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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Complex Cases And Legitimation Inferences: Extending The Toulmin Model To Deliberative Argument In Controversy, G Thomas Goodnight Jun 2005

Complex Cases And Legitimation Inferences: Extending The Toulmin Model To Deliberative Argument In Controversy, G Thomas Goodnight

OSSA Conference Archive

A warrant may be grounded in personal testimony, technical method, or public consensus. The justified choice of a field, in authorizing the warrant and providing further extension of support constitutes a legitimation inference. Complex cases evolve when there are a surplus of good reasons as potential support for a claim, and a choice must be made either to select a single ground for the claim or to advance independently valid reasons, differentially grounded, as support. Complex cases enter the realm of controversy when not all relevant grounds offer the same degree of support or point in the same direction, and ...


Arguments That Backfire, Daniel H. Cohen Jun 2005

Arguments That Backfire, Daniel H. Cohen

OSSA Conference Archive

One result of successful argumentation – able arguers presenting cogent arguments to competent audiences – is a transfer of credibility from premises to conclusions. From a purely logical perspective, neither dubious premises nor fallacious inference should lower the credibility of the target conclusion. Nevertheless, some arguments do backfire this way. Dialectical and rhetorical considerations come into play. Three inter-related conclusions emerge from a catalogue of hapless arguers and backfiring arguments. First, there are advantages to paying attention to arguers and their contexts, rather than focusing narrowly on their arguments, in order to understand what can go wrong in argumentation. Traditional fallacy identification ...


Systematizing Toulmin’S Warrants: An Epistemic Approach, James B. Freeman Jun 2005

Systematizing Toulmin’S Warrants: An Epistemic Approach, James B. Freeman

OSSA Conference Archive

Relevance of premises to conclusion can be explicated through Toulmin’s notion of warrant, understood as an inference rule, albeit not necessarily formal. Premises are relevant to a conclusion just in case a reliable warrant licenses the step from these premises to the conclusion, or there is a series of steps from premises to conclusion where each is licensed by a reliable warrant. But when is a warrant reliable? We distinguish four types of warrant based on the mode of intuition involved in coming to recognize that the set of premises constitutes a reason for the conclusion: a priori, empirical ...


Probably, Robert H. Ennis Jun 2005

Probably, Robert H. Ennis

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Re-Programming The Mind Through Logic. The Social Role Of Logic In Positivism And Lieber’S Mits, Wits And Logic, Rolf George, Nina Gandhi Jun 2005

Re-Programming The Mind Through Logic. The Social Role Of Logic In Positivism And Lieber’S Mits, Wits And Logic, Rolf George, Nina Gandhi

OSSA Conference Archive

This essay on the social history of logic instruction considers the programmatic writings of Carnap/Neurath, but especially in the widely read book by Lillian Lieber, Mits, Wits and Logic (1947), where Mits is the man in the street and Wits the woman in the street. In the ‘pre-Toulmin’ days it was seriously argued that the intense study of formal logic would create a more rational frame of mind and have many beneficial effects upon the social and political life. It arose from the conviction that most metaphysical conundrums, religious and political problems and even fanaticism had their root in ...


Argument And Its Uses, J Anthony Blair Jun 2005

Argument And Its Uses, J Anthony Blair

OSSA Conference Archive

In the paper I propose conceptions of argument, of uses of argument, and of argumentation that rely upon the scholarly work of recent years, but map the concepts and their relations in a slightly different way. I contend that something like Toulmin’s backing-warrant-claim model is the correct way to conceptualize argument, and that, contrary to many current definitions, rational persuasion ought not to be built into the very concept of argument, but instead understood as a use of argument—one among others. Argumentation is best conceived as exchanges of arguments, and the nature of these exchanges will differ according ...


Reasoning In Theory And Practice, Stephen Toulmin Jun 2005

Reasoning In Theory And Practice, Stephen Toulmin

OSSA Conference Archive

My book, The Uses of Argument, has had a curious history. Its intention was not to present a new theory of rhetoric, but to prompt a reconsideration, by my colleagues, of the aims and methods of logic; in the spirit of John Dewey's book, Essays in Experimental Logic. Like David Hume's Treatise on Human Nature, it seemingly ‘fell still‑born from the press,’ and the reasons for its sales, which have continued for nearly half a century, were made clear to me only on a visit to North America, when I was told of the book's value ...


Figures Of Argument, Jeanne Fahnestock Jun 2005

Figures Of Argument, Jeanne Fahnestock

OSSA Conference Archive

In the mid-nineteenth century, scientists in fields as different as chemistry and botany, August Kekule and Gregor Mendel, argued for insights that depended critically on antithetical expressions and reasoning. One hundred years earlier, Lavoisier, in his one foray into geology, used the same constitutive argumentative and verbal devices to organize his observations and claims, just as Newton, Harvey, Gilbert and Kepler had done in the centuries before him. The heuristic and persuasive use in natural philosophy of an argument form like the antithesis has particular roots in the combined grammatical, rhetorical and dialectical training established during the humanist educational reforms ...


Argument Has No Function, Jean Goodwin Jun 2005

Argument Has No Function, Jean Goodwin

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


2005 Pacific Undergraduate Research And Creativity Conference (Purcc) Full Program, Pacific Undergraduate Research And Creativity Conference (Purcc) Apr 2005

2005 Pacific Undergraduate Research And Creativity Conference (Purcc) Full Program, Pacific Undergraduate Research And Creativity Conference (Purcc)

Pacific Undergraduate Research and Creativity Conference (PURCC)

No abstract provided.


2004-2005 Program Overview, Cedarville University Feb 2005

2004-2005 Program Overview, Cedarville University

The Staley Distinguished Christian Scholar Lecture Program

Lecture Theme: Is Statecraft Soulcraft?: Law, Politics, and Faith in a Liberal Democracy


Harvey, Mary Chase Jan 2005

Harvey, Mary Chase

SFA School of Theatre

No abstract provided.


The Tempest, C.W. Bahs Jan 2005

The Tempest, C.W. Bahs

SFA School of Theatre

No abstract provided.


Anton In Show Business, Alan Nielsen Jan 2005

Anton In Show Business, Alan Nielsen

SFA School of Theatre

No abstract provided.


Trudi And The Minstrell, Alan Cullen Jan 2005

Trudi And The Minstrell, Alan Cullen

SFA School of Theatre

No abstract provided.


The Shadow Box, Michael Cristofer Jan 2005

The Shadow Box, Michael Cristofer

SFA School of Theatre

No abstract provided.


Sylvia, C.W. Bahs Jan 2005

Sylvia, C.W. Bahs

SFA School of Theatre

No abstract provided.