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University of Nebraska - Lincoln

2004

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

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Symposium Program- Contents Oct 2004

Symposium Program- Contents

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Plenary Session

Handwork

Costume

Trade

Power of Pattern: Textiles, Politics & Persuasion (Panel)

Individual Papers—South America

Symbols of Influence

Threads of Change: The Transformation of Textiles in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Panel)

Mexico and Guatemala

Weaving

Embroidery


Traveling Stitches: Origins Of Fair Isle Knitting, Deborah Pulliam Apr 2004

Traveling Stitches: Origins Of Fair Isle Knitting, Deborah Pulliam

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The beginnings and "invention" of knitting has long fascinated knitters and amateur historians. Only recently has it come to be studied seriously, and there is still much folklore and fantasy repeated and published as history.

This paper (and discussion) considers some of the best known and most popular stories about the origins of Shetland and Fair Isle knitting and compares those with more recent considerations of color patterning in northern Europe, especially in the Baltic states and eastern Europe.

Fair Isle color patterning has been explained for many years as having been inspired by a wreck of the Spanish Armada ...


Fashion, Tradition, And Cultural Authentication: Change In Hmong American Ethnic Textiles And Aesthetics At Hmong New Year, Susan J. Torntore Jan 2004

Fashion, Tradition, And Cultural Authentication: Change In Hmong American Ethnic Textiles And Aesthetics At Hmong New Year, Susan J. Torntore

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper discusses the concepts of fashion and tradition as they relate to the process of cultural authentication. Historically, in the context of Laos and Thailand, Hmong textiles were used to create distinctive ensembles worn as everyday dress. They were handwoven and embroidered by women, and specific patterns or color combinations in the cloth denoted membership in regional language groups. Today, Hmong ethnic textiles are used in the United States to express ethnic identity and display cultural heritage in a more general context, worn instead at festive occasions such as Hmong New Year. Significant changes in “traditional” Hmong textiles have ...


Appropriation, Acculturation, Transformation, Janet Stoyel Jan 2004

Appropriation, Acculturation, Transformation, Janet Stoyel

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Investigation of high-tec processes for the manufacture of decorative materials for use in contemporary textile and fashion design. Photon Laser and Ultrasound techniques explored via engineered substrates to create patinated colour, structural surfaces, repetitive pattern, etched detailing and modernistic construction possibilities. Keywords: Photon Laser, Ultrasound, Ecological, Environmental, Sustainability, Substrates.


The Transformation Of Tusser Silk, Brenda M. King Jan 2004

The Transformation Of Tusser Silk, Brenda M. King

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

India and England enjoyed a mutually beneficial relationship through the silk trade during the British Empire. Thomas Wardle transformed aspects of India’s wild silk production, increasing demand for India’s yarn and providing employment for many thousands; this work should be better known.

Wardle was the first to print and dye Indian tusser almost any shade. At the Paris Exposition, 1878 he revealed tussser’s improved potential, gaining great publicity and a gold medal for India’s yarn. Thereafter, India increased exports of tusser yarn and cloth to Europe where it was demanded for furnishing, fashion and embroidery reads.


Appropriation, Transformation And Contemporary Fiber Art: An Artist’S Perspective, Claire Campbell Park Jan 2004

Appropriation, Transformation And Contemporary Fiber Art: An Artist’S Perspective, Claire Campbell Park

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Although founded on European assumptions of fine art, fiber art is equally grounded in textile traditions from around the globe. Issues of appropriation have evolved since fiber’s critical formative years in the 1960s and 70s, when an explosion in awareness of diverse cultures was reflected in the curriculum of California universities. The desire to mainstream into the fine art establishment gave rise to a trend in the 1980s and 90s, for some fiber artists to distance themselves from these traditions. It is this artist’s contention that the most appropriate of appropriations is a renewed appreciation of cultural values ...


International Textile Works: A Laboratory For Experimental Artists From Around The World To Create Cutting- Edge Design, Grounded In Textiles, Wendy Weiss Jan 2004

International Textile Works: A Laboratory For Experimental Artists From Around The World To Create Cutting- Edge Design, Grounded In Textiles, Wendy Weiss

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Located at the University of Nebraska, our textile department launched the International Textile Works (ITW) in 2002. The department built on existing resources of a Mimaki Textile Jet Tx-1600S direct inkjet 65” fabric printer and an industrial steamer. The competitively awarded University’s Arts and Humanities Enhancement Fund provided start-up funds to invite an artist to design and print on this equipment. Internally we began applied research to test the best use of this technology for artists.

