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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education

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Can Difference Speak?: Representation And Ethos Of Otherness With/In Postmodern Research, Classroom, And Online Communication Practices , Oksana Hlyva Jan 2006

Can Difference Speak?: Representation And Ethos Of Otherness With/In Postmodern Research, Classroom, And Online Communication Practices , Oksana Hlyva

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines ways difference or otherness is represented at three research sites to underscore practical ethical dilemmas engendered by the postmodern crisis of representation. Inspired largely by Gayatri Spivak's influential Can the Subaltern Speak? the dissertation seeks to illustrate a practical usefulness of postcolonial and post-structuralist insights for rhetoric and composition as well as business and technical communication practitioners who aspire to reconcile their allegiance with the postmodern and postethnographic representation critique and prevalent modernist, positivist, and reductive institutional exigencies;Embedded within the dissertation are three papers that elaborate on concrete representational practices in three specific research locales ...


The Effects Of Computer-Mediated Interaction In L2 Vocabulary Learning, Soh Youn Kim Jan 2006

The Effects Of Computer-Mediated Interaction In L2 Vocabulary Learning, Soh Youn Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the effects of a computer-mediated (CM) interaction task on university level ESL learners' lexical development while doing collaborative dialogues using MSN instant messenger in non-native student to non-native student (NNS-NNS) dyads. Specifically, the study examined the learners' interaction by looking at MSN messenger scripts to find the negotiation routines. Also, the mean pre-test and two post-test scores were compared to assess the acquisition of new lexical items. This study investigated whether the learners used an online dictionary and whether they selected the most appropriate words in the given context. The participants were 10 (6 male, 4 female ...


Faster, Normal Or Slower?: The Effects Of Speech Rates On High-Intermediate Esl Learners' Listening Comprehension Of Academic Lectures, Fushun Le Jan 2006

Faster, Normal Or Slower?: The Effects Of Speech Rates On High-Intermediate Esl Learners' Listening Comprehension Of Academic Lectures, Fushun Le

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to 1) identify whether three speech rates (SR) (normal, faster and slower) have different effects on high-intermediate ESL learners' listening comprehension of academic lectures, and if so, to determine which SR is the most beneficial to the learners' comprehension; and 2) to identify learners' perception of SRs and reasons for lecture incomprehensibility. Eleven international students were asked to listen to three long academic lectures on unfamiliar topics and answer multiple choice comprehension questions, which was followed by a brief survey of their perception of the SR appropriateness and lecture difficulty. The original SRs of ...


Self-Representations And Power Relations In Peer Review Interactions: A Case Study Of Two International Students In A Composition Class, Lavinia Hirsu Jan 2006

Self-Representations And Power Relations In Peer Review Interactions: A Case Study Of Two International Students In A Composition Class, Lavinia Hirsu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Peer review is a commonly used activity in cross-cultural composition classes; however, little research has investigated how NNSEs' (non-native speakers of English) self-perceptions and power relations reflect and are reflected in their peer discourse, more exactly in the use of social-interactional strategies and personal stance. In this microethnographic study, I followed two NNSEs working in dyads with two different peers (a native and a non-native speaker of English) for a rhetorical analysis assignment in a cross-cultural composition class. First I distributed a survey to the six participants in order to determine their perceptions of previous and hypothetical peer interactions, and ...


Motivation And Acquisition Of Pronunciation In Efl Students In El Salvador, Christian Enrique Meléndez Jan 2006

Motivation And Acquisition Of Pronunciation In Efl Students In El Salvador, Christian Enrique Meléndez

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the effect of pronunciation instruction and motivation in the acquisition of second language pronunciation in EFL students in El Salvador. Eighteen participants were given a pronunciation pre-test and a post-test. They received 20 minutes of pronunciation training each day for fifteen days. The training focused on the pronunciation of two different English sounds, /[O with line through the middle]/ and /-ed/ endings for the past of the regular verbs. The participants also completed a self-report motivation questionnaire containing nine different variables. Three different statistical analyses were used to analyze the data collected: paired t-tests, Cronbach's Alpha ...


