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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Settling The Sunset Land: California And Its Family Farmers, 1850s-1890s , Alexandra Kindell Jan 2006

Settling The Sunset Land: California And Its Family Farmers, 1850s-1890s , Alexandra Kindell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In "Settling the Sunset Land: California and its Family Farmers, 1850s-1890s," I relate the lived experiences of late-nineteenth-century rural California farmers to larger themes and patterns in North American history. The current literature on California's early development has excluded the majority of farmers in the state, concentrating instead on a few "great" men who developed the state's agribusiness interests. My dissertation shifts the focus to the manner in which settlers lived and worked in the first fifty years of statehood. Because so little has been written about rural California, I use a wide range of sources to document ...


Harvest Of Hazards The Farm Safety Movement, 1940-1975 , Derek S. Oden Jan 2006

Harvest Of Hazards The Farm Safety Movement, 1940-1975 , Derek S. Oden

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Between 1940 and 1975, farmers chose to adopt new machines, different farming methods and ever-widening array of chemicals all of which presented unfamiliar hazards. Farm Families had always been exposed risks from hand-tools, domestic animals and inclement weather, however, potential health risks multiplied in the mid twentieth century. Farmers could be injured in a myriad of ways in their attempt to grow crops, raise livestock or even in bringing their commodities to market. An individual's clothing or limbs could become entangled in a machine's unguarded moving parts, a tractor driver might be crushed during an accidental overturn and ...


Industrializing The Corn Belt: Iowa Farmers, Technology And The Midwestern Landscape, 1945-1972 , Joseph Leslie Anderson Jan 2005

Industrializing The Corn Belt: Iowa Farmers, Technology And The Midwestern Landscape, 1945-1972 , Joseph Leslie Anderson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

From 1945 to 1972 Iowa farmers remade their landscape in the image of an industrial model characterized by large-scale production, the substitution of capital for labor, strict cost accounting, specialization, and efficiency. Farm families were leaders in adopting new technology to solve their problems in the post World War II period, a contrast to the pre-war years when experts such as college educated professionals, journalists, and industry leaders advocated the application of industrial ideals to agriculture. Many farmers industrialized production because of a persistent postwar farm labor shortage and a cost-price squeeze in which the prices farmers paid for products ...


Westward Expansion, John Tipton, And The Emergence Of The American Midwest 1800-1839 , Ginette M. Aley Jan 2005

Westward Expansion, John Tipton, And The Emergence Of The American Midwest 1800-1839 , Ginette M. Aley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This represents a social history of the process of westward expansion, the human drama that unfolded in the shaping of the American West of the early republic during the first four decades of the nineteenth century. Here, people and place were connected by a complex set of evolving relationships and contingencies which is evident in the following interplay of voices, perceptions, and accounts. They reveal at once the dynamism of the advancing agricultural frontier northwest of the Ohio River. Admittedly, however, the dominant Euro-American perspective speaks the loudest, yet references to women, Native Americans, and African Americans were made part ...


The Conservation Landscape: Trees And Nature On The Great Plains , Joel Jason Orth Jan 2004

The Conservation Landscape: Trees And Nature On The Great Plains , Joel Jason Orth

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the past two centuries Americans have transformed the Great Plains. Farmers, politicians, scientists, and the state constructed and reconstructed the Plains to support their visions of a sustainable society. They transformed the region into a social and ecological space inextricably linked to the beliefs, agendas, and polices that have reshaped it. The new landscape blurred the social and the natural making these categories impossible to separate. The greatest task soil conservation on the Great Plains faces today is recognizing the hybrid space for what it is: a socially-constructed landscape, a conservation landscape.;This thesis traces the development of a ...


Common Labor, Common Lives: The Social Construction Of Work In Four Communal Societies, 1774-1932 , Peter Andrew Hoehnle Jan 2003

Common Labor, Common Lives: The Social Construction Of Work In Four Communal Societies, 1774-1932 , Peter Andrew Hoehnle

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

During the nineteenth century thousands of Americans flocked to communal societies for economic, social, political and religious reasons. This study examines the ways in which four of the most prominent societies dealt with the issue of labor. The four communities examined are the Amana Society of Iowa, the Oneida Community of Vermont and New York, the Shakers and the Icarian Community of Illinois, Iowa and California.;This study describes the ways in which each society organized its labor, the religious and cultural significance each attached to labor, and the role that a productive economy, oriented toward external markets, played in ...


