Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Arts and Humanities Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 50

Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: A Study Using Automated Dietary Assessment In Primary Care, Y. C. Probst Sep 2005

Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: A Study Using Automated Dietary Assessment In Primary Care, Y. C. Probst

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

An automated dietary assessment website has been developed for patients with metabolic syndrome. Computers have been set up in local GP practices to which the GP may refer their patients. These patients enter their dietary information into the website and receive an individualised dietary prescription put together by a dietitian. This study outlines the profile of patients using the website and their rates of completion of the assessment. Recruited patients were primarily female(66%). Ranging between 22 and 75 years of age patients reported to be overweight(77%), have high cholesterol (53%), elevated blood pressure (54%) and/or type 2 ...


Consumer Understanding And Use Of Health Claims For Foods, P. G. Williams Jul 2005

Consumer Understanding And Use Of Health Claims For Foods, P. G. Williams

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Health claims for foods are permitted in an increasing number of countries but there are very few studies evaluating the effect of such claims on purchase behavior and consumer health. There are significant differences between countries, but in general consumers see health claims as useful, they prefer short succinct wording rather than long and complex claims, and they believe claims should be approved by government. Consumers view a food as healthier if it carries a health claim and this “halo” effect may discourage them seeking further nutrition information. Consumers do not clearly distinguish between nutrient content, structure-function and health claims ...


Breakfast And The Diets Of Australian Adults: An Analysis Of Data From The 1995 National Nutrition Survey, P. G. Williams Jun 2005

Breakfast And The Diets Of Australian Adults: An Analysis Of Data From The 1995 National Nutrition Survey, P. G. Williams

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The aim of this study was to describe the nutrients provided to Australian adults by the breakfast meal and compare the food and nutrient intakes and health of regular breakfast eaters and skippers. The Australian Bureau of Statistics was commissioned to undertake additional analysis of data collected in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey (NNS). The survey included 24 hour recalls, physical measurements and a food habits questionnaire collected during the period February 1995 to March 1996, with a nationally representative sample of 10851 Australians aged nineteen years and older. The median nutrient intakes at breakfast and the proportion of ...


Communicating Health Benefits - Do We Need Health Claims?, P. G. Williams Jun 2005

Communicating Health Benefits - Do We Need Health Claims?, P. G. Williams

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Many countries are now permitting health claims on foods and Food Standards Australia New Zealand is developing new regulations to permit their use in Australia. However there is no clear understanding of how consumers use health claims and their likely impact on consumer food behaviour or health. More research is needed, but a review of previous studies allows some common conclusions can be drawn. Health claims on foods are seen by consumers as useful, and when a product features a health claim they view it as healthier and state they are more likely to purchase it. Consumers are sceptical of ...


Australian Consumers Are Sceptical About But Influenced By Claims About Fat On Food Labels, C. Chan, C. Patch, P. G. Williams Jun 2005

Australian Consumers Are Sceptical About But Influenced By Claims About Fat On Food Labels, C. Chan, C. Patch, P. G. Williams

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Objectives: To explore the beliefs and attitudes of Australian consumers to claims about fat made on the labels of packaged food.

Design: Content analysis of transcripts from focus group discussions.

Subjects: 26 females and 10 males aged 20-80y, recruited by advertisement into six focus groups, stratified by age, sex and health status.

Results: Awareness of claims about fat was high in this sample of Australians and participants admitted that they influenced their purchase decisions. The most preferred form of claim was “X% fat free”. Claims were considered most useful on foods that were high in fat. There was considerable scepticism ...


The Relationship Between Self-Esteem And Academic Achievement In High Ability Students: Evidence From The Wollongong Youth Study., Wilma Vialle, Patrick C. L. Heaven, Joseph Ciarrochi Jan 2005

The Relationship Between Self-Esteem And Academic Achievement In High Ability Students: Evidence From The Wollongong Youth Study., Wilma Vialle, Patrick C. L. Heaven, Joseph Ciarrochi

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement is one that is regarded by many educators as a well-established fact. This belief has been often invoked in order to argue against the provision of ability grouping for gifted students. Refuting that commonly-held belief, this research examined the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in 65 high-ability secondary students, a sample drawn from a longitudinal study of over 900 students. The research demonstrated that there were no differences in measured selfesteem between the gifted and non-gifted students. More contentiously, though, the research found no correlation between self-esteem and academic achievement for the ...


