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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Engendering War: Military Masculinities And The Making Of Britain’S Eighteenth Century American Empire, Peter Way Oct 2005

Engendering War: Military Masculinities And The Making Of Britain’S Eighteenth Century American Empire, Peter Way

History Presentations

No abstract provided.


One-Sided Arguments, Jan Albert Van Laar Jun 2005

One-Sided Arguments, Jan Albert Van Laar

OSSA Conference Archive

When is an argument to be called one-sided? When is putting forward such an argument fallacious? How can we develop a model for critical discussion, such that a fallaciously one-sided argument corresponds to a violation of a discussion rule? These issues are dealt with within ‘the limits of the dialogue model of argument’ by specifying a type of persuasion dialogue in which an arguer can offer complex arguments to anticipate particular responses by a critic.


Arguments As Belief Structures: Towards A Toulmin Layout Of Doxastic Dynamics?, Fabio Paglieri, Cristiano Castelfranchi Jun 2005

Arguments As Belief Structures: Towards A Toulmin Layout Of Doxastic Dynamics?, Fabio Paglieri, Cristiano Castelfranchi

OSSA Conference Archive

Argumentation is a dialogical attempt to bring about a desired change in the beliefs of another agent – that is, to trigger a specific belief revision process in the mind of such agent. However, so far formal models of belief revision widely neglected any systematic comparison with argumentation theories, to the point that even the simplest argumentation structures cannot be captured within such models. In this essay, we endeavour to bring together argumentation and belief revision in the same formal framework, and to highlight the important role played by Toulmin’s layout of argument in fostering such integration.


The Hidden Role Of Pathos In Toulmin’S Layout Of Argument, Jean Nienkamp Jun 2005

The Hidden Role Of Pathos In Toulmin’S Layout Of Argument, Jean Nienkamp

OSSA Conference Archive

Stephen Toulmin’s use of a judicial model for argumentation in The Uses of Argument means that he is introducing the complexity of rhetorical appeals to the hitherto logic-based study of argumentation, including the appeal to the emotions, pathos. Toulmin’s acknowledgment of the role of the emotions in practical reasoning moves from being implicit in The Uses of Argument to becoming more explicit in Toulmin’s Return to Reason: ‘Warm hearts allied with cool heads seek a middle way between the extremes of abstract theory and personal impulse’ (2001, p. 214). This paper analyzes the hidden role of pathos ...


Norms Of Forcibleness, Beth Innocenti Jun 2005

Norms Of Forcibleness, Beth Innocenti

OSSA Conference Archive

If logic alone does not compel adherence to a thesis, must we conclude that the audience is irrational at worst or weak at best? I submit that a normative pragmatic perspective helps to explain cases of argumentation where logical or intellectual forcibleness alone is not sufficient for pressuring addressees to believe, consider, or do something. I argue (1) that a normative pragmatic perspective explains why argumentation foregrounding only logical forms may in some cases reasonably be expected to lack forcibleness and, in doing so, (2) that a normative pragmatic perspective offers a more complete account of norms of forcibleness than ...


Arguing By Question: A Toulminian Reading Of Cicero’S Account Of The Enthymeme, Manfred Kraus Jun 2005

Arguing By Question: A Toulminian Reading Of Cicero’S Account Of The Enthymeme, Manfred Kraus

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Reasons, Warrants And Premisses, Robert C. Pinto Jun 2005

Reasons, Warrants And Premisses, Robert C. Pinto

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


An Alternate Use Of The Uses Of Argument: A Feminist/Perceptive Adaptation Of The Toulmin Model, Keith S. Lloyd Jun 2005

An Alternate Use Of The Uses Of Argument: A Feminist/Perceptive Adaptation Of The Toulmin Model, Keith S. Lloyd

OSSA Conference Archive

Though a segment of feminists have questioned the combative, logical, objective nature of academic writing and presentation, their critique has seldom extended to the most widely used model in composition and communication, Stephen Toulmin’s Informal Model of argument (1958), which terminologically relates to combative, logical and legal terminologies (staking or possessing legal and ‘warranted’ ‘claims’ on ‘data’). Toulmin’s model, however, adapted to a visual rather than legal metaphor, fits well with the less confrontational, more personal and contextual approach espoused by some feminists and many argument theorists. This essay offers an adaptation of Toulmin’s six-part model based ...


