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Fiber, Textile, and Weaving Arts

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

1994

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Preface - Contact, Crossover, Continuity - 1994, Louise W. Mackie, Patricia R. Anawalt Jan 1994

Preface - Contact, Crossover, Continuity - 1994, Louise W. Mackie, Patricia R. Anawalt

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The Fourth Biennial Symposium of the Textile Society of America, Inc., was hosted by the Fowler Museum of Cultural History, University of California, Los Angeles, California, September 22–24, 1994. The papers addressed a broad theme which was chosen in order to accommodate the diverse interests of members. The proceedings contains the thirty papers and two abstracts of papers presented at the symposium, plus a video script, and a list of the two hundred and forty participants.

Contact, Crossover, Continuity highlights the causes and effects of change on textiles around the world. The proceedings provides an opportunity to identify and ...


The Transformation Of Men Into Masquerades And Indian Madras Into Masquerade Cloth In Buguma, Nigeria, Elisha P. Renne, Joanne B. Eicher Jan 1994

The Transformation Of Men Into Masquerades And Indian Madras Into Masquerade Cloth In Buguma, Nigeria, Elisha P. Renne, Joanne B. Eicher

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The Kalahari Ijo people of the Niger Delta area of southeastern Nigeria use a group of dark indigo-blue cloths with white patterning to cover the faces of masquerade performers. Subsumed under the name of alubite (masquerade cloth) are at least three distinct types: (1) ukara cloth, an indigo-resist of imported muslin, stitched and dyed by Igbo craftsmen, (2) alubite cloth, a gauze-weave, also an indigo-resist, but of unknown provenance, and (3) pelete bite, an Indian madras from which threads are cut and pulled by Kalahari women to form a new pattern.

The first two types of cloth apparently come from ...


New Twist On Shibori: How An Old Tradition Survives In The New World When Japanese Wooden Poles Are Replaced By American Pvc Pipes, Yoshiko Iwamoto Wada Jan 1994

New Twist On Shibori: How An Old Tradition Survives In The New World When Japanese Wooden Poles Are Replaced By American Pvc Pipes, Yoshiko Iwamoto Wada

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The subject of my talk is arashi shibori or pole wrap resist Although at times it is hard to recognize some arashi effects as such, technically arashi shibori is one of many forms of tie-dye. After thirty years of its exploration through art-to-wear, dyed and painted tapestries, three dimensional sculptures, and mixed media in the United States, various forms of tie-dye have now become part of the lexicon of American fabric design and fiberarts vocabulary.

On the one hand, there has been much effort by textile specialists to circumvent the term "tie-dye," due to its association with the Grateful Dead ...


The Pomegranate Pattern In Italian Renaissance Textiles: Origins And Influence, Rosalia Bonito Fanelli Jan 1994

The Pomegranate Pattern In Italian Renaissance Textiles: Origins And Influence, Rosalia Bonito Fanelli

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The term "pomegranate motif" includes a series of vegetal patterns—the pine cone, the artichoke, the thistle, variants of the tree-of-life motif, and, in particular, the lotus and the palmette. These last two patterns were closely studied by Alois Riegl in his 1893 work Stilfragen (Problems of Style). The term itself came into use during the period of historic revivalism in the latter half of the nineteenth century. At that time important design theorists and practitioners such as Owen Jones, William Morris, and Walter Crane dedicated space in their writings with accompanying plates to the reconstruction of Renaissance pomegranate patterns ...


Supplementary Weft On An "Ikat" Isle: The Weaving Communities Of Northwestern Flores, Roy W. Hamilton Jan 1994

Supplementary Weft On An "Ikat" Isle: The Weaving Communities Of Northwestern Flores, Roy W. Hamilton

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Among textile enthusiasts, the island of Flores is known primarily for its beautiful warp-ikat cloths. Most of the island's numerous ethno-linguistic groups, including the Ngadha, Nage, Endenese, Lio, Palu'e, Sikkanese, and Lamaholot, produce related yet distinctive textiles within this tradition. It is therefore surprising to find a series of weaving districts, stretching along the northwest coast of the island, where the ikat technique is not used. Instead, weavers in this region produce indigo-dyed textiles decorated with colorful supplementary-weft motifs.

In the ikat districts, sarongs for men and women differ in their patterning and in the names applied to ...


