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2005

History of Religion

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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

A History Of Japanese Religion: From Ancient Times To Present, Shannon Reed Symonds Dec 2005

A History Of Japanese Religion: From Ancient Times To Present, Shannon Reed Symonds

History Master's Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to discuss the progression of Japanese religion from its earliest inception to the present day. In the United States, religion is considered to be a very personal phenomenon, one totally disassociated from any government control. My intention is to demonstrate that this has not always been the situation in Japan, and to explain how and why the state became so influential in the religion of its citizens. I will also attempt to explain why the disassociation of religion and the state coincided with a general wave of religious apathy that spread across the country ...


Domestic Interiors Of Two Viennese Jewish Elites Probate Court In Vienna, 1730s, David Horowitz Aug 2005

Domestic Interiors Of Two Viennese Jewish Elites Probate Court In Vienna, 1730s, David Horowitz

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The probate inventories of mid-eighteenth-century Viennese Court Jews provide a rare opportunity to reflect upon the role of material consumption in the processes of acculturation and class formation among Central European Jewish elites during the decades preceding the Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment). Probate inventories are lists of assets and possessions drawn up by government officials in the process of settling the estate of the deceased. These inventories require cautious interpretation by the historian, but potentially yield precious rewards since they afford a glimpse into the individual’s complex material world.

This presentation is for the following text(s):


The City As A Place Of Regulation, Border And Exclusion, Bernard D. Cooperman Aug 2005

The City As A Place Of Regulation, Border And Exclusion, Bernard D. Cooperman

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Supplications to the Government, Jewish Settlement in Livorno Atti Civili del Ufficio di governatore di Livorno (1605, 1610)

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Law, Boundaries, And City Life In Early Modern Poland-Lithuania, Magda Teter Aug 2005

Law, Boundaries, And City Life In Early Modern Poland-Lithuania, Magda Teter

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The dynamics of relations within cities thus are shaped not only by class or religious or ethnic membership but also by the legal framework. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, divisions between the private and royal domains within cities disrupted not only their legal coherence but also that of Jewish communities themselves, sharpening economic competition and often also conflict. This is what the 1711 decree of the Lithuanian Tribunal against the kahal of Minsk highlights--legal distinctions sometimes exacerbated urban tensions.

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Decree of the Lithuanian Tribunal against the Kahal of Minsk (1711)

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Marching Soldiers, Opera Houses And Young Jewish Men In Eighteenth-Century Hague: Haag Jewish Community Minute Book, Stefan Litt Aug 2005

Marching Soldiers, Opera Houses And Young Jewish Men In Eighteenth-Century Hague: Haag Jewish Community Minute Book, Stefan Litt

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The presented sources have been selected from the oldest minute book, the pinkas, of the Ashkenazi community in The Hague, which was kept from 1723 until 1786. The Hague was then the Dutch capital and residence of the Orange Stadholders. The city was much smaller than Amsterdam, but it was still one of the most important urban centers of the Dutch Republic. As the capital, its urban population included many officials, diplomats and soldiers, and these people formed and influenced the urban life significantly. The second half of the eighteenth century witnessed the high point of the Rococo with its ...


The Personal Record Book Of Hayyim Gundersheim Dayyan (1774), Edward Fram Aug 2005

The Personal Record Book Of Hayyim Gundersheim Dayyan (1774), Edward Fram

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Rabbinic courts were and remain an integral part of the Jewish community and the Jewish community in Frankfurt in the late eighteenth century had not one but two such courts. The courts handled a wide range of issues including divorces, contracts, real estate transactions, trusts, estates, and also gave opinions on the scope of Jewish communal authority. This particular case deals with a house on the so called "Judengasse" in Frankfurt. The Jewish ghetto was divided up into lots that had names rather than street numbers and houses on the lots were often owned by more than one family. The ...


Close Quarters Privacy And Jewish House Space In Early Modern Polish Cities, Adam Teller Aug 2005

Close Quarters Privacy And Jewish House Space In Early Modern Polish Cities, Adam Teller

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The following texts were chosen in order to illustrate the implications of the growth in Jewish population in Poland's larger towns during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when the number of Jews grew faster than the non-Jewish authorities would allow the Jewish quarters to expand. This led to an increasing degree of crowding in the Jewish quarter as a whole as well as in individual houses. To illustrate this, some demographic data on the situation in the Jewish quarter of Poznan may be seen in the presentation.

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Cracow Community Ordinance of ...