Fundamental Circularities In The Theory Of Argumentation, Erik C W Krabbe Jun 2005

Fundamental Circularities In The Theory Of Argumentation, Erik C W Krabbe

OSSA Conference Archive

Sometimes pernicious circularities appear in definitions of fundamental concepts of argumentation theory. For instance, in pragma-dialectical theory, the concept of a fallacy and that of a critical discussion aiming at resolving a difference of opinion mutually presuppose one another. A similar relationship obtains, in argumentation theory at large, between the concept of argumentation and that of rationality. Again, the concept of an argumentative dialogue presupposes a concept of statement. Yet, statementhood is sometimes claimed to be determined by a locution’s function in dialogue. Similarly, for the concepts of proof and argument. Are these circularities really objectionable? Are they resolvable ...


Toulmin Diagrams In Theory & Practice: Theory Neutrality In Argument Representation, Chris Reed, Glenn Rowe Jun 2005

Toulmin Diagrams In Theory & Practice: Theory Neutrality In Argument Representation, Chris Reed, Glenn Rowe

OSSA Conference Archive

The Toulmin diagram layout is very familiar and widely used, particularly in the teaching of critical thinking skills. The conventional box-and-arrow diagram is equally familiar and widespread. Translation between the two throws up a number of interesting challenges. Some of these challenges (such as the relationship between Toulmin warrants and their counterparts in traditional diagrams) represent slightly different ways of looking at old and deep theoretical questions. Others (such as how to allow Toulmin diagrams to be recursive) are diagrammatic versions of questions that have already been addressed in artificial intelligence models of argument. But there are further questions (such ...


A Reason For Reasoning? Theorizing The Function Of Public Argument Through An Analysis Of Dissident Protest, Ludmila Hyman Jun 2005

A Reason For Reasoning? Theorizing The Function Of Public Argument Through An Analysis Of Dissident Protest, Ludmila Hyman

OSSA Conference Archive

This paper examines Andrei Sakharov's dissident protests against the Soviet regime as arguments to a non-cooperating interlocutor. Approaching the 1970s-1980s Soviet dissident public sphere as a Toulminian ‘field’ of argumentation, I infer a field-dependent function of Sakharov's argument from an analysis of its structure and implicit assessment criteria. Besides justification, the function of Sakharov’s argument is performative: he argues for political action by demonstrating a model of practical reasoning that raises private consciousness to the level of public agency. By exposing his own political rationality as a ‘live’ mode of proof for the speculative ‘truth’ of his ...


What’S In A Name? The Use Of The Stylistic Device Metonymy As A Strategic Manoeuvre In The Confrontation And Argumentation Stages Of A Discussion, A Francisca Snoeck Henkemans Jun 2005

What’S In A Name? The Use Of The Stylistic Device Metonymy As A Strategic Manoeuvre In The Confrontation And Argumentation Stages Of A Discussion, A Francisca Snoeck Henkemans

OSSA Conference Archive

In this paper I investigate the role of the rhetorical trope metonymy in arguers’ attempts to reconcile their rhetorical with their dialectical aims in the confrontation stage and argumentation stage of a discussion. I show how different types of metonymies may help to present a party’s position advantageously and to make the strongest case.


Arguing For The Ethics Of An Ad: An Application Of Multi-Modal Argumentation Theory, M Louise Ripley Jun 2005

Arguing For The Ethics Of An Ad: An Application Of Multi-Modal Argumentation Theory, M Louise Ripley

OSSA Conference Archive

In addition to functions traditionally ascribed to the socio-linguistic practice of arguing for a thesis, we can add: determining whether an advertisement is ethical. Ads regularly use fallacy and exaggeration, but when an ad uses argumentation that is based in unfair, damaging, dangerous fallacy, we may question its ethics. This paper uses Gilbert's model of Multi-Modal Argumentation to decide whether the arguments underlying an advertisement make it an ethical one.


The Voice Of The Other: A Dialogico-Rhetorical Understanding Of Opponent And Toulmin’S Rebuttal, Wouter H. Slob Jun 2005

The Voice Of The Other: A Dialogico-Rhetorical Understanding Of Opponent And Toulmin’S Rebuttal, Wouter H. Slob

OSSA Conference Archive

Although contemporary dialectical logic recognizes an important role for the opponent in argumentation, it remains loyal to the idea that arguments are supportive. In this paper, it is argued that because of this dialectical logic does not take seriously its own dialogical perspective. Without acknowledging a substantial role for rebutting factors in argumentation, the role of the opponent remains secondary. Toulmin’s understanding of the rebuttal suggests a way to incorporate such a substantial role of the opponent.