Cloth As Marriage Gifts: Change In Exchange Among The Lio Of Flores, Willemijn De Jong Jan 1994

Cloth As Marriage Gifts: Change In Exchange Among The Lio Of Flores, Willemijn De Jong

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The exchange of gifts at life cycle ceremonies is one of the most important institutions in Lio society, as in many other societies in Oceania. The life cycle event of marriage and its exchange of gifts is often significant, because important sociopolitical alliances between kin groups are initiated or renewed. In these exchanges, cloth wealth may play a crucial role, especially in ranked societies. Weiner contends that in Samoa "each distribution [of fine mats] is an example of the negotiation and validation of rank and power." Gittinger has pointed out the economic and symbolic value of cloth gifts at marriage ...


Market Effects On The Design And Construction Of Carpets In The Milas Region Of Southwestern Turkey, 1963–1993, Charlotte A. Jirousek Jan 1994

Market Effects On The Design And Construction Of Carpets In The Milas Region Of Southwestern Turkey, 1963–1993, Charlotte A. Jirousek

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Beginning in 1964 my husband and I were involved in the development of a village carpet weaving cooperative in Southwestern Turkey. We lived with the weavers of Çömlekçi from 1964 to 1966, as part of the first Peace Corps rural community development program in Turkey. Between 1966 and 1969 we continued to work with the cooperative in its efforts to develop markets and quality control standards while working as Peace Corps staff. Since leaving Turkey in 1969, I have visited Çömlekçi periodically, most recently in 1992 and 1994.

The success of the Çömlekçi cooperative in tum generated carpet cooperatives throughout ...


Paj Ntaub: Textile Techniques Of The Hmong, Joyce Smith Jan 1994

Paj Ntaub: Textile Techniques Of The Hmong, Joyce Smith

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Narration of the video:

Who Are the Hmong?

What Is Paj Ntaub?

Why Providence?

Zoua V. Lor

Seng Yang Vang

Lee Khang

Chia Vue Moua

What Next?


From Bohemian To Bourgeois: American Batik In The Early Twentieth Century, Nicola J. Shilliam Jan 1994

From Bohemian To Bourgeois: American Batik In The Early Twentieth Century, Nicola J. Shilliam

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In 1919 Pieter Mijer wrote in his influential book Batiks and How to Make Them, "Batik is still a comparatively recent importation; brought here some ten years ago, it was met with absolute incomprehension and lack of interest, but its real merit as a means of decorating fabrics has earned it a place in the industrial art of the nation and year by year it is gaining wider recognition."

This paper briefly considers the rise and fall in popularity of batik in America in the period Mijer indicated: how it changed from being a foreign import chiefly seen in museums ...


Charmingly Quaint And Still Modern: The Paradox Of Colonial Revival Needlework In America, 1875–1940, Beverly Gordon Jan 1994

Charmingly Quaint And Still Modern: The Paradox Of Colonial Revival Needlework In America, 1875–1940, Beverly Gordon

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Despite the self-conscious modernism of the early 20th century, American needlework was filled with images of flower baskets, cozy cottages, spinning wheels, and women in hoopskirts. It was dominated by seemingly old-fashioned and "quaint" techniques, such as cross stitch, patchwork, crewel, and rug hooking. In an era with teeming cities, radio, and cars pouring off the assembly line, needlework came to stand for a romanticized, seemingly simpler and nobler American past. And in an era when women were winning the vote and re-entering the professional work force, needleworkers, in turn, became identified with the domestic homebody of the past. In ...


Anni Albers: Pre-Columbian Resonances: The Significance Of Pre-Columbian Art In Her Textiles And Writings, Virginia Gardner Troy Jan 1994

Anni Albers: Pre-Columbian Resonances: The Significance Of Pre-Columbian Art In Her Textiles And Writings, Virginia Gardner Troy

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Anni Albers is known primarily for her contribution to the Bauhaus Weaving Workshop and her woven prototypes for industrial production; she has rarely been acknowledged for her role in reviving and redefining the Pre-Columbian fiber art tradition. She researched, analyzed, collected, and extensively wrote about Pre-Columbian textiles. Her seminal text, On Weaving, 1965, is not only dedicated to Andean weavers, "my great teachers, the weavers of ancient Peru," but is essentially a textbook of Andean weaving techniques, revived and meticulously analyzed by Albers. Furthermore, she and her husband, Josef Albers, amassed an important collection of ancient Mesoamerican sculpture, acquired during ...