The Welsh In Iowa , Cherilyn Ann Walley Jan 2003

The Welsh In Iowa , Cherilyn Ann Walley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The Welsh in Iowa is, as the title indicates, a history of the Welsh in Iowa. This dissertation seeks to not only document the Welsh immigrants who lived in Iowa during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but to study the Welsh as a distinct ethnic group in a state known for its ethnic heritage. As told in this study, the story of the Welsh in Iowa begins in Wales, where the Welsh ethnic identity developed in response to English domination. The story continues with an account of factors in emigration from Wales and the three main waves of Welsh ...


Anti-Depression Public Works: Federal-Aid Roadbuilding, 1920-22 , John Oscar Davis Jan 2002

Anti-Depression Public Works: Federal-Aid Roadbuilding, 1920-22 , John Oscar Davis

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Construction of a U.S. highway system for automobile traffic began soon after World War I substantially as extensive anti-depression public works. Construction grew also from public support for roads for autos, prior development of plans and funds, and a brief depression's lower building costs. A new highway program expanded quickly in 1920--22, using federal funds states and counties matched, making participation a state or local option. The expansion's extent and location depended partly on existing roadbuilding and taxing systems; on patterns of geography, settlement, and economics; and on wishes of many governments' officials and constituents. In early ...


Assarting And Governmental Development In Twelfth-Century England: A Study Of The Pipe Roll Evidence Concerning Illegal Land Clearance, 1154-1189 , Kevin Dale Hill Jan 2002

Assarting And Governmental Development In Twelfth-Century England: A Study Of The Pipe Roll Evidence Concerning Illegal Land Clearance, 1154-1189 , Kevin Dale Hill

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

From the time human beings began cultivating crops, the quest for fertile crop land has been a prime objective. Since antiquity, farmers expanded their fields by clearing trees within or along the edges of neighboring forests. Likewise, as the population of Europe grew during the medieval period, the expansion of arable land was an important activity. In England, much of the land was cleared in a piecemeal fashion, via the assarts of both small and large landholders. Land clearance was an economically and environmentally important activity for all levels of society, yet historians, including agricultural historians, have largely ignored the ...


David Ii, King Of Scotland (1329-1371): A Political Biography , Bruce Robert Homann Jan 2001

David Ii, King Of Scotland (1329-1371): A Political Biography , Bruce Robert Homann

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This work examines the life and reign of David II, King of Scotland from 1329 to 1371. Whenever possible, original source material was used. Using charter and chronicle evidence, an itinerary for David II has been developed as well as an accounting of the major points of his reign. A detailed examination of David's life and activities has revealed heretofore unknown aspects of his career, including more frequent trips to Scotland, and an interpretation of his accomplishments and a brief discussion of his sudden death.


Agriculture And Farm Life In The New York City Region, 1820-1870 , Louis P. Tremante Iii Jan 2000

Agriculture And Farm Life In The New York City Region, 1820-1870 , Louis P. Tremante Iii

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Today, northern New Jersey, the lower Hudson Valley and Long Island lie within the most densely populated corridor of land in the United States. In the early nineteenth century small towns, forests, farms and gardens populated this bucolic landscape. In the 1820s New York City's ascendance as the most important port and largest city in the United States changed this situation forever. This dissertation charts that transformation, and focuses on a single aspect: the story of how rapid urban expansion influenced agriculture and farm life in sixteen counties surrounding and including Manhattan Island. Commercial expansion encouraged population growth, first ...


Images Of Women In Eighteenth Century English Chapbooks, From Banal Bickering To Fragile Females , Katherine Barber Fromm Jan 2000

Images Of Women In Eighteenth Century English Chapbooks, From Banal Bickering To Fragile Females , Katherine Barber Fromm

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Eighteenth-century English chapbooks, an under-examined historical source, provide a rich panoply of images presented for popular consumption in cheap, ephemeral books. As part of popular culture, this humble literature changed over the course of the century. Of interest here are the images presented to women during this most significant century of chapbooks. Those of earlier decades retold traditional fairy tales and legends and reprinted jest books. In addition, there is a recurring strand of bickering and humorous exchanges between men and women. Ballads that depicted conjugal and marital relationships often found their way into chapbooks, and other chapbooks borrowed from ...