Visual Perception Of Touchdown Point During Simulated Landing, Stephen A. Palmisano, Barbara Gillam Jan 2005

Visual Perception Of Touchdown Point During Simulated Landing, Stephen A. Palmisano, Barbara Gillam

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Experiments examined the accuracy of visual touchdown point perception during oblique descents (1.5o-15o) toward a ground plane consisting of (a) randomly positioned dots, (b) a runway outline, or (c) a grid. Participants judged whether the perceived touchdown point was above or below a probe that appeared at a random position following each display. Although judgments were unacceptably imprecise and biased for moving dot and runway displays, accurate and unbiased judgments were found for griddisplays. It is concluded that optic flow per se does not appear to be sufficient for a pilot to land an airplane and ...


Young People's Help-Seeking For Mental Health Problems., Debra Rickwood, Frank P. Deane, Coralie J. Wilson, Joseph V. Ciarrochi Jan 2005

Young People's Help-Seeking For Mental Health Problems., Debra Rickwood, Frank P. Deane, Coralie J. Wilson, Joseph V. Ciarrochi

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This paper summarises an ambitious research agenda aiming to uncover the factors that affect help-seeking among young people for mental health problems. The research set out to consider why young people, and particularly young males, do not seek help when they are in psychological distress or suicidal; how professional services be made more accessible and attractive to young people; the factors that inhibit and facilitate help-seeking; and how community gatekeepers can support young people to access services to help with personal and emotional problems. A range of studies was undertaken in New South Wales, Queensland and the ACT, using both ...


Dietary Fats And Membrane Function: Implications For Metabolism And Disease, Anthony J. Hulbert, Nigel Turner, Leonard H. Storlein, Paul Else Jan 2005

Dietary Fats And Membrane Function: Implications For Metabolism And Disease, Anthony J. Hulbert, Nigel Turner, Leonard H. Storlein, Paul Else

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Lipids play varied and critical roles in metabolism, with function dramatically modulated by the individual fatty acid moities in complex lipid entities. In particular, the fatty acid composition of membrane lipids greatly influences membrane function. Here we consider the role of dietary fatty acid profile on membrane composition and, in turn, its impact on prevalent disease clusters of the metabolic syndrome and mental illness. Applying the classical physiological conformer-regulator paradigm to quantify the influence of dietary fats on membrane lipid composition (i.e. where the membrane variable is plotted against the same variable in the environment - in this case dietary ...


A Contemporary Coaching Theory To Integrate Work And Life In Changing Times, Lindsay G. Oades, Peter Caputi, Paula Robinson, Barry Partridge Jan 2005

A Contemporary Coaching Theory To Integrate Work And Life In Changing Times, Lindsay G. Oades, Peter Caputi, Paula Robinson, Barry Partridge

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

In this chapter we argue that common approaches underpinning coaching, including cognitive-behavioural frameworks and the concept of work–life balance, are not well suited to form the conceptual basis of practice to assist people in a dynamic contemporary society. These mechanistic approaches originate from the industrial revolution and are based on the root metaphor of person as machine. With the changing labour market, the impact of information and communication technologies and the fragmentation of traditional meaning systems into a more cosmopolitan society, there is a need for coaching approaches that emphasise change and adaptation. Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), an ...


Measuring Help Seeking Intentions: Properties Of The General Help Seeking Questionnaire, Coralie J. Wilson, Frank P. Deane, Joseph V. Ciarrochi, Debra Rickwood Jan 2005

Measuring Help Seeking Intentions: Properties Of The General Help Seeking Questionnaire, Coralie J. Wilson, Frank P. Deane, Joseph V. Ciarrochi, Debra Rickwood

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This articles describes the theoretical underpinnings, development and psychometric properties of the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire: a measure of help-seeking intentions that is being used as the central outcome variable in a number of national and international help-seeking studies.


Ux Ret And Cn Hyi: Hipparcos Photometry Analysis, Surinder S. Wadhwa, William J. Zealey Jan 2005

Ux Ret And Cn Hyi: Hipparcos Photometry Analysis, Surinder S. Wadhwa, William J. Zealey

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

We present an analysis of the Hipparcos photometry of the contact binary systems UX Ret and CN Hyi. The Wilson-Devinney code is employed to model the V band light curve for several fixed values of the mass ratio. From the quality-of-fit of the different solutions a final solution is derived for each system. Absolute values of the system are derived using the parallax data from the Hipparcos catalog. Analysis of the V band photometry of two stars (EL Aqr and FN Cam) with spectroscopically known mass ratios is also provided as a validation for the methods adopted for this study.


