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Articles 31 - 60 of 73

Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Interview No. 1279, Tirso Yepes Sep 2005

Interview No. 1279, Tirso Yepes

Combined Interviews

Mr. Yepes briefly recounts his childhood and adolescence; from 1946 to 1948 he labored in the United States as an undocumented worker; he explains how people were often mistreated by immigration officials upon being deported, and they were intentionally sent to the wrong places; in 1959, he enlisted as a bracero, and he describes what he went through at the processing center in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México; his initial contract was three months, but he renewed it, and ended up staying in Earth, Texas, for a year and a half before returning to México; he had a great relationship with ...


Interview No. 1266, Primitivo Bustamante Sep 2005

Interview No. 1266, Primitivo Bustamante

Combined Interviews

Mr. Bustamante discusses his family and childhood; during the late fifties, when he was about five or six years old, his father worked as a bracero in California, New Mexico, and Texas; as a young boy, he recalls his father explaining what it meant to be a bracero; despite being encouraged by his father to attend school, he left after the sixth grade, because he didn’t like it; he goes on to describe his father as a very hard working man who never let his family go without and who constantly set a good example for him; although his ...


Interview No. 1272, Luis Guzmán Aug 2005

Interview No. 1272, Luis Guzmán

Combined Interviews

Mr. Guzmán briefly discusses his family, childhood, and adolescence; in 1956, he enlisted in the bracero program at a contracting center in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México, and he later went through a center in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México; as part of the hiring process, he had to have a letter of recommendation from a judge or authority stating that he was a good worker; in addition, he was physically examined, and he had to give blood samples as well; as a bracero, he worked in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas, picking beets and cotton; he goes on to describe the various ...


Interview No. 1264, Arturo Álvarez Padilla Aug 2005

Interview No. 1264, Arturo Álvarez Padilla

Combined Interviews

Mr. Álvarez briefly discusses his family and childhood; he talks about growing up on a ranch and helping his father work the land; in 1963, a wealthy woman from a neighboring ranch gave him the necessary permits and papers to enlist in the bracero program; he went through the processing center in Empalme, Sonora, México; his first contract took him to Salinas, California, where he continued renewing his contract and remained there for one year and nine months; from there he went on to Stockton, California, where he stayed for a little over a year; he goes on to give ...


Interview No. 1265, Francisca Barraza Aug 2005

Interview No. 1265, Francisca Barraza

Combined Interviews

Ms. Barraza recalls that her father was thirty-three years old when he joined the bracero program; he was contracted in Durango, México; as a bracero he completed six contracts and worked for the railroad in Oklahoma, San Antonio, Texas and the border region of Reynosa, México; Ms. Barraza recalls that her father sent money to Durango, México and was able to buy a ranch and marry upon his return; in addition, her father did not wish to return to the United States because he recalled the harsh working conditions and treatment which the braceros endured; he was not pleased with ...


Interview No. 1267, Artemio Cantú Benavides Aug 2005

Interview No. 1267, Artemio Cantú Benavides

Combined Interviews

Mr. Cantú Benavides discusses his childhood and family; in 1959, he traveled to Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, to enlist in the bracero program; he mentions that while there, people often paid for the necessary documentation and were left without any money, but they still had to wait for months to be called; from Monterrey he was taken by bus to a reception center at the border where he was discriminated against and treated poorly; moreover, he describes the delousing process where the men were treated like animals, and the medical examinations, which included collections of blood samples, that were very ...


Interview No. 1271, Saturnino González Díaz Aug 2005

Interview No. 1271, Saturnino González Díaz

Combined Interviews

Mr. González briefly recalls his family and childhood; he remembers hearing stories about his dad working in the United States, which made him want to do the same; as a young man he acquired a secure job with the federal electricity commission in México, mounting high tension cables; when he was nineteen he heard about a call for braceros, and he decided to quit his job for the chance to work in the United States; he traveled to the processing center in Empalme, Sonora, México, but he ended up being in debt before ever obtaining a contract; moreover, he details ...


Interview No. 1273, Juan Loza Aug 2005

Interview No. 1273, Juan Loza

Combined Interviews

Mr. Loza recalls his childhood in Manuel Doblado, Guanajuato, México; he explains that he had little formal schooling, and he began working at age eight; additionally, he states that he heard of the bracero program from his godfather, and he approached the mayor of his town to be placed on the bracero list; he recounts his experiences while waiting to be contracted in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, and how he had to work in order to have a place to stay while waiting for his name to be called; moreover, he relates what the process was like, the rough treatment ...


