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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria And Fecal Enterococci In Recreational Water With An Evanescent Wave Fiber Optic Biosensor, Maria Theresa Trindade Dec 2005

Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria And Fecal Enterococci In Recreational Water With An Evanescent Wave Fiber Optic Biosensor, Maria Theresa Trindade

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Development of a rapid method for the detection of fecal enterococci and pathogenic microorganisms in beach water was attempted utilizing an evanescent wave fiber optic biosensor. Various assay formats including a sandwich immunoassay were tested in the development of a rapid assay. Fluorophore labeled antibodies were used for specific detection of bacteria captured or adsorbed directly to the surface of a polystyrene fiber optic waveguide. Binding of the fluorescent labeled antibody to its specific target or binding of a fluorescent labeled anti-IgG within 100-1000 nm of the waveguide surface caused excitation of the fluorescent conjugate resulting in a quantifiable signal ...


Mothers’ Versus Fathers’ Ratings Of Child Behavior Problems, Jessica K. Curley Dec 2005

Mothers’ Versus Fathers’ Ratings Of Child Behavior Problems, Jessica K. Curley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to examine how mothers and fathers view children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. More specifically, the relationship between certain factors, such as parental psychological symptoms, levels of interparental conflict, characteristics of the behaviors, and discrepancies in mothers' and fathers' ratings of behavior problems were studied in more depth. Using a between subjects, experimental design, mothers and fathers were randomly assigned to view a videotape and rate the behavior of a male or female child acting in either an internalizing, externalizing, or non-clinical manner. Results showed that there were no differences between mothers' and ...


The Effects Of Fluency Training On Performance, Maintenance, And Generalization Of Parenting Skills, Gertie Williams Dec 2005

The Effects Of Fluency Training On Performance, Maintenance, And Generalization Of Parenting Skills, Gertie Williams

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effects of fluency training on performance, maintenance, and generalization of parent training skills were examined within the context of a classroom and home setting. Three foster parents attended a 24-hour Parenting Tools for Positive Behavior Change (PBC) course. Participants completed timed fluency drills using flash cards to increase learning and performance of PBC tools. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess participant performance on flash card drills and PBC tools during in-class, pre-test, and post-test role plays, and in novel situations with children in the home before, during and after the course. Results showed that ...


The Solubility Of Triton X-114 And Tergitol 15-S-9 In High-Pressure Carbon Dioxide Solutions, Brandon Smeltzer Dec 2005

The Solubility Of Triton X-114 And Tergitol 15-S-9 In High-Pressure Carbon Dioxide Solutions, Brandon Smeltzer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the sol gel production of high surface area catalyst, the template, a surfactant, is

the key component of the process. A template too soluble in the supercritical dryingextraction

process can yield a catalyst with a lower surface area. A template completely

insoluble in the supercritical drying-extraction process can lead to a longer calcinations

step and lower catalyst surface area. Template recovery also enhances the economic

feasibility of plant scale production of high surface area catalyst. For these reasons

knowing surfactant solubility in supercritical media is important.

The solubility of surfactants tert-octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (commercially

available and hereafter referred to as Triton ...


Metacognitive Strategies In A Web-Enhanced Environment: The Effects On Achievement In Problem-Solving For Engineering Undergraduates, Sally A. Zabel Dec 2005

Metacognitive Strategies In A Web-Enhanced Environment: The Effects On Achievement In Problem-Solving For Engineering Undergraduates, Sally A. Zabel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the effects of using metacognitive strategy cuing integrated into problem-solving activities in a web-based learning environment. Purposes of the study were to investigate: (a) differences in posttest achievement between students who received metacognitive strategies embedded as cues in engineering problem sets and students who did not receive the treatment; (b) differences in perceptions of problem-solving skills between students who received metacognitive strategies embedded as cues in engineering problem set and students who did not receive the treatment; (c) differences in thermodynamics knowledge; (d) problem-solving steps students reported using across problem sets; (e) characteristics of sampled students ...