Case Managers' Use Of Homework Assignments, Peter Kelly, Frank P. Deane Jan 2005

Case Managers' Use Of Homework Assignments, Peter Kelly, Frank P. Deane

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background: Homework refers to between-session activities that are tied to therapeutic goals. Homework has been suggested as being an important clinical adjunct to case management practices, however to date research has not examined case managers’ use of homework. Aims: To identify the degree that case managers use homework within their clinical practice and explore the way it is administered with people diagnosed with a persistent and recurring psychiatric illness. Method: A survey was completed by 122 case managers comprising of nurses, psychologists, social workers, occupational therapists and welfare/support workers. Results: Ninety-three percent of case managers implement homework, but only ...


Viewpoint Dependent Performance For Faces Rotated About Pitch And Yaw Axes, Simone K. Favelle, Stephen A. Palmisano, Ryan T. Maloney Jan 2005

Viewpoint Dependent Performance For Faces Rotated About Pitch And Yaw Axes, Simone K. Favelle, Stephen A. Palmisano, Ryan T. Maloney

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


Improving Sun Protection Behaviour Through Evidence-Based Campaigns, Anita Tang, Lyn J. Phillipson, Sandra C. Jones, Keryn M. Johnson Jan 2005

Improving Sun Protection Behaviour Through Evidence-Based Campaigns, Anita Tang, Lyn J. Phillipson, Sandra C. Jones, Keryn M. Johnson

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


Overweight Consumers' Salient Beliefs On Omega-3-Enriched Functional Foods In Australia's Illawarra Region, C. Patch, Linda C. Tapsell, P. G. Williams Jan 2005

Overweight Consumers' Salient Beliefs On Omega-3-Enriched Functional Foods In Australia's Illawarra Region, C. Patch, Linda C. Tapsell, P. G. Williams

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Objective: To determine consumer salient beliefs toward functional foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Design: Focus group interviews with adult consumers using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework. Setting: Community-based residents living in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. Participants: Forty-two overweight participants (29 female; 13 male) aged 30-80y recruited by advertisement and attending one of six focus groups which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis: Content analysis was carried out and sub-categories were developed to capture the emerging themes according to the TPB model. Results: Most participants were aware of a range of ...


Plant Sterol/Stanol Prescription Is An Effective Treatment Strategy For Managing Hypercholesterolemia In Outpatient Clinical Practice, C. Patch, Linda C. Tapsell, P. G. Williams Jan 2005

Plant Sterol/Stanol Prescription Is An Effective Treatment Strategy For Managing Hypercholesterolemia In Outpatient Clinical Practice, C. Patch, Linda C. Tapsell, P. G. Williams

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Objective To determine the effectiveness of prescribing 2 g plant sterols/stanols per day as an addition to standard practice in a dietary outpatient clinic. Design A randomized parallel design of comparative 12-week interventions. Subjects/Setting Patients referred by a general practitioner to a dietary outpatient clinic for the management of hyperlipidemia were eligible. Twenty-five patients (15 women and 10 men) completed the study. Intervention Counselling regarding diet for hyperlipidemia was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines. The intervention group was instructed to incorporate ~25 g/day of margarine containing plant sterols/stanols, which delivered ~2 g ...


Low Plasma Vitamin E Levels In Major Depression: Diet Or Disease?, A. J. Owen, Marijka Batterham, Y. C. Probst, Brin F. Grenyer, Linda C. Tapsell Jan 2005

Low Plasma Vitamin E Levels In Major Depression: Diet Or Disease?, A. J. Owen, Marijka Batterham, Y. C. Probst, Brin F. Grenyer, Linda C. Tapsell

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

"Objective: Levels of vitamin E have been reported to be lower in patients suffering major depression, but whether this is due to inadequate dietary intake or the pathophysiology of depression is not known, and was the subject of the present study. Setting: Wollongong, Australia. Methods: Plasma vitamin E (a-tocopherol) was measured in 49 adults with major depression, age (mean7s.d.): 47712 y. In a subset (n¼19) usual dietary intake of vitamin E was determined by diet history. Results: Subjects had significantly lower plasma a-tocopherol (4.7170.13 mmol/mmol cholesterol) than has previously been reported for healthy Australians, and plasma ...