This initiative enables our design faculty, in collaboration with our scientific faculty, to create a fertile environment for developing innovative applications of digital ...


Carson Colcha Embroideries: From Ersatz To Orthodox, Suzanne P. Macaulay Jan 2004

Carson Colcha Embroideries: From Ersatz To Orthodox, Suzanne P. Macaulay

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In the 5th century BCE, Heraclitus wrote, “Everything in time begets its opposite.” The history of the Carson colchas of New Mexico appears to follow that axiom. Under a range of epithets from “fake” to “authentic,” these embroideries evolved during the 1930s as marketable (alternately enigmatic) replications or copies of 19th century Spanish colonial textiles to finally emerge as a distinctly recognized, legitimate genre of traditional Hispanic needlework in the late 20th century. These pieces were originally associated with the Carson community dominated by a clan of Mormon brothers married to Hispanic sisters, which created a complex intermingling of Anglo ...


Abstracts Of Papers Jan 2004

Abstracts Of Papers

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

We Pieced Together Cloth, We Pieced Together Culture: Reflections on Tongan Women’s Textile-making in Oakland

Symbolic Defiance: Questions of Nationalism and Tradition in Middle Eastern Textiles

Churchill Weavers: 80 Years of American Handweaving

West Anatolian Carpet Designs: The Effect of Carpet Trade Between Ottoman Empire and Great Britain

California and the Fiber Art Revolution

Shifting Sands—Costume in Rajasthan

Pattern Power: Textiles and the Transmission of Knowledge

The Ubiquitous T-Shirt and Fashionable “Islamic Dress”: Cultural Authentication in Turkey


Pleated Skirts Of Miao In Guizhou Province, China, Tomoko Torimaru, Tomoko Torimaru Jan 2004

Pleated Skirts Of Miao In Guizhou Province, China, Tomoko Torimaru, Tomoko Torimaru

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The Miao of Guizho China are a people with no written script and therefore no written historical record. Of their pre-history, scholars are certain of only one thing: "…that the Miao were in China before the Chinese, for it is the latter themselves who indicate the presence of the Miao in the land, which they, the Chinese, were gradually infiltrating" (J. Mottin). With no written scripts, textiles are at once the Miao’s cultural identity, their history of migration, and a communication tool. For these reasons, Miao textile traditions survive to this day.

Although it is true the Miao have ...


Piecing Together A New Home: Needlework In Kvinden Og Hjemmet Magazine, Laurann Gilbertson, Karen Olsen Jan 2004

Piecing Together A New Home: Needlework In Kvinden Og Hjemmet Magazine, Laurann Gilbertson, Karen Olsen

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Kvinden og Hjemmet was a magazine for women published in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, from 1888 to 1947. “The Woman and the Home” contained patterns for clothing and fancywork, as well as household hints, recipes, serialized novels, short stories, and poetry. Everything was written in, or translated into, Norwegian.

Ida Hanson, the editor of Kvinden og Hjemmet, had emigrated from Norway in 1870. She knew first-hand the trials of adjusting to a new way of life and she wanted to ease the transition for other Norwegians by providing information on how to make clothing and household textiles in the American style ...


Javanesque Effects: Appropriation Of Batik And Its Transformations In Modern Textiles, Abby Lillethun Jan 2004

Javanesque Effects: Appropriation Of Batik And Its Transformations In Modern Textiles, Abby Lillethun

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

American batik practice emerged in the early twentieth century based on traditional techniques from Java and those filtered through Dutch Nieuwe Kunst. The promotion of batik through the Arts and Crafts movement in North America fostered egalitarian endorsement from artisans, individual practitioners, and consumers, across geographic locales, social milieu, and skill levels. Encouraged by manuals, magazine articles, and exhibitions, enthusiasm for batik grew across the nation and in the avant-garde enclave of Greenwich Village. While practitioners were cautioned to avoid excessive veining or crackle in their works in emulation of fine tradition, commercial enterprises helped to transform the aesthetic of ...