An Examination Of User Resistance In Mandatory Adoption Of Enterprise Systems, Timothy Paul Klaus Dec 2005

An Examination Of User Resistance In Mandatory Adoption Of Enterprise Systems, Timothy Paul Klaus

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

User resistance is an important issue in the implementation of an Enterprise System (ES). However, despite the prevalence of user adoption literature, user resistance literature is scarce. Although some studies have conceptualized user resistance as the opposite of user adoption, a mandatory, role-transforming system such as an ES clearly shows that users may use a system while resisting it. Although this area is highly relevant, it is theoretically underdeveloped. This study examines user resistance at the individual level of analysis to determine the underlying reasons for user resistance, the types of resistant behaviors, and the management strategies to minimize resistance ...


Attitudinal Antecedents Of The First- And Third-Person Effect Of Alcohol Advertising On College Students, Georgia Begin Dec 2005

Attitudinal Antecedents Of The First- And Third-Person Effect Of Alcohol Advertising On College Students, Georgia Begin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Data collected from a survey questionnaire via personal interviews among 488 college students was used to examine relationships among attitude toward alcohol advertising, attitude toward alcohol beverages, perceived influence of alcohol advertising on oneself, perceived influence of alcohol advertising on others, and attitude toward restrictions of alcohol advertising. Results supported the hypothesized direct effect of advertising attitudes and product attitudes on attitude toward restrictions. Also supported was the indirect effect of advertising and product attitudes on attitudes toward restricting alcohol advertising via such mediators as perceived influence of the ads on self and others using the theories of first- and ...


Physical Studies Of Glycosaminoglycans In Relation To The Adhesion Properties Of Human Cancer Cells, Antonio Peramo Dec 2005

Physical Studies Of Glycosaminoglycans In Relation To The Adhesion Properties Of Human Cancer Cells, Antonio Peramo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The study of the processes relating glycobiology and cancer will have increased interest in coming years. To contribute to this trend the outcome of this work will be useful for investigations in glycobiology, using experimental methods exhibiting controlled carbohydrate composition, organization, and orientation, drawn from materials science and physics and that can be used in bioengineering and other technical areas in biology.

In this work, the focus has been on physical studies of some members of the family of glycosaminoglycans and their role in cancer metastasis. The project studies the static adhesion of cancer cells to substrates functionalized with cell ...


A Rhetoric Of Sports Talk Radio, John D. Reffue Nov 2005

A Rhetoric Of Sports Talk Radio, John D. Reffue

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sports talk radio is a broadcast format that has grown exponentially through the 1990's and into the early part of the twenty-first century. Academic publications about the format, especially qualitative analyses, have been extremely limited and previous radio content researchers have called for a more in-depth study of talk radio, in particular the relationships between and among callers, hosts and the listening audience.

This study examines sports talk radio as a format separate from political talk radio programming. An evolution of the format from its roots as a broadcast novelty to the modern day stand-alone genre is traced, including ...


Historical Morphodynamics Of John’S Pass, West-Central Florida, Jennifer Rose Krock Nov 2005

Historical Morphodynamics Of John’S Pass, West-Central Florida, Jennifer Rose Krock

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

John’s Pass is a stable mixed-energy inlet located on a microtidal coast in Pinellas County, Florida. It is hydraulically connected to the northern portion of Boca Ciega Bay. Morphological analysis using a time-series of aerial photographs indicated that anthropogenic activities have influenced the evolution of the tidal deltas and adjacent shorelines at John’s Pass. Previous studies have documented the channel dimensions at the location of the existing bridge and calculated the tidal prism. A chronological analysis of these data yielded an increasing trend in the cross-sectional area at John’s Pass from 1873 to 2001. Anthropogenic activities occurring ...


Occupational Exposure To Ultrafine Particles And Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons From Candle Emissions, David J. Silver Nov 2005

Occupational Exposure To Ultrafine Particles And Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons From Candle Emissions, David J. Silver

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are present in the ambient atmosphere and are generated from atmospheric gases, pollution sources, and combustion. Candles emit carbonaceous soot particles similar to UFPs present in the ambient atmosphere. With the exception of lead, airborne concentrations of candle emissions have not been shown capable of causing cancer or cardiopulmonary disease during normal use. The purpose of this research is to determine the occupational risk associated with candle emissions.