Overview Of Computerized Dietary Assessment Programs For Research And Practice In Nutrition Education, Y. Probst, Linda C. Tapsell Jan 2005

Overview Of Computerized Dietary Assessment Programs For Research And Practice In Nutrition Education, Y. Probst, Linda C. Tapsell

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Computerized dietary assessment programs are often used for nutrition education research and practice. This article provides an informal overview of 29 dietary assessment programs mentioned in the literature covered by MEDLINE from 1996 to 2003, along with the components and capabilities of these programs derived from additional sources as needed. According to the literature, the advantages of using computers for dietary assessment include standardization of the questioning sequence, fast and easy processing, immediate results, and increased flexibility.The disadvantages include the need for typing skills and computer literacy, as well as potential bias in the responses if an interviewer is ...


Development Of A Computer-Assisted Dietary Assessment Tool For Use In Primary Healthcare Practice: Perceptions Of Nutrition And Computers In A Sample Of Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Y. C. Probst, C. Krnavek, L. Lockyer, Linda C. Tapsell Jan 2005

Development Of A Computer-Assisted Dietary Assessment Tool For Use In Primary Healthcare Practice: Perceptions Of Nutrition And Computers In A Sample Of Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Y. C. Probst, C. Krnavek, L. Lockyer, Linda C. Tapsell

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

As part of a larger study developing dietary software, this study aims to evaluate a sample of potential users for their experience and comfort with computers and assess the preferred program design and navigation features for the development of the automated diet history interview. A telephone-based questionnaire and focus groups were employed to evaluate the perceptions, beliefs and attitudes of 37 older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Participants were also shown a range of existing dietary assessment programs and asked to state their perceptions of each. Data was coded and thematically analysed based on computer use, software features, dietary ...


Walnuts And Dietary Approaches To The Prevention And Management Of Abnormal Lipid Profiles In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Linda C. Tapsell, L. J. Gillen, C. S. Patch Jan 2005

Walnuts And Dietary Approaches To The Prevention And Management Of Abnormal Lipid Profiles In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Linda C. Tapsell, L. J. Gillen, C. S. Patch

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Dietary fat is considered central to the management of obesity and heart disease risk, and more recently with the risk of type 2 diabetes, given its observed role in the development of insulin resistance in mechanistic studies. For changes in lipid profiles, foods delivering substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids relative to saturated fats are of interest, and walnuts fit this category.As a class of foods, nuts have been shown to provide benefits to health in a number of clinical trials. A review of the cardiovascular benefits of nuts indicated their value on thrombotic factors, inflammatory markers and endothelial ...


Attitudes And Intentions Toward Purchasing Novel Foods Enriched With Omega-3 Fatty Acids, C. Patch, P. G. Williams, Linda C. Tapsell Jan 2005

Attitudes And Intentions Toward Purchasing Novel Foods Enriched With Omega-3 Fatty Acids, C. Patch, P. G. Williams, Linda C. Tapsell

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Objective: To identify the nature, strength and relative importance of influences on intentions to consume foods that are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Design: A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire. Setting: Community based residents living in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. Subjects: Two sub-samples were surveyed via questionnaire: Community members who responded to a local media advertisement (n=79), and subjects in a dietary intervention trial for type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=50). Variables Measures: Using the TPB variables – intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control - questionnaire items were constructed to ...


Using Market Segmentation Theory To Select Target Markets For Sun Protection Campaigns, Sandra C. Jones, L. Rees, Danika Hall, A. Tang Jan 2005

Using Market Segmentation Theory To Select Target Markets For Sun Protection Campaigns, Sandra C. Jones, L. Rees, Danika Hall, A. Tang

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This paper describes the initial steps in target market segmentation and evaluation as part of an industry-linked research project to develop a social marketing program for sun protection. The Project Reference Group developed a set of segmentation evaluation criteria based on recommendations from marketing and health promotion literature, as well as adding criteria specifically relevant to the industry partner. The process enabled an informed, representative and defensible selection of a primary target market as an initial starting point for further target market research and segmentation. It also demonstrated that bridging terminology from the fields of marketing and health promotion as ...


The Relationship Between Media Exposure And Awareness Of Health Behaviour Guidelines Among Older Australians, Sandra C. Jones, Christina Hoang Jan 2005

The Relationship Between Media Exposure And Awareness Of Health Behaviour Guidelines Among Older Australians, Sandra C. Jones, Christina Hoang

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This study aimed to determine whether or not there was a relationship between media exposure and awareness of health behaviour guidelines for physical activity, breast cancer screening and alcohol consumption among older Australians. The results of the study suggest that media exposure to certain health issues does in fact impact on people’s health knowledge and in some cases lead people to form incorrect perceptions. This is most evident with breast cancer where the heavy emphasis on the disease in the media has led to the misconception that breast cancer is the leading cause of death among Australian women and ...