(Re-)Fashioning Identity: Late Twentieth-Century Transformations In Dress And Society In Boliva, Elayne Zorn Jan 1994

(Re-)Fashioning Identity: Late Twentieth-Century Transformations In Dress And Society In Boliva, Elayne Zorn

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The members of most of Bolivia's large indigenous ethnic groups, such as the nearly 22,000 people of ayllu Sakaka of northern Potosi, continue to wear a distinctive daily dress. Such dress nationally and internationally is emblematic of the Sakaka's separate, and to many inferior, identity as Indians. To the wearers also, or perhaps fundamentally, such dress marks a division between clothed indigenous humans (runa) and naked foreign outsiders (q'ara). This interpretation coincides with hegemonic non-Indian evaluations of Indian separateness, but reverses the hierarchy.

Yet most members of these large indigenous ethnic groups, whom I refer to ...


Ethnic Artists And The Appropriation Of Fashion: Embroidery And Identity In The Colca Valley, Peru, Blenda Femenías Jan 1994

Ethnic Artists And The Appropriation Of Fashion: Embroidery And Identity In The Colca Valley, Peru, Blenda Femenías

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

"When I'm in Arequipa and I see a lady in embroidered clothes, I always greet her; she's from my land, she's my compatriot. . . . [When I teach embroidery] no matter how much one teaches, the motifs don't come out the same. If there are twenty embroiderers, twenty different motifs come out although they have the same name. It's like, even if you're my brother, we're not the same."

These comments by embroidery artist Leonardo Mejfa neatly express the character of Colca Valley ethnic clothes: simultaneously shared and individual. Similar appearance is important in recognizing ...


Wreath And Cap To Veil And Apron: American Modification Of A Slavic Ritual, Patricia Williams Jan 1994

Wreath And Cap To Veil And Apron: American Modification Of A Slavic Ritual, Patricia Williams

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper explores a wedding custom practiced for more than one hundred years in the Chicago area by the descendants of Czech, Polish, and Slovak immigrant women. Through the custom's existence and perpetuation in America, the role of a transitional rite of passage is chronicled in both the process of assimilation and the preservation of ethnic heritage. The original textile symbols used in the ritual were modified to reflect the differences in culture in the United States but with the "echoes" of European folk tradition still heard. Chicagoans today have continued to modify the custom as the role of ...


What’S In A Name: The Domestication Of Factory Produced Wax Textiles In Cote D’Ivoire, Kathleen E. Bickford Jan 1994

What’S In A Name: The Domestication Of Factory Produced Wax Textiles In Cote D’Ivoire, Kathleen E. Bickford

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In a frequently evoked passage from Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare asks "What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet." Yet, as Romeo and Juliet tragically come to learn, human beings make much of names. Indeed, one's name is a significant part of one's social persona; it can describe who we are, it can join us and separate us from others, and it can link us to the past. In a sense, when we are named we are given an identity. Describing the complexities of naming for ...


The Conversion Of Chinese Court Robes Into Japanese Festival Hangings, Gloria Granz Gonick Jan 1994

The Conversion Of Chinese Court Robes Into Japanese Festival Hangings, Gloria Granz Gonick

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Decorated silken robes historically worn in China to garb the emperor and his family were disassembled and resewn in Japan into hangings for Kyoto's Gion Festival during the 16th to 18th centuries. The twenty robes, which were converted into coverings for festival carts called yama and hoko, include silk tapestry weaves (kesi), brocades, and embroidered examples. Eleven date from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) and nine from the early to mid Qing Dynasty (1644–1911). This distribution contrasts with other world collections of Chinese imperial robes, in which Qing Dynasty examples are far more numerous. In addition to the ...


Continuity Of Culture: A Reenactor’S Goal, Elizabeth Mcclure Jan 1994

Continuity Of Culture: A Reenactor’S Goal, Elizabeth Mcclure

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper examines the maintenance of cultural continuity through historical reenactment. It is the reenactor's goal, in this case, to portray and maintain the culture of Ireland and Scotland. They are holding on to this culture and presenting it to others by maintaining the dress, crafts, and lifestyles of sixteenth-century Scotland and Ireland.

The methods of data collection for this study were ethnographic in nature. Interviews with key informants were conducted. In addition, there was a questionnaire distributed to members of the group This method of data collection provided the insight to see how a member of this group ...