Interview No. 1278, Jesús Ortíz Torres Aug 2005

Interview No. 1278, Jesús Ortíz Torres

Combined Interviews

Mr. Ortíz recalls the humble beginnings of his childhood and how much he and his family suffered; in 1960, he married Juana Moreno Gómez [See also No. XX], and shortly thereafter he began working as a bracero; he initially traveled to border cities in México on his own, where the only requirement was to pick a certain amount of cotton in order to cross into the United States; there were times, however, that he still had to wait for days or weeks to be called even after picking cotton, but some men were never called; he talks about not having ...


Interview No. 1270, María Félix Mota Aug 2005

Interview No. 1270, María Félix Mota

Combined Interviews

María Félix discusses her family and childhood; her father, Leopoldo Mota Serrano, worked with the bracero program during the fifties in Colorado, Michigan, and Texas, picking various fruits and vegetables; María talks about how sad she and her sister were whenever he left and how they were too young to understand why he had to go away; while he was gone, he would send letters, money, and small gifts; these items, however, were sent to a family friend in town, and his wife, María’s mother, would pick everything up from him; upon one of his return trips to México ...


Interview No. 1277, Juana Ortíz Moreno Gómez Aug 2005

Interview No. 1277, Juana Ortíz Moreno Gómez

Combined Interviews

Mrs. Juana Ortíz vividly describes her childhood and the troubles she faced as a child born out of wedlock; she remembers her mother tried to sell her to someone, which consequently led to her grandmother deciding to raise her; soon after, her mother married and started a new life after leaving her behind; when she was sixteen years old, she married Jesús Ortíz Torres [See also No. XX]; he struggled to find work, which led to his decision to enlist in the bracero program against her wishes; as a bracero, he worked in California, Idaho, Michigan, and Texas, picking cotton ...


Interview No. 1586, Fred Deyoung Jul 2005

Interview No. 1586, Fred Deyoung

Combined Interviews

Mr. DeYoung describes the work-a-day lives of Braceros on a lettuce harvesting crew; he defines “hoeing and thinning” and the difference between this type of work and “harvesting;” he details the process of harvesting lettuce and provides job descriptions for the multiple roles this process requires including, cutters, spreaders, clampers, stitches, wind rowers, and loaders; he lists the type of clothing items the workers would wear in the fields; he discusses the quality and type of food Braceros ate, as well as the conditions of the labor camps and barracks; Mr. DeYoung also describes the leisure and weekend activities of ...


Interview No. 1101, J. Jesus Hernandez Medrano Jul 2005

Interview No. 1101, J. Jesus Hernandez Medrano

Combined Interviews

Mr. Hernandez briefly recounts his childhood and adolescence growing up on a farm; he would often help his father work the land and care for the animals; in 1944, he went to México, Distrito Federal, to begin the enrollment process for the Bracero Program; he describes the processing center and the various procedures he underwent there, including the medical exams and the train trip to Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México; as a bracero, he picked cotton as well as a range of fruits and vegetables; he goes on to describe his daily routine, the living arrangements, what he did during his ...


Interview No. 1575, Sally Gutierrez Mcquinn Jul 2005

Interview No. 1575, Sally Gutierrez Mcquinn

Combined Interviews

Ms. Gutierrez briefly describes her childhood and family; in the early 1940s she was hired as a bookkeeper for an operational office in Gilroy, California; she was in charge of payroll for the braceros, and she saw firsthand that 10 percent was discounted from their salary; it was her understanding that there was an agreement between the United States and Mexico that the money would be mailed to Mexico so that the braceros would have it available to them when they returned; bracero complaints went through her, because she was the only one in the office; she recalls one instance ...


Interview No. 1102, Ismael Z. Nicolás Osorio Jul 2005

Interview No. 1102, Ismael Z. Nicolás Osorio

Combined Interviews

Mr. Osorio briefly discusses his childhood and adolescence; he went to school only through the sixth grade, because there were no secondary schools in his hometown; while searching for a school, he became aware of the bracero contracting center in México, Distrito Federal; in spite of the rumors he had heard that he might have to fight in the war as a bracero, he decided to begin the enrollment process in 1944; he initially began the procedures by paying to get his name on the county’s list of workers in Oaxaca, México; from there, he traveled to Ciudad México ...