Rural Jews Of Alsace, Debra Kaplan Aug 2005

Rural Jews Of Alsace, Debra Kaplan

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

From 1348/9-1477, the Jews of Alsace were expelled from the cities in which they had lived throughout the Middle Ages. While many opted to leave the Empire for centers in Eastern Europe and Italy, some Jews remained, moving to the towns and villages in the countryside. By the 1470's, the majority of Alsatian Jews lived in rural areas. Quotas often dictated residential policies in towns and villages, so it was not uncommon to find one or two Jewish families per village/town. The following documents detail the relationship of rural Alsatian Jews, as represented by their communal leaders ...


Taverns And Public Drinking In Florence, Stefanie Siegmund Aug 2005

Taverns And Public Drinking In Florence, Stefanie Siegmund

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The texts presented here (from Florence, Italy, 1571-1622) draw our attention to a set of spaces neither specifically Jewish nor Christian, but decidedly urban and early modern: the eating and drinking establishments of the cities. Not included here but relevant are the rabbinic laws that forbid Jews to eat non-kosher food, regulate the wine Jews drink, and prohibit Jews from spending or handling money on the Sabbath and on festival days. As a set, the texts both hint at chronological developments in the city of Florence and in the ghetto and also serve to caution against facile readings of any ...


Proceedings Of Old Bailey (18th Century), Todd Endelman Aug 2005

Proceedings Of Old Bailey (18th Century), Todd Endelman

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Todd Endelman discusses the following six texts were published in The Whole Proceedings upon the King's Commission of Oyer and Terminer and Gaol Delivery for the City of London and also the Gaol Delivery for the County of Middlesex, a series of printed volumes recording cases tried at the Old Bailey in the City of London in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (now accessible on line at www.oldbaileyonline.org.)

This presentation is for the following text(s):

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Question Of The Eruv In Early Modern Europe, David Katz Aug 2005

Question Of The Eruv In Early Modern Europe, David Katz

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Both the responsum of Rabbi Aboab and that of Hakham Zvi Ashkenazi reflect a feature of pre-modern kehillah life almost never dealt with in scholarly literature, namely, the urban eruv, a physical boundary delineating space in which one is permitted to carry items on Sabbath, erected by the kehillah.

This presentation is for the following text(s), available in the PDF file:

  • Samuel Aboab's Responsum 257
  • Hakham Zvi Ashkenazi's Responsum, She'elot u'Teshuvot Hakham Zvi no. 6 (1699)

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The Shtetl In Context, Thomas Hubka Aug 2005

The Shtetl In Context, Thomas Hubka

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The town plans that will be analyzed were part of a greater, pre-nineteenth century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, including most of today's Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and western Ukraine. The overall organization and character of the Polish, eighteenth century, small Jewish town was primarily developed during the fourteenth-through-eighteenth century Polish colonization of its eastern provinces in what is now Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine.


Emw 2005: Jews And Urban Spaces, Emw 2005 Aug 2005

Emw 2005: Jews And Urban Spaces, Emw 2005

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The second Early Modern Workshop (August, 2005) was hosted by the Louis L. Kaplan Chair in Jewish History, the Department of History, and the Rebecca and Joseph Meyerhoff Center for Jewish Studies at the University of Maryland; by the Hebraica Section of the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., and supported by Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT.

Texts and maps cover a number of urban and geographic settings from London, to The Hague, Frankfurt, Livorno, Florence, Strasbourg, Prague, Poznań, and Minsk. They deal with physical personal space (minutes from the Poznań community record book; responsum of Rabbi Isaac the Great from ...


Annotations On - Travels In The Confederation [1783-1784], Journal Of Johann David Schoepf, John Benjamin Burroughs Aug 2005

Annotations On - Travels In The Confederation [1783-1784], Journal Of Johann David Schoepf, John Benjamin Burroughs

HCAC Research

Johann David Schoepf was born in 1752 in the German principality of Bayreuth. Educated as a physician and natural scientist, he arrived at New York in 1777 as chief surgeon of the Ansbach troops in the service of George III. Returning to Europe in 1784, Schoepf died in 1800 while serving as president of the United Medical Colleges of Ansbach and Bayreuth. In these selected passages, Schoepf describes his travel along the north-eastern coastline of South Carolina, through what is now Horry County, and along the beach of Long Bay, now known as Myrtle Beach. He gives a description of ...


The Legend Of Ger Zedek (Righteous Convert) Of Wilno As Polemic And Reassurance, Magda Teter Jul 2005

The Legend Of Ger Zedek (Righteous Convert) Of Wilno As Polemic And Reassurance, Magda Teter

Division II Faculty Publications

The article analyzes the popular legend of a righteous convert to Judaism in eighteenth-century Wilno (now Vilnius) according to which a prominent count, Walentyn Potocki, converted to Judaism and then died a martyr's death at the stake in Wilno. The article traces parts of the legend to Boccaccio's Decameron, discusses the attitudes to converts to Judaism in Jewish law, and explains the historical and cultural context in which the legend emerged.