Beer, Boats And Breasts: Responses To A Controversial Alcohol Advertising Campaign, Sandra C. Jones Jan 2005

Beer, Boats And Breasts: Responses To A Controversial Alcohol Advertising Campaign, Sandra C. Jones

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Over the last 30 years there has been a notable increase in the use of sexual appeals in advertising. In 2003, as with previous years, approximately 30% of all complaints to the Australian Advertising Standards Board related to portrayal of sex/sexuality/nudity and for the past four years this has been the most common issue prompting complaints. The stimulus for this study was a current television commercial for a full-strength beer which used an overt sexual/sexist appeal. The ad has been the subject of a large number of complaints to the ASB, which were rejected as the ASB ...


Parents' Inferences About Other Parents' Motives For Food Choices For Children: A Pilot Study, Sandra C. Jones, Danielle Mcvie, Gary Noble Jan 2005

Parents' Inferences About Other Parents' Motives For Food Choices For Children: A Pilot Study, Sandra C. Jones, Danielle Mcvie, Gary Noble

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The traditional approach to improving children’s diets has been to educate parents about the importance of healthy food choices. However, it is recognized that knowledge does not necessarily lead to improved food choices. This study used an indirect measure to investigate the underlying reasons for parents’ decisions about their children’s diets. We found a significant difference in parents’ perceptions of a hypothetical mother on items that related directly to food choices. It appears from these results that parents do indeed make value judgments about the food choices that mothers make for their children. Our results suggest that indirect ...


Motivational Factors In The Food Buying Behaviour Of Parents Of Pre-School Age Children: A Projective Technique Study, Gary Noble, Sandra C. Jones, Danielle Mcvie Jan 2005

Motivational Factors In The Food Buying Behaviour Of Parents Of Pre-School Age Children: A Projective Technique Study, Gary Noble, Sandra C. Jones, Danielle Mcvie

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

There is growing concern over childhood obesity levels around the world with many overweight children developing into obese adults. Research shows that the food choices of young children are determined largely by parents and that many parents are aware of what constitutes ‘healthy’ food yet continue to purchase ‘unhealthy’ food for their children’s consumption. This study explores this apparent paradox by identifying the motivations of parents of pre-school children in the purchase of both ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ food in the context of a supermarket shopping experience. Data was collected from 116 respondents using projective story and photograph techniques and ...


Increasing The Efficacy Of Breast Cancer Risk Communications: Contributiolns From Behavioural Science And Marketing, Sandra C. Jones, Donald C. Iverson Jan 2005

Increasing The Efficacy Of Breast Cancer Risk Communications: Contributiolns From Behavioural Science And Marketing, Sandra C. Jones, Donald C. Iverson

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in Australia. Women are faced with numerous decisions in relation to breast cancer including: actions they can take to reduce their risk of developing breast cancer; whether to participate in screening programs; and selection of the most appropriate treatment option if diagnosed with breast cancer. This paper discusses ways in which theories and findings from two disciplines, behavioural science and marketing, can be used collaboratively to design effective communications to increase the uptake of health behaviours that have the potential of reducing morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. From marketing ...


Message Framing Effects In Exercise Promotions: Confounded By Linguistic Complexity?, Sandra C. Jones Jan 2005

Message Framing Effects In Exercise Promotions: Confounded By Linguistic Complexity?, Sandra C. Jones

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Studies of framing effects on health-related intentions and behaviour have been conducted in numerous areas, with contradictory results. These inconsistent results can be partially explained by the differential nature of the behaviours concerned, and by the degree to which people engage in detailed processing of the messages, but there is clearly more to learn about framing effects. This study compared the effectiveness of the communication approaches inherent in the four-cell framing model towards adopting a health-enhancing behaviour (exercise). However we found an atheoretical interaction effect caused by the linguistic complexity of the messages.


Recommendations For Short Questions To Assess Food Consumption In Children For The Nsw Health Surveys, Victoria M. Flood, Karen Webb, Anna Rangan Jan 2005

Recommendations For Short Questions To Assess Food Consumption In Children For The Nsw Health Surveys, Victoria M. Flood, Karen Webb, Anna Rangan

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Monitoring key food habits of children is important for planning and improving health services in New South Wales. The NSW Health Department conducts the NSW Health survey program using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI). This survey includes questions for monitoring food habits of children aged 0-16 years. In this report, we recommend survey questions to be used in the NSW Health survey for this purpose, which meet a range of criteria for good survey questions about nutrition and food habits.