Interview No. 1105, Audmaro G. Zepeda Jul 2005

Interview No. 1105, Audmaro G. Zepeda

Combined Interviews

Mr. Zepeda recalls his childhood and adolescence; because his uncles had worked as braceros, he knew that would be his one chance for a better future; in 1957, he began the hiring process by paying $300.00 to go on the county’s list of eligible workers; he then went to the contracting center in Empalme, Sonora, México, and he was sent by train to Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico, where he was medically examined and deloused; as a bracero, he worked throughout California, picking beets, broccoli, cauliflower, celery, chile, and cotton; when he worked in Salinas, California, there were between ...


Interview No. 1103, Pedro Del Real Jul 2005

Interview No. 1103, Pedro Del Real

Combined Interviews

Mr. Del Real describes how he initially heard of the Bracero Program through word of mouth; in 1952, when he began the enrollment process, he was already married and had children; he went through contracting centers in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México, and Empalme, Sonora; there were huge crowds of people at these centers, which proved to be problematic due to the long waiting periods; he explains the procedures he underwent, including the medical exams and the delousing process; furthermore, he describes the delousing procedures as discriminatory; as a bracero, he was able to obtain eight working contracts, which took him to ...


Interview No. 1104, Ma. Irma Davalos Jul 2005

Interview No. 1104, Ma. Irma Davalos

Combined Interviews

Ms. Davalos recalls her childhood, and how she learned about farming from her father when she was only five years old; he was very strict with her, and she would often get in trouble or yelled at for not doing things correctly; when she was about six years old, her father came to the United Stated to work as a bracero because they were in desperate need of money; she remembers that while he was away, he would often send letters, but not necessarily money; on the occasions when he was able to send money, it was a great help ...


Interview No. 1113, Raúl Canela Jul 2005

Interview No. 1113, Raúl Canela

Combined Interviews

Mr. Canela recalls growing up in Emiliano Zapata, Michoacán, México; he states that he attended formal schooling through the high school level, and afterwards began working in agriculture; additionally, he explains that he joined the Bracero Program at age twenty-two; as a bracero, he worked in California picking tomatoes; he describes the hiring process at Empalme, Sonora, México, the medical exams he endured, and the disinfection process; furthermore, he details what daily life was like on the camp, the length of his work week, and the treatment he received; he remembers that the braceros would often play soccer and boxing ...


Interview No. 1106, Juan Baez Barragán Jul 2005

Interview No. 1106, Juan Baez Barragán

Combined Interviews

Mr. Baez briefly describes his family and childhood; later, he worked in the United States illegally for a short time before returning to México through Mexicali, Baja California, and obtaining a bracero contract in 1949; he goes on to explain the requirements, including how their hands were checked, physical exams, x-rays, and blood samples; consequently, he underwent similar procedures when going through the contracting center in Empalme, Sonora; he also talks about transportation from the centers to the border by bus and train; as a bracero he worked in Arizona and California; he also details the various worksites, daily routines ...


Interview No. 1110, Justo G. Montes Jul 2005

Interview No. 1110, Justo G. Montes

Combined Interviews

Mr. Montes briefly mentions his family and childhood; when he was eighteen years old, he came to the United States illegally, but shortly thereafter he enlisted in the bracero program; he often went through contracting centers in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Empalme, Sonora, and Monterrey, Nuevo León, México; the medical exams he underwent included x-rays and blood samples; he goes on to chronicle the various worksites, duties, daily routines, living conditions, amenities, provisions, payments, deductions, remittances, contract renewals, and recreational activities; in addition, he explains that he spent three years in Big Spring, Texas; he stayed there year-round and handled all aspects ...


Interview No. 1111, Guadalupe Gonzalez Jul 2005

Interview No. 1111, Guadalupe Gonzalez

Combined Interviews

Mr. Gonzalez recalls growing up in Aguililla, Michoacan, México; he states that he never received formal schooling, and was taught by an aunt to read and write; additionally, he details that he began working at the age of eight; he explains that he joined the Bracero Program after hearing about it from men who had already done it; furthermore, he describes picking cotton and fruits in the United States; he also discusses laboring as an undocumented worker; to conclude, he expresses that he has positive memories of the program.


Interview No. 1112, Alberto Montes Jul 2005

Interview No. 1112, Alberto Montes

Combined Interviews

Mr. Montes recalls growing up in Huejuquilla el Alto, Jalisco, México with seven siblings; he states that at age eleven he began working in agriculture; he explains that he heard about the Bracero Program in 1952, and decided to enlist in 1953; additionally, he details what the hiring process was like in Empalme, Sonora, México; he describes what the medical exams were like, the process he went through, and his trip to the border; furthermore, he remembers working in New Mexico picking cotton, and what his daily work day was like; he presents what food braceros had, what their living ...