Discussion Of "Textile Transformations And Cultural Continuities In West Africa", Christopher B. Steiner Jan 1994

Discussion Of "Textile Transformations And Cultural Continuities In West Africa", Christopher B. Steiner

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

I have divided my discussion of these papers into two parts. First, I would like briefly to address each of the papers individually—highlighting what I find to be some of the most important issues raised by each. And second, I would like to put forth two dichotomies—(1) regarding the relationship between the sacred and the profane, and (2) on the relationship between aesthetic value and commercial value—both of which strike me as critical organizing principles that join these four papers [those of Judith Byfield, Kathleen Bickford, Lisa Aronson, and Elisha Renne and Joanne Eicher in this proceedings ...


The "Severed Shroud": Local And Imported Textiles In The Mortuary Rites Of An Indonesian People, Penelope Graham Jan 1994

The "Severed Shroud": Local And Imported Textiles In The Mortuary Rites Of An Indonesian People, Penelope Graham

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper explores the significance of local and imported textiles as these interact forming complex categories in the mortuary rites of the Lamaholot-speaking people of the traditional district Lewolema in eastern Flores, Indonesia. Within this regional framework, my account draws primarily on field work in the village of Lewotala. There a person's physical demise elicits diverse social and ritual practices, depending on the deceased's achievements during his or her lifetime and the circumstances surrounding the death. As regards the mortuary sequence that commonly occurs, I will argue that various uses of cloth for exchange purposes mark both the ...


Green Labels With Golden Elephants: Western European Printed Cottons For Malaysia And Indonesia, Frieda Sorber Jan 1994

Green Labels With Golden Elephants: Western European Printed Cottons For Malaysia And Indonesia, Frieda Sorber

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In the second half of the 19th century, several Belgian cotton printing firms were involved in the production of imitations of African and Southeast Asian textiles for markets in West-Africa, the Dutch East Indies, and Malaysia. Extensive records of one firm, the Societe Anonyme Texas, owned by the Voortman family in Ghent, have been preserved in the Ghent public records office and the Vrieselhof Textile Museum (Oelegem, near Antwerp). Frans de Vos and Abraham Voortman started a cotton printing establishment in Ghent in 1790. At that time cotton printing was a relatively new type of enterprise in Flanders. The first ...


Contact, Crossover, Continuity: Proceedings Of The Fourth Biennial Symposium Of The Textile Society Of America (1994) [Entire] Jan 1994

Contact, Crossover, Continuity: Proceedings Of The Fourth Biennial Symposium Of The Textile Society Of America (1994) [Entire]

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Preface 7

Contact, Crossover, Continuity: Fiber and Garment

Featured Paper: Ancient Near Eastern Fibers and the Reshaping of European Clothing Elizabeth J. W. Barber 9

Wreath and Cap to Veil and Apron: American Modification of a Slavic Ritual Patricia Williams 19

Panel: Textile Transformations and Cultural Continuities in West Africa

Akwete-Igbo Weavers as Entrepreneurs and Innovators at the Turn of the Century Lisa Aronson 31

What’s in a Name: The Domestication of Factory Produced Wax Textiles in Cote d’Ivoire Kathleen E. Bickford 39

Technology and Change: The Incorporation of Synthetic Dye Techniques in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria Judith Byfield ...


Ancient Near Eastern Fibers And The Reshaping Of European Clothing, Elizabeth J. W. Barber Jan 1994

Ancient Near Eastern Fibers And The Reshaping Of European Clothing, Elizabeth J. W. Barber

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In April of 1994, an amazing story hit the news-stands. A group of naturally mummified corpses dated to 2000 BC and later had been found in Chinese Turkestan. Not only were their Caucasian features and blondish hair well preserved by the dry heat of the xinjiang desert, but also their clothes--brightly colored plaids and twills among them (Hadingham 1994). We know from later linguistic records that a group of Indo-European speakers we call the Tocharians had made their way to Xinjiang and the Tarim Basin in early times. We also know that the Indo-Europeans began to spread across Eurasia from ...


Table Of Contents - Contact, Crossover, Continuity - 1994 Jan 1994

Table Of Contents - Contact, Crossover, Continuity - 1994

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Table of contents from Contact, Crossover, Continuity: Proceedings of the Fourth Biennial Symposium of the Textile Society of America, September 22–24, 1994


Frontmatter - Contact, Crossover, Continuity - 1994 Jan 1994

Frontmatter - Contact, Crossover, Continuity - 1994

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Frontmatter: cover, title page, and copyright page.