West Anatolian Carpet Designs: The Effect Of Carpet Trade Between Ottoman Empire And Great Britain, Elvan Anmac, Filiz Adigüzel Toprak Jan 2004

West Anatolian Carpet Designs: The Effect Of Carpet Trade Between Ottoman Empire And Great Britain, Elvan Anmac, Filiz Adigüzel Toprak

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

West Anatolia is a region that holds diverse precincts of carpet weaving in terms of colour, motif and composition features the carpets display throughout history. The carpet weaving tradition of West Anatolia till the middle of the 19th century had continued as a home industry which was manufactured by the villagers. The weaving style followed a sample rug called “örneklik” (a sampler with many motifs on it); the weaver was selecting the type of design she wanted to use. It was not the custom to draw the design of the carpet on a design paper.

Together with the increase in ...


Calico Trade Shirts On The Journey Of Discovery With Lewis And Clark, Margo Krager Jan 2004

Calico Trade Shirts On The Journey Of Discovery With Lewis And Clark, Margo Krager

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In the spring of 1803, Meriwether Lewis traveled to Philadelphia to prepare for his journey west. During a busy month there, he gathered thirty-five hundred pounds of supplies. His shopping list included “Indian Presents”: beads, tomahawks, fishing hooks, combs, and “30 calico shirts.”

Israel Whelan, Purveyor of Public Supplies, purchased from twenty-eight Philadelphia merchants many of the needed items, including the calico shirts. Where did he get them, were they ready-made and what did they look like?

The North American marketplace of 1803 offered a wide variety of fabrics. Canoe manifests from the customs house at Michilimackinac in 1802 listed ...


Cultural Authentication And Fashion In The Global Factory: A Panel Of Four Papers, Hazel A. Lutz Jan 2004

Cultural Authentication And Fashion In The Global Factory: A Panel Of Four Papers, Hazel A. Lutz

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Erekosima and Eicher (1981) first published a cultural authentication (CA) analysis. Of the Kalabaris’ adoption of Indian madras cloth, they asked four questions. Selection: how was the new cloth selected by society members? Characterization: what is the adopted cloth now called? Incorporation: how has the cloth’s use changed vis-à-vis categories of persons who wear it, occasions of wear, and its meaning? Transformation: how has the cloth been physically transformed?

Lutz (2003) incorporated the four CA questions into her study of the producers and traders of Indian cloth exported to the now transnational Kalabari market. She found Indian workers culturally ...


Something Borrowed, Something Red –Textiles In Colonial And Soviet Central Asia, Kate Fitz- Gibbon Jan 2004

Something Borrowed, Something Red –Textiles In Colonial And Soviet Central Asia, Kate Fitz- Gibbon

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Turkoman and other tribal groups in Central Asia have used specific textile patterns from carpet weaving and embroidery as identity markers for centuries. Under late 19th century Russian rule, these designs were used as decorative elements on publications to represent an exotic, foreign, central Asian identity. In the Soviet period tribal patterns were utilized as formal symbols of Central Asian provincial sub-identities within the Soviet Union. They were incorporated into in architecture, used in theater set design, in painting, as a sort of tribalidentity- prop in every form of visual artistic expression. Similarly, a standardized “national costume” only superficially related ...


Protest To Persuasion: Chinese Textiles As Political Tools In The 19th And 20th Centuries, Diana Collins Jan 2004

Protest To Persuasion: Chinese Textiles As Political Tools In The 19th And 20th Centuries, Diana Collins

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Throughout history textiles have been used to demonstrate dissent towards political regimes and so it was in late 19th century China, when some civil officers expressed their frustration with decay and corruption during the decline of dynastic rule. Defiant modifications reflecting disrespect for the emperor were incorporated into embroidered badges of rank required by strict dress regulations to be worn conspicuously at the front and back of officials’ surcoats. When any insubordination could attract the penalty of death, wearing such rebellious statements against the Son of Heaven was undeniably bold.

With the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in 1911, centuries ...


Pattern Power: Textiles And The Transmission Of Knowledge, Carol Bier Jan 2004

Pattern Power: Textiles And The Transmission Of Knowledge, Carol Bier

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

If one makes an ontological distinction between patterns and textiles, an argument can be developed to assess the potential role that textiles may have played in the transmission of mathematical knowledge, concerning the spatial dimension. This paper seeks to address early Islamic textiles within the context of contemporary advances in the history of mathematics from the 8th – 10th centuries, which may have influenced, or been influenced by, technical developments in the production of pattern-woven textiles.