Interview No. 1114, Pedro Cantor Jul 2005

Interview No. 1114, Pedro Cantor

Combined Interviews

Mr. Cantor recalls his childhood in Sacualco de las Torres, Jalisco, México; he remembers attending school as a child, but stopping his education because he was often hit by the teacher; additionally, he describes how he began working in agriculture at age fourteen, and how he decided to join the Bracero Program in 1956 with his brothers; he details the process he went through at the contracting center in Empalme, Sonora, México, his trip to the border, and his experience entering the United States; he worked in California gathering lettuce and picking peppers; furthermore, he outlines how daily life was ...


Interview No. 1107, Faustina Flores Jul 2005

Interview No. 1107, Faustina Flores

Combined Interviews

Ms. Flores recalls growing up in Tapalpa, Jalisco, México, never going to school, and marrying Timoteo Flores when she was nineteen; she states that she never learned to write, but does read some; additionally, she relates how they were forced to move to Venustiano Carranza, Jalisco, México after having their eighth child due to a lack of work in their hometown; they later had three more children; she explains how her husband found out about the Bracero Program in the newspaper, and how he decided to join it in 1957; furthermore, she details how her husband traveled to the contracting ...


Interview No. 1109, Luis Zamudio Jul 2005

Interview No. 1109, Luis Zamudio

Combined Interviews

Mr. Zamudio recalls his childhood in Moroleón, Guanajuato, México, and how he started working with his father in agriculture at age eleven; he states that, at age eighteen, he joined the Bracero Program; as a bracero he worked in Arkansas, California and Texas picking cotton and lettuce; additionally, he remembers what life was like in the bracero camps, how they had to cook their own food, and the hardships they endured in the fields; he describes how he renewed his contract, and the treatment he received from foremen; furthermore, he details how he was able to secure residency in the ...


Interview No. 1115, María Cantor Jul 2005

Interview No. 1115, María Cantor

Combined Interviews

Mrs. Cantor briefly recalls her childhood and the financial difficulties her family endured; she recalls that her father decided to enlist in the bracero program in 1946; she recalls how difficult it was for her father to become a bracero; her father was contracted approximately four or five times; she mentions that he went through a processing center in Empalme, Sonora, México; as a part of the process, he was medically examined, vaccinated and deloused; she goes on to talk about his payments and his correspondence with her mother; as a bracero, her father worked for the railroad and labored ...


Interview No. 1108, Matilde Gallegos Jul 2005

Interview No. 1108, Matilde Gallegos

Combined Interviews

Mr. Gallegos recalls growing up in Benito Juárez, Chihuahua, México; he states that he began working in agriculture when he was twelve years old; at age eighteen, he remembers traveling to Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México to join the Bracero Program, and describes the conditions he endured there; he details that he had to spend twenty days waiting to be contracted, a time he spent homeless; additionally, he explains the contracting process, the medical exams he endured, and how he was transported to the United States in a train car that was normally used for animals; he worked in Texas picking cotton ...


Interview No. 1117, Vicente Ramírez Jul 2005

Interview No. 1117, Vicente Ramírez

Combined Interviews

Mr. Ramírez briefly recalls his childhood and the financial difficulties his family endured; in 1955 he heard about a call for braceros and decided to quit his job for the chance to work in the United States; he traveled to the processing center in Empalme, Sonora, México; he details the harsh conditions he and other men endured while waiting there; in addition, he talks about how painful the physical exams were and how rudely they were conducted; as a bracero, he completed several contracts and labored in the fields of Salinas, California; he briefly details the living conditions, provisions, duties ...


Interview No. 1116, Isidoro Ramírez Jul 2005

Interview No. 1116, Isidoro Ramírez

Combined Interviews

Mr. Ramírez recalls growing up in Tepatitlán, Jalisco, México, and attending formal schooling for a brief period; he states that his parents worked in agriculture, and that he began laboring with them at an early age; additionally, he remembers hearing about the Bracero Program from men who had returned from the Unites States, and deciding to enlist at age twenty-one; he details his experience in the contracting center of Empalme, Sonora, México, how he had to wait three weeks to sign his contract, and the humiliation of the medical exams; furthermore, he describes his trip to the border, and the ...