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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Interview No. 1094, Manuel Ramirez Nov 2005

Interview No. 1094, Manuel Ramirez

Combined Interviews

Manuel Ramirez discusses his father, Adolfo Ramírez Bañuelos, and his perceptions of the United States that led to his decision to become a bracero; at the time, Adolfo was married and had five children; in 1946, he traveled to Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México, to enlist in the bracero program; he was then transported by train to Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, and then by caravan to the county coliseum in El Paso, Texas, where ranchers chose their workers; on one occasion, he was transferred by plane from El Paso to Colorado; Manuel goes on to describe the various difficulties and humiliations his father ...


Interview No. 1098, Refugio Hernández Nov 2005

Interview No. 1098, Refugio Hernández

Combined Interviews

Mr. Hernández discusses his uncles, Loreto Hernández and Crescencio Alpidio Hernández Delgado, and the stories he heard about them as a child; Loreto, Crescencio, and the rest of their siblings were born in the United States, but they were all repatriated in 1932; they then moved to Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México; Crescencio tried returning to the United States, but initially had great difficulties due to his Pahuco style of dress; during the 1940s and 1950s he worked in Arizona and California picking grapes, lettuce, limes, and oranges; he also worked in El Paso, Texas unloading trucks; Refugio discusses the various ...


Interview No. 1576, Sebastian Martinez Nov 2005

Interview No. 1576, Sebastian Martinez

Combined Interviews

Mr. Martínez briefly discusses his family; when he was roughly fourteen or fifteen years old, he began working with his father alongside braceros, chopping cotton and other such field duties; he goes on to discuss his experiences working with braceros, and he gives an account of their living and working conditions, provisions, recreational activities, religion, and their general dispositions; in addition, he explains the relationships between the braceros and the surrounding community in Pecos, Texas, which was largely segregated; several of his female relatives, however, did have romantic relationships with braceros; he also speaks about the children of braceros going ...


Interview No. 1087, Filomeno Burciaga Nov 2005

Interview No. 1087, Filomeno Burciaga

Combined Interviews

Mr. Burciaga briefly recalls his childhood and family; in 1955, he enlisted in the bracero program at a contracting center in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México; at the time, he was married and had a son; from Chihuahua, he traveled to Rio Vista, a processing center in Socorro, Texas, and he chronicles the various procedures he underwent while there; as a bracero, he labored in the beet fields of Nebraska and the cotton fields of Texas; he goes on to describe living and working conditions, wages, contract amendments and extensions, provisions, recreational activities, and community interactions; Filomeno continued working with the program ...


Interview No. 1086, Manuel Leal Nov 2005

Interview No. 1086, Manuel Leal

Combined Interviews

Mr. Leal briefly discusses his early childhood and family; in 1951, he enlisted in the bracero program; he describes going through Rio Vista, a processing center in Socorro, Texas, and the various procedures he underwent while there; as a bracero, he worked in New Mexico and Texas, picking crops, irrigating, and driving tractors; he goes on to describe wages, working and living conditions, provisions, recreational activities, and the medical attention received when necessary; in addition, he explains the range of interactions with fellow braceros, employers, immigration personnel, and consul representatives; he continued working with the program until 1960; in the ...


Interview No. 1090, Jesús Martínez Nov 2005

Interview No. 1090, Jesús Martínez

Combined Interviews

Mr. Martínez describes his family and childhood; in 1952, he enlisted in the bracero program in order to help support his family; he provides a detailed explanation of the necessary documentation to become a bracero, including letters of recommendation; in addition, he describes the various contracting procedures, that consisted of long waiting lines, physical exams, collections of blood samples, and delousing, which was the most embarrassing for him; as a bracero, he worked in Arizona, California, Michigan, Nebraska, and Texas; he goes on to discuss wages, living and working conditions, treatment, provisions, remittances, and the range of relationships among employees ...


Interview No. 1092, Saul Ponce Nov 2005

Interview No. 1092, Saul Ponce

Combined Interviews

Mr. Ponce very briefly discusses his family and childhood; as a young man, he decided to enlist in the bracero program in order to help his family financially; from his hometown in Valle de Zaragoza, Chihuahua, México, he was transported to Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México, where he obtained his first bracero contract; he was then transferred to Rio Vista, a processing center in Socorro, Texas, and then taken to his worksite by plane; as a bracero, he worked in Montana, picking beets and cotton, cleaning corn, and milking cows; he and his brother were fortunate enough to live and work together ...