In particular, this paper explores patterns in woven textiles ascribed to the Sasanian Empire and its aftermath in Iran and Central Asia, with a view ...


Culture On A Platter: Politicization Of Central Asian Ikat Patterns, Victoria Z. Rivers Jan 2004

Culture On A Platter: Politicization Of Central Asian Ikat Patterns, Victoria Z. Rivers

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Textile patterns and motifs are powerful cultural markers conveying much more than mere geographic origin. Businesses and even governments have harnessed the meanings conveyed through the visual construct of textile patterns by adapting and interpreting them into products. This resulting, distinctive "otherness" has been used to express geo- and sociopolitical interests, ethnic identity and unity.

This paper investigates a curious example of textile pattern appropriation and explores its geopolitical and cultural meanings within a particularly volatile time and place. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian embroidered textiles and silk ikats began appearing in markets. Along with these ...


A Berkeley Home For Textile Art And Scholarship, 1912–79, Ira Jacknis Jan 2004

A Berkeley Home For Textile Art And Scholarship, 1912–79, Ira Jacknis

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The work of Ed Rossbach, his colleagues, and students at the University of California, Berkeley during the 1960s and 1970s was critical in forming the modern movement of American fiber art. What may not be as well known is the continuity of this work with a tradition of textile art and study at UC Berkeley going back to 1912.

Founded as a department of Household Art as part of the home economics movement, it became a department of Decorative Art in 1939, under the leadership of Berkeley anthropologist and textile scholar Lila M. O’Neale (1886–1948). A cultural approach ...


California And The Fiber Art Revolution, Suzanne Baizerman Jan 2004

California And The Fiber Art Revolution, Suzanne Baizerman

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The 1960s and 1970s were critical years in the development of American fiber art. One of the major and most exciting centers of change was California. This paper will look at California’s transforming role in the fiber revolution. One noteworthy indicator of change in fiber art was the series of twelve exhibitions entitled California Design. They were held at the Pasadena Art Museum from 1954 to 1971 and at another venue in 1976. Exhibition catalogs were published for the last five exhibitions (1962, 1965, 1968, 1971 and 1976). The catalog pages document the movement within the fiber area - away ...


Joanne Segal Brandford, Barbara B. Goldberg Jan 2004

Joanne Segal Brandford, Barbara B. Goldberg

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper reviews the creative work of Joanne Segal Brandford. She received her BA in Decorative Art in 1955 and her MA in Design in 1967 from the University of California Berkeley with Ed Rossbach. Her work as artist, scholar, teacher, and curator was fueled by her interest and expertise in ethnic textiles, especially those of North, Central, and Andean America. Her widely exhibited innovative nets and sculptural forms were made by interlacing, knotting, and twining of primarily natural materials, sometimes dyed. Her mastery of handling materials in such a variety of ways was driven by the research and curatorial ...


Katherine Westphal And Wearable Art, Jo Ann Stabb Jan 2004

Katherine Westphal And Wearable Art, Jo Ann Stabb

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper traces the influence of Katherine Westphal on the developments in textile design during the years between 1965-1985. As a member of the Berkeley community and wife of UC Berkeley Professor Ed Rossbach, Katherine’s activities were key to incorporating ‘wearable art’ into the dialogue and validating it as a serious component of the ‘textile revolution’ taking place in the San Francisco Bay Area. I trace her career as a painter and free-lance textile designer to when she joined the faculty at the University of California, Davis campus. She revitalized that textile program with her emphasis on surface design ...


Picturing The Transformation Of A Nation’S Textile Traditions: Meiji Era Woodblock Prints, Donna F. Lavallee Jan 2004

Picturing The Transformation Of A Nation’S Textile Traditions: Meiji Era Woodblock Prints, Donna F. Lavallee

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Woodblock prints, photographs and contemporary sketches will be used to illustrate the rapid change to Western dress in Japan and its impact on the importation and imitation of Western textiles. Between 1853 and 1868, American Commodore Perry forced the opening of Japan to foreign trade. The old fashioned Shogun was overthrown, and young, forward thinking Emperor Meiji took the throne. Under Emperor Meiji, the Japanese government introduced the wearing of Western style clothing for all public occasions, both social and official. These events brought Western textiles to Japanese dress: military uniforms were the first to use both woolen cloth and ...