Communication During Public Service Encounters: Spanish L1 Immigrant Consumers And English L1 Employees, Robin Lanae Hinders Jan 2005

Communication During Public Service Encounters: Spanish L1 Immigrant Consumers And English L1 Employees, Robin Lanae Hinders

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As the state of Iowa continues to see an influx in 'new immigrants,' English speaking retail and service agency employees often assist consumers who are nonnative speakers of English on a regular basis. This mismatch between language and culture can sometimes cause misunderstanding and discomfort in cross-cultural relationships. Six Hispanic Spanish LI adult consumers and 13 White English LI employees from one rural Iowa community participated in this study. Both groups were asked a series of interview questions to share their perceptions about their ability to communicate with people in the other group. The participants were also asked to consider ...


Research Into The Use Of Help Options In A Multimedia Listening Unit, Maja Grgurović Jan 2005

Research Into The Use Of Help Options In A Multimedia Listening Unit, Maja Grgurović

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated learner behavior and performance in a CALL multimedia listening activity which offered a video and two textual help options - a lecture transcript and subtitles in cases of comprehension breakdowns. In particular, the study examined and compared the learners' use of two help options by looking at the time and frequency of interaction with help. The study aimed to identify and compare possible patterns of participants' interaction with help options as well as investigate possible differences between participants at two proficiency levels. The participants in the study were eighteen ESL college students at the intermediate level of listening ...


Effects Of Images On The Incidental Acquisition Of Abstract Words, Anne O'Bryan Jan 2005

Effects Of Images On The Incidental Acquisition Of Abstract Words, Anne O'Bryan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recently, research has investigated whether glossing individual vocabulary words in a reading text with multimedia annotations-either with text, video, or still images- helps students learn the individual items, and therefore improve comprehension (Chun, Plass, 1996; Al-Seghayer, 2001). The studies, which are built around the assumption that students can learn better and more efficiently when information is presented in more than one mode, revealed a positive correlation between imagery and vocabulary acquisition. However, most studies focusing on teaching vocabulary incidentally with multimedia annotations annotated only the more concrete words which can easily be portrayed using still images or video. Research attempting ...


Functions Of "Shell Nouns" As Cohesive Devices In Academic Writing: A Comparative Corpus-Based Study, Rahime Nur Aktas Jan 2005

Functions Of "Shell Nouns" As Cohesive Devices In Academic Writing: A Comparative Corpus-Based Study, Rahime Nur Aktas

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study compares the functions of abstract nouns previously defined as "shell nouns" (Schmid, 2000) to create cohesion in academic texts written by professional published authors and international graduate students. To make this comparison, two corpora of research papers, one by international graduate students and one by published authors, were collected from 6 different academic disciplines (Art and Design, Biology, Computer Science, Economics, Environmental Engineering, and Physics and Astronomy). The 35 shell nouns (Hinkel, 2004) were investigated in order to find out the frequency patterns in both corpora. The six shell nouns identified as the most common ones in the ...


A Comparison Of The Use Of Strategies In Reading Electronic And Printed Text By Chinese Adult Esl Learners, Ching-Hui Wang Jan 2005

A Comparison Of The Use Of Strategies In Reading Electronic And Printed Text By Chinese Adult Esl Learners, Ching-Hui Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates whether Chinese adult ESL learners use the same reading strategies online as they do in traditional print. Three Chinese-speaking graduate students at Iowa State University participated in this study. To best elicit information regarding subjects' thought processes and their use of reading strategies, several methods were used, including think-aloud protocols, Morae software, and a follow-up interview. During the think-aloud process, subjects were assigned two reading tasks. One process involved reading in traditional print, and in the other process, participants read in hypertext. Each text format consisted of three passages. Each subject had the option of choosing two ...


Retelling As An Effective Reading Comprehension Strategy For Young Esl Learners, Jung-Ah Han Jan 2005

Retelling As An Effective Reading Comprehension Strategy For Young Esl Learners, Jung-Ah Han

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Retelling is not a new strategy, but it has been underestimated for a long time. This study investigates the effectiveness of retelling as a reading strategy for elementary school students of English as a Second Language (ESL). Two first graders, three second graders, and three fifth graders participated in the study. They were divided into two groups (Group A and B) considering their English competence and other factors. Their retelling outcomes including oral, written and drawings during 2 months period were collected and analyzed. During the study, students were being read stories and asked to retell the stories orally and ...