Interview No. 1093, Patricio Padilla Rubio Nov 2005

Interview No. 1093, Patricio Padilla Rubio

Combined Interviews

Mr. Padilla briefly describes his family and childhood; he speaks about his father’s job as a foreman for a ranch in Presidio, Texas, and how he would often travel between Texas and México; when Patricio was eighteen, he enrolled in the bracero program; his first contract took him to a ranch in Marfa, Texas, where he cared for livestock; upon his return to México, he married and subsequently had children; his second contract took him to Dexter, New Mexico, where he weighed cotton; the following contracts took him to work at different ranches in Pecos, Texas, where he learned ...


Interview No. 1096, Sebastian Saucedo Nov 2005

Interview No. 1096, Sebastian Saucedo

Combined Interviews

Mr. Saucedo talks about his family and childhood; he initially enlisted in the bracero program in 1945, in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, but he was then transferred to Querétaro, Querétaro, México, in order to complete the paperwork; from there, he was transported by train back to Juárez and into the United States before finally being taken to Nevada, where he worked on the railroads; in addition, he describes the various procedures he underwent while being processed; as a bracero, he went to work picking different crops in several places throughout the United States, including Arizona, Arkansas, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico ...


Interview No. 1097, José G. Corral Nov 2005

Interview No. 1097, José G. Corral

Combined Interviews

Mr. José Corral describes his family and childhood; his father, Luis Corral Ortega, became a bracero in 1946, at which time his family lived in Meoqui, Chihuahua, México; José discusses remittances arriving in the mail and his family’s living conditions in México while his father was away; in 1950, the family had enough money to move to Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, where life was slightly better for them; José describes an incident in which his father attempted to legalize his family’s residency, but was only able to arrange for José’s local passport; in addition, José goes on ...


Interview No. 1099, Eduardo De Santiago Nov 2005

Interview No. 1099, Eduardo De Santiago

Combined Interviews

Mr. De Santiago grew up with his parents, who were agricultural workers, and his seven brothers and sisters; he describes his commissioner position and the way in which he came to enlist as a bracero, in 1954; he was transported from his hometown of Jerez, Zacatecas, México, to Chihuahua, Chihuahua, where he was examined and then transferred to Rio Vista, a processing center in Socorro, Texas; as a bracero, he worked in Balmorhea, Texas, for six years, where he weighed and picked cotton; in addition, he also learned to drive a tractor; he describes his close relationship with the grower ...


Interview No. 1089, Ernesto Espino, Linda Espino Nov 2005

Interview No. 1089, Ernesto Espino, Linda Espino

Combined Interviews

Mr. Ernesto Espino and Mrs. Linda Espino are a married couple that discuss the time during which Ernesto’s father, José Ortiz Espino, was a bracero; José was a bracero from 1944 to roughly 1954; as a bracero, he worked in Arizona, California, Colorado, and Nebraska, for several companies such as Southern Pacific Railroad and the Great Western Sugar Company; at the time Ernesto was born, his father was working in the United States as a bracero, and he didn’t meet his son until he was nine months old; Ernesto goes on to discuss his father’s visits home ...


Interview No. 1085, Antonio Góntiz Nov 2005

Interview No. 1085, Antonio Góntiz

Combined Interviews

In 1943, Mr. Góntiz, decided to enlist in the bracero program and went through the contracting center in Morelia, Michoacán, México; he mentions going through the health inspection station in Uruapan, Michoacán, México; as part of the process, he was medically examined and vaccinated by American doctors; he goes on to detail the transportation conditions, provisions, duties, payments, remittances, treatment, friendships, correspondence and recreational activities; his main duties included clearing the tracks of snow and straightening the railroad ties; he continued working without documentation after his contract ended; he was sent to a place the braceros called la California, he ...


Interview No. 1088, José Ramirez Delgado Nov 2005

Interview No. 1088, José Ramirez Delgado

Combined Interviews

Mr. Ramirez discusses his family, childhood, and growing up in a small village after México’s land redistribution; in 1945, 1946, and 1949, he came into the United States as an undocumented worker; he goes on to detail these experiences and explain how he was ultimately able to obtain a contract without having to return to Mexico; in 1950, he enlisted in the bracero program while in México; as a bracero, he worked irrigating and picking cotton in various places throughout Texas; he was a particularly talented gardener, and his employers would often send him to work at area country ...


