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Interview No. 1576, Sebastian Martinez Nov 2005

Interview No. 1576, Sebastian Martinez

Combined Interviews

Mr. Martínez briefly discusses his family; when he was roughly fourteen or fifteen years old, he began working with his father alongside braceros, chopping cotton and other such field duties; he goes on to discuss his experiences working with braceros, and he gives an account of their living and working conditions, provisions, recreational activities, religion, and their general dispositions; in addition, he explains the relationships between the braceros and the surrounding community in Pecos, Texas, which was largely segregated; several of his female relatives, however, did have romantic relationships with braceros; he also speaks about the children of braceros going ...


Interview No. 1578, Andy Imutan Sep 2005

Interview No. 1578, Andy Imutan

Combined Interviews

Mr. Imutan very briefly describes his travels from the Philippines to California; he began working in Delano, California, but he quickly became involved with the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO); in September of 1965, he was part of a strike that was a continuation of earlier efforts in Coachella, California, to achieve better pay; events in Coachella turned violent, with people getting hurt and equipment being damaged; after demands were met in Coachella, the same companies refused the same wages in Delano, hence the continuing strike; within roughly a week, Cesar Chavez joined the strike ...


Interview No. 1577, Dolores Huerta Sep 2005

Interview No. 1577, Dolores Huerta

Combined Interviews

Ms. Huerta briefly talks about her parents and what her life was like growing up; as an adult, she began working with braceros as part of the Community Service Organization (CSO); she would often go to the bracero labor camps to help them when they were injured, which included obtaining doctors and/or lawyers when necessary; her mother owned a hotel at the time, where the braceros often stayed; she cared for them, giving them curfews and making sure they did not drink too much; she even invited them to local dances and encouraged them to get involved in the ...


Interview No. 1586, Fred Deyoung Jul 2005

Interview No. 1586, Fred Deyoung

Combined Interviews

Mr. DeYoung describes the work-a-day lives of Braceros on a lettuce harvesting crew; he defines “hoeing and thinning” and the difference between this type of work and “harvesting;” he details the process of harvesting lettuce and provides job descriptions for the multiple roles this process requires including, cutters, spreaders, clampers, stitches, wind rowers, and loaders; he lists the type of clothing items the workers would wear in the fields; he discusses the quality and type of food Braceros ate, as well as the conditions of the labor camps and barracks; Mr. DeYoung also describes the leisure and weekend activities of ...


Interview No. 1575, Sally Gutierrez Mcquinn Jul 2005

Interview No. 1575, Sally Gutierrez Mcquinn

Combined Interviews

Ms. Gutierrez briefly describes her childhood and family; in the early 1940s she was hired as a bookkeeper for an operational office in Gilroy, California; she was in charge of payroll for the braceros, and she saw firsthand that 10 percent was discounted from their salary; it was her understanding that there was an agreement between the United States and Mexico that the money would be mailed to Mexico so that the braceros would have it available to them when they returned; bracero complaints went through her, because she was the only one in the office; she recalls one instance ...


Dalman, Curly Oral History Interview: General Holland History, Geoffrey Reynolds May 2005

Dalman, Curly Oral History Interview: General Holland History, Geoffrey Reynolds

General Holland History

No abstract provided.


Nisby Family: James (Jim) Santana (Elder), Christopher Anderson Jan 2005

Nisby Family: James (Jim) Santana (Elder), Christopher Anderson

African American Stories

James Santana spent his teen years on a farm. His parents stressed self-sufficiency. He learned to cook, clean, iron, and even sew. Living on a farm generated chores most children did not have. James learned to take care of chickens, rabbits, ducks, and turkeys. Despite being the youngest of four siblings, his workload was never adjusted downward. During school breaks and summer vacations, he was expected to help his father, who was a carpenter…


Nisby Family: John Nisby (Middle), Christina Conrardy Jan 2005

Nisby Family: John Nisby (Middle), Christina Conrardy

African American Stories

Imagine the sun shining high overhead. There is nothing but you, the bright blue sky and the musky smell of hay. You focus on the task at hand—bucking hay. Your physical exertion, combined with the knowledge of hard work, meld into a great sense of satisfaction and sweaty accomplishment. For young John, this imagined scene was a daily occurrence…


Nisby Family: John Patrick Nisby, Jr. (Youth), Chris Bauer Jan 2005

Nisby Family: John Patrick Nisby, Jr. (Youth), Chris Bauer

African American Stories

Being the son of two high-achievers might be a burden for some people, but John Patrick Nisby says that he has had a “wonderful life.” His parents have played positive roles in his upbringing, introducing many factors into his life, which have inspired and motivated him...