Candle studies employ chambers to measure candle emission exposures and assess public health risk. Chambers used in previous studies did not match normal room conditions. They were affected by ...


Content Differences Between Print And Online Newspapers, Jessica E. Smith Nov 2005

Content Differences Between Print And Online Newspapers, Jessica E. Smith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Internet provides the opportunity to develop a new way to present journalism, but many scholars say newspaper Web sites do nothing but mirror their print parents. This study used content analysis to compare the content of stories in five newspapers with their Web counterparts, and it examines whether reporter affiliation or a story's geographic emphasis has a relationship with the story's amount of contextual elements. These elements could include photos, graphics, or multimedia or interactive components online. This approach applied gatekeeping theory to publications that have editions in two media.

This study examined the five largest newspapers ...


Reframing The National Football League: An Organizational Analysis Of The Construction Of A Modern Spectacle, Scott Charles Lewis Nov 2005

Reframing The National Football League: An Organizational Analysis Of The Construction Of A Modern Spectacle, Scott Charles Lewis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Popular and consumer cultures share a similar trajectory in the United States with spectacle and money being key ingredients in the construction of both. This is most apparent in the sports industry in America with billions of dollars in revenue generated every year. During the first half of the twentieth century sports like baseball and boxing commanded a significant amount of cultural and economic capital. It was not unheard of for sports teams, talented athletes and even a few select coaches to ascend to a legendary or even mythical status. The spectacle and revenue generating capacity of amateur and professional ...


Adsorption Studies For Arsenic Removal Using Modified Chabazite, Ashutosh S. Vakharkar Nov 2005

Adsorption Studies For Arsenic Removal Using Modified Chabazite, Ashutosh S. Vakharkar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Arsenic contamination in drinking water has been a cause of serious concerns across the United States as well as throughout the world. Over 70 million people in Eastern India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Taiwan, and Northern China have been victims of arsenic poisoning. The USEPA has classified arsenic as a Class A carcinogen and recently reduced the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) in drinking water from 50ppb to 10ppb. The deadline for all the water utilities to meet this level is 23rd January 2006. To meet those drinking water standards, small water utilities need low cost and effective arsenic removal techniques.

Natural zeolites ...


Cognitive Dissonance In Early Colonial Pictorial Manuscripts From Central Mexico, Lorena Diane Mihok Nov 2005

Cognitive Dissonance In Early Colonial Pictorial Manuscripts From Central Mexico, Lorena Diane Mihok

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the relationship between the imagery and glosses displayed on folios from the Codex Telleriano-Remensis, the Codex Magliabechiano, and the Codex Ixtlilxochitl through the application of Leon Festingers concept of cognitive dissonance in order to introduce an alternative approach to the study of codices as points of culture contact. The work analyzes the ways in which this psychological condition manifested itself in post-contact codex production as a result of sixteenth century political and social circumstances.

Festinger (1957:14) identifies the existence of cultural mores as a source of potential dissonance between culturally specific consonant elements. According to this ...


Social Structure And Social Learning In Delinquency: A Test Of Akers’ Social Structure-Social Learning Model, Stephen W. Verrill Nov 2005

Social Structure And Social Learning In Delinquency: A Test Of Akers’ Social Structure-Social Learning Model, Stephen W. Verrill

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Social learning theory (Akers, 1973, 1977, 1985, 1998; Burgess & Akers, 1966) is an established general theory of criminal, deviant, and conforming behavior that finds substantial empirical support (e.g., Akers, Krohn, Lanza-Kaduce & Radosevich, 1979; Akers, La Greca, Cochran & Sellers, 1989; Alarid, Burton & Cullen, 2000; Krohn, Skinner, Massey & Akers, 1985). Although the theory provides insight into the processes that influence criminal behavior, the theory does not speak to the environments that produce such behavior--the domain of structural theories.