Interview No. 1095, Hipólito Burrola Ruiz Nov 2005

Interview No. 1095, Hipólito Burrola Ruiz

Combined Interviews

Mr. Burrola briefly discusses his family and childhood; in1958, he was married; the following year he enlisted in the bracero program at a contracting center in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México; he mentions the long waiting lines, the required documents, examinations, and how callused hands were essential to obtaining a contract; from there, he was transported by train to Rio Vista, a processing center in Socorro, Texas, where he underwent further assessments and was deloused; in addition, he describes the poor conditions at the center; as a bracero, he worked in Artesia, New Mexico and O Brien and Pecos, Texas; he recalls ...


Betty Flinchum, Betty Flinchum, James B. Crooks Nov 2005

Betty Flinchum, Betty Flinchum, James B. Crooks

Creating a University: UNF Oral History Project

UNF Oral History Project Interview of Betty Flinchum by James B. Crooks on November 10, 2005


Charles Galloway, Charles Galloway, James B. Crooks Nov 2005

Charles Galloway, Charles Galloway, James B. Crooks

Creating a University: UNF Oral History Project

UNF Oral History Project Interview of Charles Galloway by James B. Crooks on November 5, 2005


Interview With Samuel William Searles, Samuel William Searles Nov 2005

Interview With Samuel William Searles, Samuel William Searles

Browse All Oral History Interviews

In his November 1, 2005 interview with Ebony Williams, Samuel William Searles recalls being drafted for the army during WWII. Searles explains his job during war and how he and fellow soldiers celebrated the end of the war. Searles also shares his memories of more of the harrowing experiences of war: segregation, death, and the mental effects of war. This interview was conducted for inclusion into the Louise Pettus Archives and Special Collections Oral History Program.


Interview No. 1091, Hector Ponce Oct 2005

Interview No. 1091, Hector Ponce

Combined Interviews

Mr. Ponce very briefly discusses his family and childhood; as a bracero he picked beets in Nebraska, peppers in North Dakota, and dispensed coal for heaters in Michigan; overall, he had great working relationships with his employers; while in Michigan, he was employed by a group of brothers who treated him extremely well; they often invited him into their home, and they offered to help arrange for his residency in the hopes that he would stay to work there permanently; he also relates a story about how his employer in Nebraska was intent on finding him a girlfriend; he goes ...


Interview No. 1578, Andy Imutan Sep 2005

Interview No. 1578, Andy Imutan

Combined Interviews

Mr. Imutan very briefly describes his travels from the Philippines to California; he began working in Delano, California, but he quickly became involved with the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO); in September of 1965, he was part of a strike that was a continuation of earlier efforts in Coachella, California, to achieve better pay; events in Coachella turned violent, with people getting hurt and equipment being damaged; after demands were met in Coachella, the same companies refused the same wages in Delano, hence the continuing strike; within roughly a week, Cesar Chavez joined the strike ...


Interview No. 1577, Dolores Huerta Sep 2005

Interview No. 1577, Dolores Huerta

Combined Interviews

Ms. Huerta briefly talks about her parents and what her life was like growing up; as an adult, she began working with braceros as part of the Community Service Organization (CSO); she would often go to the bracero labor camps to help them when they were injured, which included obtaining doctors and/or lawyers when necessary; her mother owned a hotel at the time, where the braceros often stayed; she cared for them, giving them curfews and making sure they did not drink too much; she even invited them to local dances and encouraged them to get involved in the ...


George Corrick, George Corrick, James B. Crooks Sep 2005

George Corrick, George Corrick, James B. Crooks

Creating a University: UNF Oral History Project

UNF Oral History Project Interview of George Corrick by James B. Crooks on September 16, 2005


Interview No. 1276, Aguileo Nambo Sep 2005

Interview No. 1276, Aguileo Nambo

Combined Interviews

Mr. Nambo briefly discusses his family and adolescence; when he was about fifteen years old, he and his older brother went to pick cotton in Sonora, México, and he was able to get his military service ID early; he traveled to Empalme, Sonora, and he paid money to get his name on the county’s list of available workers; while waiting there, he endured harsh conditions, but some of the men that were not called were left without any money or way to get back home; as a bracero he worked primarily in California, but he also obtained short contracts ...