Examining Esl Students' Vocabulary Retention In An On-Line Environment Using The Mental Effort Hypothesis, Jennifer Anne Oden Jan 2004

Examining Esl Students' Vocabulary Retention In An On-Line Environment Using The Mental Effort Hypothesis, Jennifer Anne Oden

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The advent of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) materials has revolutionized teaching as increasing numbers of educators realize the power of the medium. With the proliferation of these materials comes a need for developers to make informed choices about the materials they create. In studies using traditional print materials, researchers have discovered the importance of glossing difficult vocabulary words; however, the method of glossing varies greatly. More research is needed to inform the decisions educators make about the types of glosses to offer. The research questions shaping this study are: 1) Does a multiple-choice option that requires students to expend mental ...


The Cross-Cultural Component In Teaching Business English To Native Russian Speakers, Maria Loukianenko Jan 2004

The Cross-Cultural Component In Teaching Business English To Native Russian Speakers, Maria Loukianenko

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis project is designed to conduct a cross-cultural analysis of rhetorical patterns in Russian and American business correspondence. The study reviews the literature on previous findings in international business communication presented by both linguists and international management and marketing theorists. A special focus is on Hofstede's theory of cultural dimensions (power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and individualism/collectivism). The study adapts his theory for the linguistic and rhetorical analysis of the American and Russian business letters. As a part of the research, a preliminary framework is set up that allows the comparison of the data in terms of the ...


The Impact Of Multilingualism & Language Learning Experiences On An Immigrant Woman's Identity: A Case Study, Dessislava Georgieva Bekrieva-Grannis Jan 2004

The Impact Of Multilingualism & Language Learning Experiences On An Immigrant Woman's Identity: A Case Study, Dessislava Georgieva Bekrieva-Grannis

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Following the interpretive qualitative approach, the present study strives to give voice to an immigrant woman by telling her story about the development of her identity as a multilingual learner of English. Using multiple methods of data collection (in-depth interviews, informal observations, documents, artifact, member checks, and peer debriefings), this research attempts to shed light on how an immigrant woman makes sense out of her social world through the languages she uses, their function in her life, the meanings she assigns to each and the role of learning languages on her multilingual identity. Some SLA investigators have argued that because ...


Esl Students' Use Of Concordances And Dictionaries In The Transfer Of Academic Word Knowledge: A Comparative Study, Jagdish Kaur Jan 2004

Esl Students' Use Of Concordances And Dictionaries In The Transfer Of Academic Word Knowledge: A Comparative Study, Jagdish Kaur

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Concordancing in the classroom is fairly a new approach which has emerged with the use of corpora in language learning. In a concordance, language is presented in natural setting; learners are able to examine a key word in the context of a string of sentences which can exemplify the use of that particular word. Learners need not rely heavily on their teachers or their own intuition as they can explore specific language features from the vast amount of information in the corpora. Vocabulary knowledge acquired from a concordance can be transferred to novel texts (Cobb, 1999) to enhance student writing ...


Literature And The Development Of Oral Fluency: A Study Using Poetry And Children's Literature In Adult Esl Instruction, Ketty Ruth Reppert Jan 2004

Literature And The Development Of Oral Fluency: A Study Using Poetry And Children's Literature In Adult Esl Instruction, Ketty Ruth Reppert

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The place of literature in language teaching has long been debated. This study investigates the use of poetry and children's literature written in verse as materials for helping advanced adult learners of English as a second or foreign language develop oral fluency skills. Fifteen native Chinese-speaking graduate students or professionals associated with ISU participated in the study. Speech samples were taken before and after a two-week treatment period. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups: a children's literature group, and adult literature group, and a control group. During the treatment period, each of the ...


Zen And The Esol Teacher's Journey To Cross-Cultural Communicative Competence, Karen Harle-Cowan Jan 2003

Zen And The Esol Teacher's Journey To Cross-Cultural Communicative Competence, Karen Harle-Cowan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, I posit that the practice of Zen Buddhism can help teachers of English to speakers of other languages to become better teachers. In particular, that the practice of mindfulness helps ESOL teachers to let go of their opinions, put aside the hierarchical perspective formed by Western culture and see difference simply as variation, neither intrinsically better nor worse than that which is familiar. All are vital components of successful ESOL teaching and the basis of cross-cultural communicative competence. I use narrative, the oldest form of knowledge transmission, as the major part of my thesis since it is ...