Neolin And Tenskwatawa: A Comparison Of Two Nativist Prophets, Ashley Neonta Bell Jun 2005

Neolin And Tenskwatawa: A Comparison Of Two Nativist Prophets, Ashley Neonta Bell

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

No abstract provided.


(Review) Finding The Middle Way: The Utraquists' Liberal Challenge To Rome And Luther, Marc R. Forster Jun 2005

(Review) Finding The Middle Way: The Utraquists' Liberal Challenge To Rome And Luther, Marc R. Forster

History Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Prudent Village: Risk Pooling Institutions In Medieval English Agriculture, Gary Richardson May 2005

The Prudent Village: Risk Pooling Institutions In Medieval English Agriculture, Gary Richardson

Gary Richardson

The prudent peasant mitigated the risk of crop failures by scattering his arable land throughout his village, Deirdre McCloskey argued, because alternative risksharing institutions did not exist. But, alternatives did exist, this essay concludes. Medieval English peasants formed two types of farmers’ cooperatives. Fraternities protected members from the perils of everyday life. Customary poor laws redistributed resources towards villagers beset by bad luck. In both institutions, the expectation of reciprocation motivated farmers with surpluses to aid neighbors with shortages.


Annotations On Selected Entries – The Journal And Letters Of Francis Asbury [1771-1816], John Benjamin Burroughs May 2005

Annotations On Selected Entries – The Journal And Letters Of Francis Asbury [1771-1816], John Benjamin Burroughs

HCAC Research

English-born Francis Asbury (1745-1816), famed bishop of the American Methodist movement, visited the area that is now known as Horry County, South Carolina several times during the period 1785 to 1815. Asbury spread Methodism in America as part of the Second Great Awakening. In his journal and letters he left us several interesting accounts of the area and its residents. Annotations have been added in order to clarify his remarks.


Christianity And Craft Guilds In Late Medieval England: A Rational Choice Analysis, Gary Richardson Apr 2005

Christianity And Craft Guilds In Late Medieval England: A Rational Choice Analysis, Gary Richardson

Gary Richardson

In late-medieval England, craft guilds simultaneously pursued piety and profit. Why did guilds pursue those seemingly unrelated goals? What were the consequences of that combination? Theories of organizational behavior answer those questions. Craft guilds combined spiritual and occupational endeavors because the former facilitated the success of the latter and vice versa. The reciprocal nature of this relationship linked the ability of guilds to attain spiritual and occupational goals. This link between religion and economics at the local level connected religious and economic trends in the wider world.


Doukhobor Survival: Maintained Through Persecution And Conflict, Lisa Rude Apr 2005

Doukhobor Survival: Maintained Through Persecution And Conflict, Lisa Rude

Sociology and Anthropology Undergraduate Theses

This thesis examines the 19th and 20th century struggles of the Doukhobors as they journeyed from Czarist Russia to Canada. Due to their religious beliefs and sense of social justice, the Doukhobors were forced to migrate numerous times within Russia before they relocated to their (not so) promised land in Canada. Their struggle will be analyzed through two viewpoints historically, using Marxist Humanist and Conflict theory, and culturally, using Indigenous Standpoint theory. The thesis will attempt to answer the following questions: “What historical factors led to the Doukhobors’ cultural development and ability to sustain despite fierce conflict from the external ...


Justin Martyr And The Logos: A Study Of The Greek And Jewish Influences On The Church Father's Christology, Katherine Greiner Apr 2005

Justin Martyr And The Logos: A Study Of The Greek And Jewish Influences On The Church Father's Christology, Katherine Greiner

Theology Undergraduate Theses

Justin Martyr’s works serve as theological examples of what needs to be engaged and interpreted. Through exploration of his influences and his works, we can come to understand his worldview and how he developed his theological ideas. His development of the Logos Christology can serve as a model for how we can use our own philosophical understanding and language to articulate the Christ event, opening the door to new interpretations and new Christologies that more fully open the person of Christ and the gospel experience to our time. This thesis will explore the world of Justin, the influences on ...