‘Rafoogari’ Of Najibabad, Priya Ravish Mehra Jan 2004

‘Rafoogari’ Of Najibabad, Priya Ravish Mehra

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper will discuss the still continuous and centuries old skill of “Rafoogari” or the Darning and Maintenance of Pashmina Shawls by the Rafoogars or Darners of Najibabad, an historical town in western Uttar Pradesh. It is the home of several ‘Rafoogar’ families and the hub of the kani shawl trade. While Kashmiri pashmina shawls have been elaborately researched, the important role of darners in the maintenance of these priceless shawls has not yet been recognized. Although darning is a highly intricate and laborious task necessary to the maintenance, restoration, and renewal of the shawls, the role of the darners ...


Darning: A Visible Thread, Liz Williamson Jan 2004

Darning: A Visible Thread, Liz Williamson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper documents the transformation of cloth through the repair process by examining the impact of darning on the cloth’s surface. It looks at historical precedents for the translation of a darn into a decorative embellishment and the application of this translation as a concept for contemporary textiles.

Darning is a repair process for cloth, used to prolong the life of a garment out of necessity, sentimental reasons or on principle. Darning aims to make new, re-new and restore by the insertion of additional threads into the warp and weft of a cloth to repair holes and tears. An ...


Tapestry Translations In The Twentieth Century: The Entwined Roles Of Artists, Weavers, And Editeurs, Ann Lane Hedlund Jan 2004

Tapestry Translations In The Twentieth Century: The Entwined Roles Of Artists, Weavers, And Editeurs, Ann Lane Hedlund

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Historically, European tapestry making involved collaboration among artists, designers, draftsmen, cartoon makers, spinners, dyers, weavers, patrons, dealers, and other professionals. This specialized system of labor continued in modified form into the twentieth century in certain European weaving studios. This paper explores the negotiations involved and results achieved in the design, creation, and marketing of a group of twentieth century tapestries, in which painted imagery was translated into the handwoven textile medium.

A case study based on the Gloria F. Ross Archive of unpublished letters, contracts, sketches, invoices, photographs, and other materials is presented. Serving as editeur (analogous to a film ...


Contemporary Tapestry In A Cross-Cultural Context And The Work Of Janet Moore, Christine Laffer Jan 2004

Contemporary Tapestry In A Cross-Cultural Context And The Work Of Janet Moore, Christine Laffer

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Weavings and their techniques and attributes, have constantly crossed cultural boundaries whether along trade routes or between neighboring communities. At the same time, they have been claimed as identifiers of their makers’ cultures and territorialized to prevent “stealing.” In contemporary art practice, an act of appropriation is often seen as an act of aggression. Appropriation, from the artist's perspective, serves the purpose of social critique, in particular aimed at the cultural arenas controlled by the art world. However, exchanges that take place through viewing and interpreting the textiles of another culture are under minimal political or social control.

Tapestries ...


Tradition And Innovation In Contemporary Lao Textiles, Rebecca Hall Jan 2004

Tradition And Innovation In Contemporary Lao Textiles, Rebecca Hall

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In this presentation I assess the physical changes that have transpired in Lao textiles within a context of tradition and commercialization. Through understanding of the characteristics of both “traditional” and commoditized textiles, I found that multiple changes are transpiring at once. The most important elements of this research are the textiles themselves, with the perception that textiles reveal the context and intention of their makers. Examination and comparison of over 100 Lao textiles from select U.S. museums and private collections and market observations conducted in Laos resulted in the material cultural analysis presented here. Salient aesthetic and symbolic elements ...


The Jicarilla Apache Woman's Ceremonial Cape The Making And Re-Genesis Of A Cultural Icon, Joyce Herold Jan 2004

The Jicarilla Apache Woman's Ceremonial Cape The Making And Re-Genesis Of A Cultural Icon, Joyce Herold

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Women of the tiny Jicarilla Apache tribe of north-central New Mexico have one of the most vibrant and distinctive poncho traditions of any contemporary American Indian group. Based on the yoke of the early 1800s deerskin “tail dress” design, the Jicarilla cape became a separate item of apparel. that was decorated in a classic mode with scallops and fringes, yellow paint, and striped beadwork edges. The cape design signifies woman’s origins and fruitfulness connected with the moon and its phases; thus it functions as necessary raiment and a powerful symbol at a Jicarilla Girl’s Coming Out Ceremony and ...