The Influence On Outcomes Of Esl Students' Performance Strategies On A Call Listening Comprehension Activity, Chui Kian Kon Jan 2002

The Influence On Outcomes Of Esl Students' Performance Strategies On A Call Listening Comprehension Activity, Chui Kian Kon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In light of technological advances, listening activities are increasingly being offered online, and with increasing authenticity in terms of how the tasks reflect activities beyond the classroom setting. Specifically, this study investigates the effectiveness of a CALL listening comprehension activity using an online videotaped academic lecture to promote incidental vocabulary acquisition and listening comprehension. The tasks consist of partial dictation pretest, posttest and delayed posttest, and ten multiple-choice listening comprehension questions respectively. The academic lecture is also part of an ESL Listening course. Thus, it is important that, firstly, we evaluate the effectiveness of the CALL activity for vocabulary acquisition ...


The Relationship Of Notetaking To Listening Comprehension In The English Placement Test, Qian Xie Jan 2002

The Relationship Of Notetaking To Listening Comprehension In The English Placement Test, Qian Xie

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The thesis is a validation study of the English Placement Test at Iowa State University, which explores the relationship of note taking to test performance. The researcher adopts both qualitative and quantitative approaches to analyzing the quality of lecture notes in relation to second language academic listening comprehension. Subjects are forty international college students who took the English Placement Test in January 2002 and their notes from the English Placement Test are assessed on three aspects that include structure, information units and note taking strategies. Correlation analysis and item analysis are conducted to investigate the relationship of the quality of ...


Exploring The Content-Based Esl Program: A Case Of Research-Conscious Pedagogy, Jessica Elaine Mercer Jan 2001

Exploring The Content-Based Esl Program: A Case Of Research-Conscious Pedagogy, Jessica Elaine Mercer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A small liberal arts college in the process of developing the curricular framework for a new ESL program with an intensive element provides the setting for this qualitative study. Practicing a research-conscious perspective, the extent to which the content-based approach to English language instruction is pedagogically appropriate for a small program housed at a liberal arts college is discussed. After examining both the theoretical underpinnings of the content-based approach and the application of content-based instruction in selected college settings, the adoption of a content-based approach for a small program focused on preparing non-native speakers of English for continued academic study ...


The Speech Act Of Complaining: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study Of Chinese And American English Speakers, De Zhang Jan 2001

The Speech Act Of Complaining: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study Of Chinese And American English Speakers, De Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This Chinese-American cross-cultural comparative study on the speech act of complaining aimed to answer the call for the need of a study in the following areas: American-Chinese interlanguage pragmatics, the development of (advanced) L2 learners' pragmatic competence and one of the least studied speech acts--complaining. In this study, a Discourse Completion Task (DCT) form was used to elicit complaints in 8 hypothetical situations from 94 subjects--32 Chinese longer-term residents with an average length of 3.2 years' residence in the U.S., 30 Chinese short-term residents who had stayed in the U.S. for an average of 0.5 year ...


Reported Speech: Empirical Corpus Findings Compared With Efl/Esl Textbook Presentations, Suzanne Emily Bayless Eckhardt Jan 2001

Reported Speech: Empirical Corpus Findings Compared With Efl/Esl Textbook Presentations, Suzanne Emily Bayless Eckhardt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study uses the method of corpus linguistics to investigate a particular grammatical topic in English: Reported Speech. First, presentations of reported speech in seven ESL/EFL (English as a Second/Foreign Language) grammar textbooks are analyzed. The results of the analysis show what information ESL/EFL students currently receive from textbooks about reported speech. Second, a corpus study is implemented to determine how people actually use reported speech in real life. The results of the empirical corpus study represent authentic, naturally-occurring language and reported speech patterns in two registers of American English: Newspaper Writing and Conversation. Third, the results ...


Evaluating The Structure And Pedagogy Of Bavarian Esl Texts, Chris Ashley Fox Jan 2001

Evaluating The Structure And Pedagogy Of Bavarian Esl Texts, Chris Ashley Fox

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study compares ESL textbooks used Hauptschule, Realschule and Gymnasium classrooms across Bavaria, Germany. To make these comparisons, textbooks were collected and evaluated by a newly created evaluation tool. Essential components of textbooks were determined while properties of test usefulness and the possible TLU's of learners were examined and incorporated into the new evaluation tool. Texts were examined by the detailed completion of questions posed in the evaluation tool. The findings show that Bavarian ESL textbooks do seem to take into account the possible TLU's of their learners and tend to limit the difficulty level of the materials ...