Akers (1998) has suggested that social learning theory accounts for differences in crime rates through its mediation of structural effects on individual criminal behavior. He postulated that social structure acts as the distal cause of crime, affecting an individual's exposure to norm and norm-violating contingencies through the social learning process. Although the integrated cross level social structure-social learning theory (Akers, 1998) has received empirical attention, criminologists have not adequately tested the model (Akers, 1998; Bellair, Roscigno, & Vélez, 2003; Lanza-Kaduce & Capece, 2003; Lee, 1998; Lee, Akers & Borg, 2004). Akers (1999) and colleagues (Lee et al., 2004) have suggested that future research should test models that incorporate broader social structural measures, especially those derived theoretically.

The present research contributes to the theoretical body of literature through its more complete measurement of the macrosocial correlates and theoretically defined structural causes dimensions posited by Akers (1998). Secondly, the study introduces possible linkages between social structure and the social learning process in an attempt to ...


Differences In Frequency And Severity Of Violence For Intimate Terrorism Across Genders: A Test Of Johnson's Theory, Shelly Wagers Nov 2005

Differences In Frequency And Severity Of Violence For Intimate Terrorism Across Genders: A Test Of Johnson's Theory, Shelly Wagers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to further build on previous empirical findings regarding Johnsons theory that the gender symmetry debate can at least be partially resolved by acknowledging that two distinct subgroups of physical violence exist within intimate partner violence: Intimate Terrorism (IT) and Situational Couple Violence (SCV). According to Johnsons predictions these separate groups can be distinguished by the use of non-violent control tactics. This study focused on testing the ability of non-violent control tactics to predict the frequency and severity of violence within the sub-group intimate terrorism. It further explored Johnsons assertion that intimate terrorism is gender asymmetric with females ...


Reconstruction Of Late Holocene Precipitation For Central Florida As Derived From Isotopes In Speleothems, Limaris R. Soto Nov 2005

Reconstruction Of Late Holocene Precipitation For Central Florida As Derived From Isotopes In Speleothems, Limaris R. Soto

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Little is known about the paleo-precipitation of the Florida Peninsula. In order to better understand Floridas late Holocene climate variability (last 4,200 years), the isotopic composition was analyzed of four speleothems from two caves, in West-Central Florida. Two speleothems were collected from BRC Cave in Hernando County, and two others from Briar Cave in Marion County. This study represents the first speleothem-based paleoclimate records for Florida.

Uranium-series disequilibrium analyses were determined by using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to provide accurate determination of chronology of the deposition of the speleothems. Stable isotopic analyses of oxygen and carbon were performed ...


A Study In The Relationships Between Organizational Structures And Public Relations Practitioner Roles, Allison Stokes Nov 2005

A Study In The Relationships Between Organizational Structures And Public Relations Practitioner Roles, Allison Stokes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

While there exists extensive research in the area of public relations roles, as well as the arena of organizational structure, little research focuses on the relationship between organizational structure and the role of the public relations practitioner in the organization.

This study will provide a review of the different types of organizational structures, as well as a review of public relations practitioner roles. Organization theory literature supplies information on the characteristics of each structure, including levels of complexity and decentralization involved in each organizational type. Public relations literature includes research that aids in formulation of role classifications that may be ...


Does Increasing Public Awareness Of The Anti-Globalization Movement Affect Its Growth?, Richard Eugene Martin Nov 2005

Does Increasing Public Awareness Of The Anti-Globalization Movement Affect Its Growth?, Richard Eugene Martin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis tests the hypothesis that increasing public awareness of the anti-globalization movement fuels its growth. The independent variable in this thesis is public awareness of the anti-globalization movement and is operationalized/measured using a database of anti-globalization protest events covered by the global media created by Dr. Bruce Podobnik. The dependent variable in this thesis is the growth of the anti-globalization movement and is measured through a content analysis of anti-globalization related postings to an anti-corporate transnational advocacy network known as the Independent Media Center in 2002. It purports to measure such growth in two dimensions, action and discourse ...