Stallworth Family: Bishop Lewis Stallworth, Sr. (Elder), Brandon Stevens Jan 2005

Stallworth Family: Bishop Lewis Stallworth, Sr. (Elder), Brandon Stevens

African American Stories

Bishop L. Stallworth was born in Welty, Oklahoma in 1923. Not long after relocating to Boley, Oklahoma, Lewis attended school and graduated from high school in 1941. The following year, Lewis along with the rest of his family, joined similar migrants seeking new opportunities in California’s emerging defense industry. Lewis fondly remembers his military experiences that allowed him both to serve his country and to interact with different people. Although he was already of adult age when he left his home state, Lewis’s coming-of-age process was reinforced by his years of military service…


Stallworth Family: Lewis Stallworth, Jr. (Middle), Andrew Gelber Jan 2005

Stallworth Family: Lewis Stallworth, Jr. (Middle), Andrew Gelber

African American Stories

African Americans like Lewis Stallworth Jr.’s family did not migrate to Stockton as a part of the California Gold Rush. Instead, they sought stability in changing times: a home, a job, a place to worship and a chance to raise a family. Lewis Jr. was born in Wewoka, Oklahoma in 1944. As the eldest child, his brothers and sisters admired him. The family moved to Stockton when Lewis was still a young child and he has lived here for the past 60 years…


Stallworth Family: Kimberly Hamlett (Youth), Brett Kaufman Jan 2005

Stallworth Family: Kimberly Hamlett (Youth), Brett Kaufman

African American Stories

As a child of the ’60s, a person might think Kimberly Hamlett would show signs of her rebellious generation. However, those who know this warm, kindhearted and Christian woman would say differently. Kimberly, born in 1965, was the first child born to her large family. She is the oldest of seven children, four girls and three boys. She was born in Walnut Creek, but grew up in Stockton and continues to live here…


Sorn Family: Sonn Meong (Elder), Amy Smith Jan 2005

Sorn Family: Sonn Meong (Elder), Amy Smith

Cambodian American Stories

Traditional music and the sound of the Khmer language are among Sonn Moeng’s favorite childhood memories. They remind him of a homeland and a way of life devastated by war. Today, he lives in an adopted country, surrounded by a language he does not speak and struggles to understand a culture that is not his own…


Sorn Family: Leakhena Sorn (Youth), Christina Tran Jan 2005

Sorn Family: Leakhena Sorn (Youth), Christina Tran

Cambodian American Stories

In October 1991, Leakhena Sorn was 13 years old when she immigrated to Stockton from Cambodia. Learning a new language and adjusting to a new culture often made her feel isolated during the transition to life in Stockton. Because of Leakhena’s arrival after the first major emigration from Cambodia, she enjoyed the support of an already established Cambodian community. Many Stockton Cambodians were already graduating from universities and had established careers as pharmacists, physicians or as business owners…


Pech Family: Kun Tuy (Middle), Lindsey Gaines Jan 2005

Pech Family: Kun Tuy (Middle), Lindsey Gaines

Cambodian American Stories

Imagine a 15-year-old girl forced to work in the fields, seven days a week, from five in the morning until seven at night. In the U.S., such a young woman would be going to school to learn about herself and about life’s opportunities. Kun Tuy dreamed of teaching dance. Instead, she was put to work by the Khmer Rouge in the rice fields of mountainous Cambodia. She received no money and little food for her labor. The Khmer Rouge ruled by suppression and killing in anticipation of establishing a Communist regime in Cambodia…


Pech Family: Rottana Prak (Youth), Danielle Bosch Jan 2005

Pech Family: Rottana Prak (Youth), Danielle Bosch

Cambodian American Stories

All over the country, at this very moment, parents are asking their children for help with the chores. And all over the country, teenagers are…turning up their headphones, or heading for the door. Or, if they’re like Rottana Prak, they are simply saying “Yes.” Rottana is a typical high school student who likes to spend time with her friends, enjoys music and movies, and is interested in X-treme sports. But she is also a teenager who knows her roots. She knows what her family endured in Cambodia as their beautiful homeland was shattered by war and the brutalities ...