Technology And Change: The Incorporation Of Synthetic Dye Techniques In Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria, Judith Byfield Jan 1994

Technology And Change: The Incorporation Of Synthetic Dye Techniques In Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria, Judith Byfield

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In the oriki (appellations) of an 18th-century oba (king) in Okuku, references to cloth and indigo were included in the verses that attested to the oba's wealth and greatness,

Abioye, my father, Olugbola, one who takes the image and all its children to dance

The beauty of cloth dyed in indigo does not fade

Adewale, the indigo is what gives the cloth its worth

The references suggestively point to the aesthetic as well as commercial value of indigo in Yoruba society. Scholars and travelers have long noted the importance of indigo dyed cloth in Yoruba society, and Yoruba women ...


Akwete-Igbo Weavers As Entrepreneurs And Innovators At The Turn Of The Century, Lisa Aronson Jan 1994

Akwete-Igbo Weavers As Entrepreneurs And Innovators At The Turn Of The Century, Lisa Aronson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In his discourse on trade commodities, Igor Kopytoff argues that commodities assume what he calls a "cultural biography" through which one sees "the social system and the collective understanding on which it rests" (Kopytoff, 1986:89). What Kopytoff means by this is that commodities take on a life of their own based on the social and economic factors that have come to affect them. This paper will address the "cultural biography" of cloth in Southeastern Nigeria from its origins through trade to its various levels of assimilation both in use and production.

The biography discussed in this paper reaches an ...


Bolong-Bolong And Tirtanadi: An Unknown Group Of Balinese Textiles, Marie-Louise Nabholz-Kartaschoff, Monika Palm-Nadolny Jan 1994

Bolong-Bolong And Tirtanadi: An Unknown Group Of Balinese Textiles, Marie-Louise Nabholz-Kartaschoff, Monika Palm-Nadolny

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

On late 19th- and early 20th-century photographs, South and East Balinese people clad in traditional adat wardrobe for rituals, temple ceremonies, and dances often wear transparent, netlike open-work textiles as breastcloth (anteng), shouldercloth (cerik) girdle (selendang), or headcloth (destar, lelunakan). Information given by elderly Balinese concerning the situation before World War II confirm their use as part of their ceremonial wardrobe but also as important items in offerings and rituals. Such textiles could be laid over several fabrics, covering the body of a toothfiling candidate, or serve as curtains (langse) for open pavilions or as an underlay (tatakan) for offerings ...


Micronesian Textiles In Transition: The Woven Tol Of Kosrae, Ann Deegan, Ross Cordy Jan 1994

Micronesian Textiles In Transition: The Woven Tol Of Kosrae, Ann Deegan, Ross Cordy

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper presents findings on the major steps in the transition of the Kosraen tol from traditional clothing, to tourist souvenir, to the end of tol manufacture. An extensive study of the German, French, and English literature of the 19th and 20th centuries was done to piece together the history of the Kosraen tol.

The island of Kosrae, located in the Pacific (4–10°N latitude, 140–163°E longitude), is part of the Federated States of Micronesia. Since earliest European contact it has seen numerous changes in its traditional culture. One of its most beautiful and complex traditional crafts ...


Contact, Crossover, Continuity: The Emergence And Development Of The Two Basic Lace Techniques, Santina Levey, Milton Sonday Jan 1994

Contact, Crossover, Continuity: The Emergence And Development Of The Two Basic Lace Techniques, Santina Levey, Milton Sonday

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

According to the present understanding of the term, lace is a soft pliable fabric, most often white, with a pattern composed of solid and open areas, made either with a needle and thread in a looped structure or with a variable number of threads wound on bobbins and interlaced in a form of braiding. Laces matching that description survive from the mid 17th century onward, with some needle and bobbin-made examples that at first glance appear indistinguishable. Yet each of these totally unrelated techniques has its own history. The purpose of our project is to trace how it happened that ...


The Influence Of Computer Technologies On Contemporary Woven Fiber Art, Cynthia Schira Jan 1994

The Influence Of Computer Technologies On Contemporary Woven Fiber Art, Cynthia Schira

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

It is generally agreed upon, by both the participants in the field and those few who have chronicled it, that the fiber art movement as we know it today began with Jean Lurcat in France in the late 1950s. He was among the first, if not the first, to make designs or cartoons specifically for the medium of tapestry. Previously, paintings were translated into the medium of tapestry. As well as creating the design or cartoon, he personally oversaw the actual weaving process. This direct connection between the process and the concept or image, the manual and the mind, laid ...