A Methodology For Developing A Nursing Education Minimum Dataset, Aziza A. Rajab Nov 2005

A Methodology For Developing A Nursing Education Minimum Dataset, Aziza A. Rajab

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Globally, health care professionals, administrators, educators, researchers, and informatics experts have found that minimum dataset and taxonomies can solve the problem of data standardization required in building an information system to advance disciplines body of knowledge. Disciplines continuously gather complex data, but data collected without an organizational context does not increase the knowledge-base. Therefore, a demand exists for developing minimum dataset, controlled vocabularies, taxonomies, and classification systems. To fulfill nursings needs for standardized comparable data, two minimum dataset are used in nursing for organizing, classifying, processing, and managing information for decision-making and advancing clinical nursing knowledge.

No minimum dataset in ...


The Effects Of A Leadership And Diversity Awareness Program On Adolescents' Attitudes And Behaviors, Eileen M. Lyons Nov 2005

The Effects Of A Leadership And Diversity Awareness Program On Adolescents' Attitudes And Behaviors, Eileen M. Lyons

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A nonequivalent control-group longitudinal design was used to examine the effects of a leadership and diversity awareness program on adolescents knowledge of discriminatory terms, acceptance of diversity, social competence, feelings of social responsibility, and community involvement. Adolescents who did and did not attend a leadership and diversity awareness program (Anytown) completed three analogous surveys in a 12-month period. Similarly, parents of adolescents who did and did not attend the program reported on their childs social competence and community involvement.

Adolescents who attended the program reported greater increases in their social competence, acceptance of diversity, feelings of social responsibility, and community ...


The Relationship Between Hot Flashes And Sleep Quality In Women Being Treated For Breast Cancer, Carly Pabon Rn, Bsn Nov 2005

The Relationship Between Hot Flashes And Sleep Quality In Women Being Treated For Breast Cancer, Carly Pabon Rn, Bsn

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Hot flashes are one of the most bothersome symptoms experienced by women who have undergone breast cancer treatment-induced menopause. This vasomotor symptom has been hypothesized to be responsible for decreased sleep quality. This study further investigated the relationship between hot flashes and sleep quality in this population.

The convenience sample consisted of 30 women being seen at an outpatient clinic in a comprehensive cancer center in southwest Florida. All participants were between the ages of 36-65, had a diagnosis of breast cancer and were currently taking a selective estrogen receptor modulator for at least six weeks. The participants completed the ...


Ammonium Distribution And Dynamics In Relation To Biological Production And Physical Environment In The Marguerite Bay Region Of The West Antarctic Peninsula, Yulia Mikhailovna Serebrennikova Nov 2005

Ammonium Distribution And Dynamics In Relation To Biological Production And Physical Environment In The Marguerite Bay Region Of The West Antarctic Peninsula, Yulia Mikhailovna Serebrennikova

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this study, biogeochemical regimes of Marguerite Bay and the adjacent part of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) continental shelf were delineated through integration of nutrient, hydrographic, and biological measurements obtained during the LTER and SO GLOBEC studies during austral summer, autumn, and winter of 2001 and 2002.

Marguerite Bay biogeochemical regime was found to differ from those of the adjacent WAP continental shelf. In terms of Treguer and Jacques (1992), Marguerite Bay is a combination of Coastal Continental Shelf Zone (CCSZ) and Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ) distinguished by shallow mixing regime, high primary production and export production. At the ...


Comparison Of The Use Of Single And Multiple Oxidants On The Generation Of Particulate Matter In Water Distribution Systems Derived From Groundwater Sources Containing Hydrogen Sulfide And Dissolved Organics, Rochelle J. Minnis Nov 2005

Comparison Of The Use Of Single And Multiple Oxidants On The Generation Of Particulate Matter In Water Distribution Systems Derived From Groundwater Sources Containing Hydrogen Sulfide And Dissolved Organics, Rochelle J. Minnis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to increasingly stringent regulations, concerns about disinfection byproduct formation, and the need for improved control of distribution system water quality, there has been a shift towards the use of alternative disinfectants and oxidants in the production of drinking water. Technologies that modify water chemistry, such as hydrogen peroxide, UV irradiation, chlorine and/or chloramines may result in the generation of mineral and organic precipitates. Turbidity provides an indirect measure of the presence of particles by evaluating the light scattering properties of water. Turbidity levels are currently not monitored or regulated in treated groundwater.