Pech Family: Ky Pech (Elder), May Lin Jan 2005

Pech Family: Ky Pech (Elder), May Lin

Cambodian American Stories

There are many situations that Ky Pech could have marked as the beginning of her adulthood. Her parents gave her a great amount of responsibility at an early age. Fulfilling that responsibility was her greatest accomplishment, but Ky Pech doesn’t feel as though that alone marked the beginning of her adulthood. She helped her family financially, earning money by working in the rice fields of Cambodia. Ky Pech also helped her mother take care of her two younger sisters after her father died. Although society considered her an adult at the age of 14, in her own heart, she ...


Wong Family: Nancy Wong (Elder), May Lin Jan 2005

Wong Family: Nancy Wong (Elder), May Lin

Chinese American Stories

Nancy Wong was born in Ung Hong village, Toy San District, China, to a restaurant owner and housewife. Growing up, Nancy felt like a child who did not know much about the world. When Nancy was seven, her mother left Nancy and her younger brother to travel to the U.S. Nancy and her brother Donald, were left with their grandmother. At age nine, her grandmother sent her to school. When Nancy was 15, her mother returned to China with three sisters and four brothers for which Nancy was to care. This began her adulthood in her mind…


Wong Family: Violet Chan (Middle), Jacob Lethbridge Jan 2005

Wong Family: Violet Chan (Middle), Jacob Lethbridge

Chinese American Stories

There was hardly a time growing up when Violet Chan did not have responsibilities. As a child in China, she had a major role in obtaining food for her family and caring for her mother. Later, as a teenager, she had primary responsibility for taking care of her baby brothers. Despite the duties asked of her, Violet had an underlying passion for an education and she fixed her sights on that goal…


Wong Family: Debbie Nozuka (Youth), Riley Buck Jan 2005

Wong Family: Debbie Nozuka (Youth), Riley Buck

Chinese American Stories

In October 1915, a brave man left his home country of China to come to America in search of something better in “Gum San,” the land of the “Golden Hills.” Because of this man, Debbie was given the opportunity to begin her life in the U.S. This man was her grandfather. “As a family, people share a unique bond, ” Debbie explains. “Even though I cannot communicate well with my…older relatives because of a language barrier, I cherish and value the time I spend with them…”


Wong Family: John Wong (Elder), Christina Tran Jan 2005

Wong Family: John Wong (Elder), Christina Tran

Chinese American Stories

In 1932, at the age of 15, John Wong and his family received news of a terrible tragedy—the death of his mother. John was the oldest of 10 children, and with this news, his world changed. He took on new responsibilities; he worked to be a good example for his siblings, and helped instruct them as a parent would. The death of his mother made him feel more like an adult because he became the second parental figure, along with his dad. The passing of his mother left a painful reminder that his childhood had ended abruptly and his ...


Wong Family: Kecia Won-Jones (Youth), Tucker Corriveau Jan 2005

Wong Family: Kecia Won-Jones (Youth), Tucker Corriveau

Chinese American Stories

Growing up, Kecia Won-Jones experienced a plethora of cultures. She is Chinese, but was born and raised in a multi-cultural America. Though she is a third generation Chinese American, she feels a strong connection to her ethnic past. On the other hand, she confesses that her parents were assimilated into American culture, and that she has lived only in this country. Kecia likes to think she has the better of two worlds. Kecia is grateful for the opportunity to celebrate her cultural traditions as well as those of others. Navigating diversity has been one of her paths to maturity…