Defending Deep Disagreement, Dale Turner Jun 2005

Defending Deep Disagreement, Dale Turner

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


On The Philosophical Preconditions For Visual Arguments, Menashe Schwed Jun 2005

On The Philosophical Preconditions For Visual Arguments, Menashe Schwed

OSSA Conference Archive

The question is what are the preconditions for being able to rephrase visual objects in propositional form and consequently in argumentational terms. The idea is to identify the fundamentals of a linguistic-semiotic analysis of visual objects, which rest on philosophical notions in logic, linguistics and aesthetics.


Toulmin And The Mathematicians: A Radical Extension Of The Agenda, Mark Weinstein Jun 2005

Toulmin And The Mathematicians: A Radical Extension Of The Agenda, Mark Weinstein

OSSA Conference Archive

Toulmin is famously seen as the progenitor of informal logic and the related theory of argument and is first among many who seek to move the study of argument away from its roots in formal, especially mathematical, logic. Toulmin’s efforts, however, have been substantively criticized by Harvey Siegel, among others, for failing to offer the sort of foundation that, according to Siegel, even Toulmin sees to be required lest the theory of inquiry fall to impotent relativism. What I will attempt to indicate in this paper is, that although Toulmin is correct in rejecting mathematical logic as standardly construed ...


Pre-Aristotelian Theories Of Argument: Isocratean Vocabulary And Practice, Robert G. Sullivan Jun 2005

Pre-Aristotelian Theories Of Argument: Isocratean Vocabulary And Practice, Robert G. Sullivan

OSSA Conference Archive

This essay contributes to our understanding of pre-Aristotelian concepts of argument by examining the works of the Attic rhetorician Isocrates. Isocrates employed a quasi-technical vocabulary and described conditions under which various types of arguments more or less proper. By careful abstraction we can see what he meant by these terms and conditions. Though not an original argument theorist, per se, Isocrates provides us with a window into pre-Aristotelian argumentation.


Towards An Evolutionary Model Of Argumentation, Andrew Kidd Jun 2005

Towards An Evolutionary Model Of Argumentation, Andrew Kidd

OSSA Conference Archive

Toulmin’s original models of argumentation and human reasoning are reexamined in this paper from the perspective of evolutionary and cognitive theory. On the basis of recent work done from the biological and adaptationist perspectives in communication studies, it is to be demonstrated how neo-Darwinian and cognitive psychology may provide the platform for an understanding of the relationship of argumentation to human reasoning and communicative faculties. The Toulmin’s notions of field dependence and independence in argument are then reexamined and reappraised in light of this approach.


Good Reasoning On The Toulmin Model, David Hitchcock Jun 2005

Good Reasoning On The Toulmin Model, David Hitchcock

OSSA Conference Archive

Some solo verbal reasoning serves the function of arriving at a correct answer to a question from information at the reasoner’s disposal. Such reasoning is good if and only if its grounds are justified and adequate, its warrant is justified, and the reasoner is justified in assuming that no defeaters apply. I distinguish seven sources of justified grounds and state the conditions under which each source is trustworthy. Adequate grounds include all good relevant information practically obtainable by the reasoner. The claim must follow from the grounds in accordance with a justified general warrant. If this warrant is not ...


Political Cartoons In A Stephen Toulmin Landscape, Leo Groarke Jun 2005

Political Cartoons In A Stephen Toulmin Landscape, Leo Groarke

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


The Informal Use Of Reductio Ad Absurdum, Henrike Jansen Jun 2005

The Informal Use Of Reductio Ad Absurdum, Henrike Jansen

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


The Nature And Status Of Critical Questions In Argumentation Schemes, Douglas Walton, David M. Godden Jun 2005

The Nature And Status Of Critical Questions In Argumentation Schemes, Douglas Walton, David M. Godden

OSSA Conference Archive

The Nature and Status of Critical Questions in Argumentation Schemes


Eight Theses Reflecting On Stephen Toulmin, John Woods Jun 2005

Eight Theses Reflecting On Stephen Toulmin, John Woods

OSSA Conference Archive

I discuss eight theses espoused or occasioned by Toulmin: (1) The validity standard is nearly always the wrong standard for real-life reasoning. (2) Little in good reasoning is topic neutral. (3) The probability calculus distorts much probabilistic reasoning. (4) Scant resources have a benign influence on human reasoning. (5) Theoretical progress and conceptual change are connected. (6) Logic should investigate the cognitive aspects of reasoning and arguing. (7) Ideal models are unsuitable for normativity. (8) The role of the Can Do Principle.