An important water quality parameter that ...


"And So He Plays His Part:" Theatrical Prejudice And Role-Playing In As You Like It And King Lear, Erin Rutter Nov 2005

"And So He Plays His Part:" Theatrical Prejudice And Role-Playing In As You Like It And King Lear, Erin Rutter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although most critics affirm the importance of interior direction and role-playing in many of Shakespeares plays, there is a considerable disagreement concerning the result of this role playing: does it lead to positive growth or to degeneration? Moreover, this debate is often associated with the sixteenth-century controversy about the role of the theater in society. Some moralists insist that the theater can be an instrument for instilling virtue while others view the theater as sinful, debasing, and a catalyst to social breakdown. In this thesis, I will explore the antitheatrical prejudice in the early modern era and show how Shakespeare ...


Predicting Obesity From Four Eating Behaviors, Tovah Yanover Nov 2005

Predicting Obesity From Four Eating Behaviors, Tovah Yanover

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is a growing problem in the United States. Research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of obesity is vital. One past study examined four eating behaviors in relation to obesity: eating beyond satiety, snacking, night eating, and feeling hungry within three hours of eating. Only eating beyond satiety was associated with obesity. The present study examined these same eating behaviors while correcting some of the flaws of the previous study. Using a cross-sectional design, university undergraduates reported on the frequency of the above-named eating behaviors. Current weight and height were collected. Multiple regression analyses determined that eating beyond satiety ...


Safety Effects Of Left Turn Overflow At Signalized Intersections, Isaac Kwamena Sankah Nov 2005

Safety Effects Of Left Turn Overflow At Signalized Intersections, Isaac Kwamena Sankah

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Signalized Intersections on the State Roads in Hillsborough and Pinellas County, Florida with observed left turn lane overflow (spill) were selected for a safety and operational study. The study analyzed the crash data for safety hazards that the situation presents. Crashes within 100 feet from the center line of the crossroad of intersections under study to distances 200 feet beyond the end of the turn lane were chosen for the analysis. Left turn overflow is the situation at the approach of an intersection where left turning vehicles back up from the turn lane into the through traffic lane.

Crashes within ...


Practical Behavioral Modeling Technique Of Power Amplifiers Based On Loadpull Measurements, Jiang Liu Nov 2005

Practical Behavioral Modeling Technique Of Power Amplifiers Based On Loadpull Measurements, Jiang Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Accurate linear and nonlinear models for devices and components are essential for successful RF/microwave computer aided engineering (CAE). The modeling techniques can be categorized in different levels based on the abstraction of the model as well as the application of the models at various design phases. This dissertation deals with behavioral modeling techniques for nonlinear RF components, especially amplifiers.

There is an increasing demand for accurate behavioral models of RF and microwave components, or integrated circuit (IC) blocks used in wireless system designs. Accurate behavioral models help designers evaluate and select the appropriate components at simulation phase, thereby cutting ...


Use Of Random Subspace Ensembles On Gene Expression Profiles In Survival Prediction For Colon Cancer Patients, Vidya Kamath Nov 2005

Use Of Random Subspace Ensembles On Gene Expression Profiles In Survival Prediction For Colon Cancer Patients, Vidya Kamath

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is a disease process that emerges out of a series of genetic mutations that cause seemingly uncontrolled multiplication of cells. The molecular genetics of cells indicates that different combinations of genetic events or alternative pathways in cells may lead to cancer. A study of the gene expressions of cancer cells, in combination with the external influential factors, can greatly aid in cancer management such as understanding the initiation and etiology of cancer, as well as detection, assessment and prediction of the progression of cancer.

Gene expression analysis of cells yields a very large number of features that can be ...