The Russian Orthodox Presence In Australia: The History Of A Church Told From Recently Opened Archives And Previously Unpublished Sources, Michael Alex Protopopov Jan 2005

The Russian Orthodox Presence In Australia: The History Of A Church Told From Recently Opened Archives And Previously Unpublished Sources, Michael Alex Protopopov

Theses

The Russian Orthodox community is a relatively small and little known group in Australian society, however, the history of the Russian presence in Australia goes back to 1809. As the Russian community includes a number of groups, both Christian and non-Christian, it would not be feasible to undertake a complete review of all aspects of the community and consequently, this work limits itself in scope to the Russian Orthodox community. The thesis broadly chronicles the development of the Russian community as it struggles to become a viable partner in Australia's multicultural society. Many never before published documents have been ...


Islam And Modernization, Syed Farid Alatas Jan 2005

Islam And Modernization, Syed Farid Alatas

farid alatas

Modernity refers to the end result of the process of modernization. It is the condition that a society attains after having gone through specific patterns of social and economic change which began in Western Europe in the eighteenth century and which has been spreading throughout the rest of the world. The process of modernization refers to the introduction of modern scientific knowledge to increasing aspects of human life, first of all in Western civilization, then to non-Western societies, by different means and groups, with the final aim of achieving a better life as defined by the society concerned (Alatas, S ...


The Religious Roots Of The American Revolution And The Right To Keep And Bear Arms, David B. Kopel Jan 2005

The Religious Roots Of The American Revolution And The Right To Keep And Bear Arms, David B. Kopel

David B Kopel

This article examines the religious background of the American Revolution. The article details how the particular religious beliefs of the American colonists developed so that the American people eventually came to believe that overthrowing King George and Parliament was a sacred obligation. The religious attitudes which impelled the Americans to armed revolution are an essential component of the American ideology of the right to keep and bear arms.


Junius And Joseph: Presidential Politics And The Assassination Of The First Mormon Prophet, Robert S. Wicks, Fred R. Foister Jan 2005

Junius And Joseph: Presidential Politics And The Assassination Of The First Mormon Prophet, Robert S. Wicks, Fred R. Foister

All USU Press Publications

"Junius and Joseph examines Joseph Smith's nearly forgotten [1844] presidential bid, the events leading up to his assassination on June 27, 1844, and the tangled aftermath of the tragic incident. It... establishes that Joseph Smith's murder, rather than being the deadly outcome of a spontaneous mob uprising, was in fact a carefully planned military-style execution. It is now possible to identify many of the key individuals engaged in planning his assassination as well as those who took part in the assault on Carthage jail. And furthermore, this study presents incontrovertible evidence that the effort to remove the Mormon ...


Menorah Review (No. 63, Summer/Fall, 2005) Jan 2005

Menorah Review (No. 63, Summer/Fall, 2005)

Menorah Review

Affirming Life -- Anti-Semitism, The Holocaust and Christianity -- Beginnings Departures Endings -- Christians and Israel -- Judaism and Superstitions -- Noteworthy Books


Menorah Review (No. 62, Winter/Spring, 2005) Jan 2005

Menorah Review (No. 62, Winter/Spring, 2005)

Menorah Review

Tales to Engage -- The Study of The Holocaust And Its Discontents -- Jews Courageous -- Thinking Heart of A Concentration Camp: The Spiritual Journey of A Young Woman in Holland Under Nazi Occupation -- Great Russian-Jewish Historians -- Children's Merits -- Noteworthy Books


Stalin's Holy War: Religion, Nationalism, And Alliance Politics, 1941–1945 (Book Review), David Brandenberger Jan 2005

Stalin's Holy War: Religion, Nationalism, And Alliance Politics, 1941–1945 (Book Review), David Brandenberger

History Faculty Publications

The Kremlin tête-à-tête and the iconoclastic revival of the Russian Orthodox Church that followed have long intrigued those writing about ideological change in the USSR under Stalin. Many believe that the concessions to the church were an exigency of war designed to increase the party’s ability to rally support from among even the most reluctant members of Soviet society. Others consider the revival of the church to have been part of a more thoroughgoing Russiªcation of the USSR in the mid- to late 1930s that rehabilitated aspects of the Russian national past for mobilizational purposes well before 1941. In ...


Mt. Pleasant Church, Conewago Township, Larry C. Bolin Jan 2005

Mt. Pleasant Church, Conewago Township, Larry C. Bolin

Adams County History

About two miles south of McSherrystown and a similar distance southwest of Hanover, in Conewago Township, lies the small village of Mt. Pleasant. The community developed at and near the intersection of State Route 194, commonly called the Hanover-Littlestown Pike, and Legislative Route 01005, known in days past as the road from McSherrystown to Gitt's Mill and its segment south of the intersection called in recent times Narrow Drive. In the eastern quadrant of the intersection, a church was built in 1878; nearby and adjacent to the crossroads sat a public school, which had been built sometime before 1858 ...