Interview No. 1279, Tirso Yepes Sep 2005

Interview No. 1279, Tirso Yepes

Combined Interviews

Mr. Yepes briefly recounts his childhood and adolescence; from 1946 to 1948 he labored in the United States as an undocumented worker; he explains how people were often mistreated by immigration officials upon being deported, and they were intentionally sent to the wrong places; in 1959, he enlisted as a bracero, and he describes what he went through at the processing center in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México; his initial contract was three months, but he renewed it, and ended up staying in Earth, Texas, for a year and a half before returning to México; he had a great relationship with ...


Interview No. 1263, Roberto Almazar Valdivia Sep 2005

Interview No. 1263, Roberto Almazar Valdivia

Combined Interviews

Mr. Almaraz briefly discusses his family and childhood; in 1952, he enlisted in the bracero program in Villanueva, Zacatecas, México; from there, he traveled to the contracting center in Empalme, Sonora, México; he mentions the physical examinations and delousing process he underwent as part of the contracting process; from Empalme he was taken to El Centro, California, which is where the ranchers chose the workers they wanted; while there, the workers also signed their contracts, which were initially for forty days, but they could be extended for six month periods at a time, until they had completed eighteen months of ...


Interview No. 1266, Primitivo Bustamante Sep 2005

Interview No. 1266, Primitivo Bustamante

Combined Interviews

Mr. Bustamante discusses his family and childhood; during the late fifties, when he was about five or six years old, his father worked as a bracero in California, New Mexico, and Texas; as a young boy, he recalls his father explaining what it meant to be a bracero; despite being encouraged by his father to attend school, he left after the sixth grade, because he didn’t like it; he goes on to describe his father as a very hard working man who never let his family go without and who constantly set a good example for him; although his ...


Interview No. 1268, Martín Conejo Sep 2005

Interview No. 1268, Martín Conejo

Combined Interviews

Mr. Martín Conejo is the son of Ernesto Conejo, who was a bracero during the late fifties and early sixties; Martín explains how much he admires his father for having been able to successfully work as a bracero in the United States in spite of the fact that he only had a third grade education; Ernesto was the first person from his ranch to work in the United States; he was initially contracted in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México; while there he was physically examined and asked questions about his work experience; as a bracero, he worked in Michigan, Texas, and ...


Interview No. 1269, Vicente Delgado Sep 2005

Interview No. 1269, Vicente Delgado

Combined Interviews

Mr. Delgado briefly describes his family and humble beginnings; when he was eighteen, he came into the United States illegally, but shortly thereafter, he was deported to Tijuana, Baja California, México; in 1952, he went to Mexicali, Baja California, to enlist in the bracero program; he goes on to discuss the various contracting centers he went through in México, including the requirements, the thousands of men vying for contracts, the long waiting periods that sometimes lasted weeks or months, and the harsh conditions he endured while there, like sleeping on the floor; moreover, he mentions the coyotes that were often ...


Interview No. 1274, Gabriel Martínez Ángel Sep 2005

Interview No. 1274, Gabriel Martínez Ángel

Combined Interviews

Mr. Martínez briefly recalls his family and childhood; his uncles worked as braceros in the late forties, which ultimately inspired him to do the same; in 1960, he enlisted in the bracero program; he describes the entire process he went through both in México and in the United States, including obtaining his military ID card, getting his name on the county’s list of available workers, physical examinations, and being deloused; as a bracero he worked in California, Colorado, Michigan, and Texas, picking beans, beets, cucumbers, strawberries, and tomatoes; he goes on to detail the various worksites, duties, contract lengths ...


Interview No. 1275, Guadalupe Mena Arizmendi Sep 2005

Interview No. 1275, Guadalupe Mena Arizmendi

Combined Interviews

Mr. Mena recalls growing up on a small ranch where his family worked in agriculture; he only had a few years of formal schooling, because he had to help with daily chores; at age eighteen, he married, and when he was twenty, he entered the bracero program; he details what the contracting process was like in Empalme, Sonora, México, as well as in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, and Monterrey, Nuevo León, México; additionally, he states that more than twenty-five thousand men waited to be processed in those centers every day; in Irapuato, Guanajuato, México, many fights broke out amongst the men; he ...