The Effect Of Modeling A Jigsaw Task On Communicative Strategies Of Esl Learners, Sojung Kim Choe Jan 2000

The Effect Of Modeling A Jigsaw Task On Communicative Strategies Of Esl Learners, Sojung Kim Choe

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines one aspect of task-based language instruction, an increasingly popular approach, which provides learners practice in performing communicative acts in English and which promotes learners' ability to use communicative strategies when problems are encountered (Long 1983; Pica 1996; Tarone & Yule 1995). This study addresses the question of whether or not a video of native speakers of English (NSE) interacting during a jigsaw task positively affects the communicative strategies of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners involved in a similar task. Two experiments were conducted. A video model showing two NSE using communicative strategies including confirmation and comprehension ...


Evaluation Of Computer Software For Elementary School Esl Classes , Bruce Peter Arendt Jan 2000

Evaluation Of Computer Software For Elementary School Esl Classes , Bruce Peter Arendt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Public Speaking In A Cross-Cultural Classroom Environment: A Survey Of Student Attitudes And Perceived Needs, Kelly Ann Wonder Jan 2000

Public Speaking In A Cross-Cultural Classroom Environment: A Survey Of Student Attitudes And Perceived Needs, Kelly Ann Wonder

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to gather evidence about whether or not students would be interested in taking the public speaking course in the cross-cultural format, and whether or not NNS would be likely to fit well in such a class with NS. To determine student interest in cross-cultural programming and perceived needs in the public speaking course, a survey was given to the students enrolled in speech communications 212 at Iowa State University during the spring semester of 2000. This study reports the findings and results of the Public Speaking and Cultural Perceptions Survey. Responses were collected from ...


Communicative Grammar Tasks: Language Use And Students' Preferences, Felicidade Nogueira Coimbra Van Acker Jan 2000

Communicative Grammar Tasks: Language Use And Students' Preferences, Felicidade Nogueira Coimbra Van Acker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this study I investigate the effectiveness of two communicative grammar tasks. I examine the tasks in terms of the language use and I determine the students' preferences regarding them. One of the communicative grammar tasks was designed to elicit the use of prepositions and the other was designed to elicit the use of relative clauses. Two groups of students participated in this study: native speakers from different various fields of study and non-native speakers (from two proficiency levels) enrolled in an Intensive English Orientation Program. Both groups performed the two tasks and the frequencies of the targeted structures were ...


Evaluation Of The English Placement Test 1999 University Of Colombo, Sri Lanka, Priyanvada Abeywickrama Jan 2000

Evaluation Of The English Placement Test 1999 University Of Colombo, Sri Lanka, Priyanvada Abeywickrama

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of the English Language Teaching Unit (ELTU) of the Dept. of English, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, have broadened over the years to encompass the changing needs of the students who enter the university system. In 1998 again, there was a major change and the ELTU replied by adopting another new approach to teaching. This directly resulted in changes to areas such as the curriculum, lesson materials and testing. The English Placement Test (EPT) 99 was developed to place new entrants to the Intensive English Program in the Faculty of Arts, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. The EPT ...


Investigation Of A Multimedia Approach To Teaching Spoken English, Hye-Ryon Cho Hong Jan 2000

Investigation Of A Multimedia Approach To Teaching Spoken English, Hye-Ryon Cho Hong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate how learners will interact with multimedia that delivers pictures, audio, and various interactional modifications in teaching spoken English to Korean elementary school children who are currently taking ESL courses or having lessons from private tutors in the USA. In this study, two activities, listening and speaking, were studied using a commercial multimedia CD-ROM program, 'Smart Start English' by Syracuse language System, Inc. According to the results of this research through speaking and listening activities, it seems obvious that such multimedia CD-ROM programs can be used effectively for assisting L2 students to make ...


A Comparison Of The Use Of Modal Verbs In Research Articles By Professionals And Non-Native Speaking Graduate Students, Jenny Marie Hykes Jan 2000

A Comparison Of The Use Of Modal Verbs In Research Articles By Professionals And Non-Native Speaking Graduate Students, Jenny Marie Hykes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.