Juanitas Family: P. Felomina Hufana (Middle), Gina Beltrama Jan 2005

Juanitas Family: P. Felomina Hufana (Middle), Gina Beltrama

Filipino American Stories

Football games, pep rallies, basketball games, and dances—these are the memories that Felomina cherishes most about her past. Coming from a large family of seven children, there was always something going on in the Juanitas’ household. Attending cultural events, along with high school activities, was a significant part of life for Felomina and it is something that she still treasures today…


Juanitas Family: Eudosia Juanitas (Elder), Tucker Corriveau Jan 2005

Juanitas Family: Eudosia Juanitas (Elder), Tucker Corriveau

Filipino American Stories

Eudosia Juanitas is a registered nurse among a family of physicians, pharmacists and scientists. Upon first glance, it might appear that Eudosia simply took advantage of the opportunities presented to a woman in a privileged family. However, deeper inspection reveals a woman who has fought against difficult odds to create a life of realized dreams…


Juanitas Family: Catherine Hufana (Youth), Lori Iwamasa Jan 2005

Juanitas Family: Catherine Hufana (Youth), Lori Iwamasa

Filipino American Stories

Catherine Hufana grew up in Stockton, California. Her Filipino culture runs deep in her family and she has always felt “Filipino.” However, after visiting the Phillipines in 1992, Catherine realized that she identified much more strongly with Americans than native Filipinos. As an American, Catherine’s upbringing was much different than her parents. She was raised in a household that spoke mostly English, although her parents are bilingual. As Catherine struggled to fit in with her American peers, her parents continued to introduce her to their own Filipino culture…


Carido Family: Kathleen Nomura (Youth), G. Lee Jan 2005

Carido Family: Kathleen Nomura (Youth), G. Lee

Filipino American Stories

Although she’s now well past the age of maturity, Kathleen Nomura thinks that her elders in her large extended family do not yet see her as an adult. In reply to the question, “When did your family start treating you like an adult?” with a good-natured laugh, she answers, “They still don’t.” Yet, there were milestones along the way that indicated to her she was becoming an adult—being able to drive, moving away from home, and having to be responsible for her own bills. It was a long process, which has not reached a culmination in their ...


Carido Family: Camila Carido (Elder), G. Lee Jan 2005

Carido Family: Camila Carido (Elder), G. Lee

Filipino American Stories

Camila Carido’s early years prepared her well for the adult responsibilities that were thrust upon her. Born in 1910, in the village of Hinundayan, Leyte in the Phillipine Islands, she and three sisters were left behind with their mother, Macaria, when her father emigrated to the U.S. Without a father in the house, mother and children had to fend for themselves in the coastal plains in the island where they lived…


Lo Family: John Lo (Youth), Jillian Altfest Jan 2005

Lo Family: John Lo (Youth), Jillian Altfest

Hmong American Stories

John Lo’s parents were often away from the home, so John took on the parental responsibilities when they were gone. By age 13, he cooked, cleaned and took care of his younger brothers and sisters. Older siblings were not available to help. Although often frustrated, he accepted these responsibilities. Looking back he feels he did a good job; in fact, this may have been his first step toward adulthood…


Lo Family: Chue Lo (Elder), Nancy Snider Jan 2005

Lo Family: Chue Lo (Elder), Nancy Snider

Hmong American Stories

At the age of 55, Chue Lo is the elder of his family. Chue was born in Laos the second of six children. While his parents might have known a time of stability in Laos, Chue and his siblings grew up with difficult and unstable conditions caused by a period of political unrest. Despite this, Chue’s parents insisted he continue to attend school. In his studies, he learned to speak several languages in addition to his native Hmong. According to Chue, there are no specific rituals to signify coming-of-age. His family recognized him as an adult when he had ...


Carido Family: Gloria Nomura (Middle), G. Lee Jan 2005

Carido Family: Gloria Nomura (Middle), G. Lee

Filipino American Stories

Gloria Carido Nomura was the second to youngest child in a large, close-knit family. Until she was 11 years old, Gloria spent her days as did many youngsters: doing a few chores, but mostly going to school and playing with her friends. Sometimes, she would daydream about what she would do when she got older—places she might visit, where she might attend school, jobs she might attain. As a child, there was always an adult to supervise and guide her…