization Of Central Asian Ikat Patterns, Victoria Z. Rivers

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Textile patterns and motifs are powerful cultural markers conveying much more than mere geographic origin. Businesses and even governments have harnessed the meanings conveyed through the visual construct of textile patterns by adapting and interpreting them into products. This resulting, distinctive "otherness" has been used to express geo- and sociopolitical interests, ethnic identity and unity.

This paper investigates a curious example of textile pattern appropriation and explores its geopolitical and cultural meanings within a particularly volatile time and place. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian embroidered textiles and silk ikats began appearing in markets. Along with these ...


A Berkeley Home For Textile Art And Scholarship, 1912–79, Ira Jacknis Jan 2004

A Berkeley Home For Textile Art And Scholarship, 1912–79, Ira Jacknis

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The work of Ed Rossbach, his colleagues, and students at the University of California, Berkeley during the 1960s and 1970s was critical in forming the modern movement of American fiber art. What may not be as well known is the continuity of this work with a tradition of textile art and study at UC Berkeley going back to 1912.

Founded as a department of Household Art as part of the home economics movement, it became a department of Decorative Art in 1939, under the leadership of Berkeley anthropologist and textile scholar Lila M. O’Neale (1886–1948). A cultural approach ...


California And The Fiber Art Revolution, Suzanne Baizerman Jan 2004

California And The Fiber Art Revolution, Suzanne Baizerman

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The 1960s and 1970s were critical years in the development of American fiber art. One of the major and most exciting centers of change was California. This paper will look at California’s transforming role in the fiber revolution. One noteworthy indicator of change in fiber art was the series of twelve exhibitions entitled California Design. They were held at the Pasadena Art Museum from 1954 to 1971 and at another venue in 1976. Exhibition catalogs were published for the last five exhibitions (1962, 1965, 1968, 1971 and 1976). The catalog pages document the movement within the fiber area - away ...


Joanne Segal Brandford, Barbara B. Goldberg Jan 2004

Joanne Segal Brandford, Barbara B. Goldberg

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper reviews the creative work of Joanne Segal Brandford. She received her BA in Decorative Art in 1955 and her MA in Design in 1967 from the University of California Berkeley with Ed Rossbach. Her work as artist, scholar, teacher, and curator was fueled by her interest and expertise in ethnic textiles, especially those of North, Central, and Andean America. Her widely exhibited innovative nets and sculptural forms were made by interlacing, knotting, and twining of primarily natural materials, sometimes dyed. Her mastery of handling materials in such a variety of ways was driven by the research and curatorial ...


Lillian Elliott, Pat Hickman Jan 2004

Lillian Elliott, Pat Hickman

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Whenever she taught, Lillian Elliott (1930-1994) arrived for class carrying bags bulging with historic world textiles–to illustrate a technique, a crazy, unexpected juxtaposition of color, a thread gone wild–all to suggest new possibilities. Abundance and generosity dominated; they fed her visual ideas and those of her students. Elliott valued most her teaching in the Department of Design at UC Berkeley, as a colleague of Ed Rossbach’s. Her curious mind led her in multiple directions simultaneously, as did his. Those of us lucky enough to study with both of them, entered the field as artists and teachers, changed ...


Picturing The Transformation Of A Nation’S Textile Traditions: Meiji Era Woodblock Prints, Donna F. Lavallee Jan 2004

Picturing The Transformation Of A Nation’S Textile Traditions: Meiji Era Woodblock Prints, Donna F. Lavallee

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Woodblock prints, photographs and contemporary sketches will be used to illustrate the rapid change to Western dress in Japan and its impact on the importation and imitation of Western textiles. Between 1853 and 1868, American Commodore Perry forced the opening of Japan to foreign trade. The old fashioned Shogun was overthrown, and young, forward thinking Emperor Meiji took the throne. Under Emperor Meiji, the Japanese government introduced the wearing of Western style clothing for all public occasions, both social and official. These events brought Western textiles to Japanese dress: military uniforms were the first to use both woolen cloth and ...


‘Rafoogari’ Of Najibabad, Priya Ravish Mehra Jan 2004

‘Rafoogari’ Of Najibabad, Priya Ravish Mehra

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper will discuss the still continuous and centuries old skill of “Rafoogari” or the Darning and Maintenance of Pashmina Shawls by the Rafoogars or Darners of Najibabad, an historical town in western Uttar Pradesh. It is the home of several ‘Rafoogar’ families and the hub of the kani shawl trade. While Kashmiri pashmina shawls have been elaborately researched, the important role of darners in the maintenance of these priceless shawls has not yet been recognized. Although darning is a highly intricate and laborious task necessary to the maintenance, restoration, and renewal of the shawls, the role of the darners ...


Darning: A Visible Thread, Liz Williamson Jan 2004

Darning: A Visible Thread, Liz Williamson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper documents the transformation of cloth through the repair process by examining the impact of darning on the cloth’s surface. It looks at historical precedents for the translation of a darn into a decorative embellishment and the application of this translation as a concept for contemporary textiles.

Darning is a repair process for cloth, used to prolong the life of a garment out of necessity, sentimental reasons or on principle. Darning aims to make new, re-new and restore by the insertion of additional threads into the warp and weft of a cloth to repair holes and tears. An ...


Tapestry Translations In The Twentieth Century: The Entwined Roles Of Artists, Weavers, And Editeurs, Ann Lane Hedlund Jan 2004

Tapestry Translations In The Twentieth Century: The Entwined Roles Of Artists, Weavers, And Editeurs, Ann Lane Hedlund

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Historically, European tapestry making involved collaboration among artists, designers, draftsmen, cartoon makers, spinners, dyers, weavers, patrons, dealers, and other professionals. This specialized system of labor continued in modified form into the twentieth century in certain European weaving studios. This paper explores the negotiations involved and results achieved in the design, creation, and marketing of a group of twentieth century tapestries, in which painted imagery was translated into the handwoven textile medium.

A case study based on the Gloria F. Ross Archive of unpublished letters, contracts, sketches, invoices, photographs, and other materials is presented. Serving as editeur (analogous to a film ...