Toulmin-Based Computational Modelling Of Judicial Discretion In Sentencing, Andrew Vincent, John Zaleznikow Jun 2005

Toulmin-Based Computational Modelling Of Judicial Discretion In Sentencing, Andrew Vincent, John Zaleznikow

OSSA Conference Archive

A number of increasingly sophisticated technologies are now being used to support complex decision-making in a range of contexts. This paper reports on work undertaken to provide decision support in the discretionary domain of sentencing by referring to a recently created Toulmin argument based model that involves the interplay and weighting of relevant rule-based and discretionary factors used in a decisional process. Judicial discretion, particularly in the sentencing phase, is one of the mainstays of justice systems that favour individualised justice. The study discusses the modelling process in Victorian courts in Australia, where the handing down of an appropriate custodial ...


Using Toulmin Argumentation To Develop An Online Dispute Resolution Environment, John Zeleznikow Jun 2005

Using Toulmin Argumentation To Develop An Online Dispute Resolution Environment, John Zeleznikow

OSSA Conference Archive

Our goal is to model reasoning in discretionary legal domains. To do so, we use Knowledge Discovery from Database Techniques. However there are obstacles to this approach, including difficulties in generating explanations once conclusions have been inferred, difficulties associated with the collection of sufficient data from past cases and difficulties associated with integrating two vastly different paradigms. Toulmin’s treatise on the uses of argument can be gainfully employed to construct legal decision support systems in discretionary domains. We show how we can use Toulmin’s approach to build such systems with examples taken from the domains of eligibility for ...


Political Reasonableness: A Content Analysis Of The New York Times 1860-2004, Darrin Hicks, Robert Margesson, Kristine Warrenburg Jun 2005

Political Reasonableness: A Content Analysis Of The New York Times 1860-2004, Darrin Hicks, Robert Margesson, Kristine Warrenburg

OSSA Conference Archive

This paper reports the preliminary results of a content analysis of the use and functions of reasonableness in the New York Times editorial page from 1860-2004. We begin by setting out several reasons why we should devote our critical attention to the concept of reasonableness. We then justify our choice of the New York Times editorial page and describe our sample and analytic method. The body of the paper reports three results. First, the primary meanings of the concept are detailed. These include prudence, rationality, fairness, and appropriateness. Second, a distinction between an epistemic and a non-epistemic function of the ...


Warranting Arguments, The Virtue Of Verb, James Francisca Klumpp Jun 2005

Warranting Arguments, The Virtue Of Verb, James Francisca Klumpp

OSSA Conference Archive

The Uses of Argument presented Stephen Toulmin’s call for a working logic and the classical statement of his layout of argument. In chapter 3, which explicated the model, each element was defined using multiple strategies. Toulmin presented his terminology both as a category system for labeling statements or propositions and as a functional vocabulary to describe ‘what . . . is involved in establishing conclusions by the production of arguments’ (97). These two uses of the vocabulary did not come together seamlessly in his account, however. Nor have they done so in subsequent work. Interpretations and elaborations of the Toulmin model, including ...


Truth And Storytelling: Some Hidden Arguments, Trudy Govier Jun 2005

Truth And Storytelling: Some Hidden Arguments, Trudy Govier

OSSA Conference Archive

This paper explores the relationship between narrative and argument in the context of ‘telling our stories’, a common aspect of processes of political reconciliation. Truth commissions and informal workshops often emphasize the telling of stories as a means of providing a sense of the experiences of persons affected by political conflict. Such stories, or narratives, may provide a powerful tool in reconciliation processes, given that they provide a basis for acknowledgement, understanding and empathy. However the power of narrative in such contexts does not eliminate the need for the exploration and evaluation of arguments for contested claims, and there is ...


The Uses Of Argument In Mathematics, Andrew Aberdein Jun 2005

The Uses Of Argument In Mathematics, Andrew Aberdein

OSSA Conference Archive

Stephen Toulmin once observed that ‘it has never been customary for philosophers to pay much attention to the rhetoric of mathematical debate’ (Toulmin & al., 1979, p. 89). Might the application of Toulmin’s layout of arguments to mathematics remedy this oversight? Toulmin’s critics fault the layout as requiring so much abstraction as to permit incompatible reconstructions. Mathematical proofs may indeed be represented by fundamentally distinct layouts. However, cases of genuine conflict characteristically reflect an underlying disagreement about the nature of the proof in question.