Federal Indian Policy And The St Francis Mission School On Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota: 1886-1908 , Karla Lee Ekquist Jan 1999

Federal Indian Policy And The St Francis Mission School On Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota: 1886-1908 , Karla Lee Ekquist

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Contrary to popular white opinion of the nineteenth century, the Lakota, and other, native peoples, had a strong and effective culture. Their culture included a well developed system for educating their children and passing on essential knowledge and skills long before contact with whites. By the nineteenth century, white perceptions of the Indians, as possessing an inferior and primitive culture, led to a push for the assimilation of Indian populations into the dominant white culture;The institution seized upon to effect assimilation was the white, or European, style school. The government relied on religious organizations to run these Indian schools ...


Make A Living: Agriculture, Industry And Commerce In Eastern Hebei, 1870-1937 , Fuming Wang Jan 1998

Make A Living: Agriculture, Industry And Commerce In Eastern Hebei, 1870-1937 , Fuming Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The existing scholarship on Chinese agricultural history and peasant economy always portrayed Chinese peasants as cultivators and equated agricultural commercialization as cash crop growing. Based on the field surveys made by the Chinese and Japanese investigators in the 1930s, this dissertation tries to correct the over-simplification of the Chinese peasant economy and describe how the peasants in Eastern Hebei made a living by a combination of agriculture, industry and commerce. By examining the ecosystem and calculating the grain production and consumption, it is found that the returns from farming were not even enough for the peasants own consumption. Eastern Hebei ...


Unattainable Edens: James J Hill, The Great Northern Railway And Changing Notions Of Agricultural Expertise , Claire Margaret Strom Jan 1998

Unattainable Edens: James J Hill, The Great Northern Railway And Changing Notions Of Agricultural Expertise , Claire Margaret Strom

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

During the life of President James J. Hill, the Great Northern Railway launched projects along its line to increase agricultural production and farmer education. Through these development schemes the railroad interacted with university personnel, state and federal governments, booster groups, and farm organizations. The railroad's corporate needs, such as increased agricultural haulage, effected this interaction;The railroad was involved in agricultural development between 1880 and 1920. This included operation of the largest private demonstration farm system in the country, several large-scale western drainage and irrigation schemes, extensive political lobbying on both the state and federal levels, and generous philanthropic ...


The Organized Corn Husking Contests: Conduits Of Industrial Culture In The Rural Midwest, 1922-1941 , Denise Lorraine Dial Jan 1998

The Organized Corn Husking Contests: Conduits Of Industrial Culture In The Rural Midwest, 1922-1941 , Denise Lorraine Dial

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The organized corn husking contests of the 1920s and 1930s facilitated the spread of scientific farming methods and contributed to farmers' increased reliance on scientists, technicians, and agribusiness suppliers. The efforts of agricultural leaders, bolstered by the enthusiastic boosterism of midwestern towns, made the corn husking contests annual composite snapshots of the growing industrialism in agriculture and rural life through this period of time. The associational relationships developed through participation in the corn husking contests encouraged rural residents to adopt the values, beliefs, methods, and technology of industrial culture;The groups that organized and sponsored the corn husking contests and ...


The Home Fronts Of Iowa, 1940-1945 , Lisa Lynn Ossian Jan 1998

The Home Fronts Of Iowa, 1940-1945 , Lisa Lynn Ossian

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Iowa's citizens during World War II became soldiers in their loyalty, energy, and commitment as they fought on one or more of the home fronts. These four home fronts (historic terms) were the farm, production, community, and kitchen fronts. The farm front as part of the Food for Freedom campaign produced corn, soybeans, eggs, pork, beef, milk, and hemp for the Armed Services and the Allies. Iowa's farmers faced labor and machinery shortages yet produced record amounts of crops and animals. This prosperity, however, cost Iowa some of its valuable topsoil and initiated a turn toward a factory ...


At The Agricultural Front: The Women's Land Army During World War Ii , Stephanie Ann Carpenter Jan 1997

At The Agricultural Front: The Women's Land Army During World War Ii , Stephanie Ann Carpenter

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The use of women as farm labor has characterized American agriculture for centuries. However, it is not until the twentieth century and in times of crisis, that the American government sanctioned female farm labor through government programs; first in World War I, with a semi-private, semi-federal program, and then during World War II with the Women's Land Army. Through these programs the federal government legitimized the use of women in the nation's fields, and provided labor during times of national crisis. As part of the World War II defense program, the WLA had been part of the larger ...


Dams Across The Wide Missouri: Water Transportation, The Corps Of Engineers, And Environmental Change Along The Missouri Valley, 1803-1993 , Robert Kelley Schneiders Jan 1997

Dams Across The Wide Missouri: Water Transportation, The Corps Of Engineers, And Environmental Change Along The Missouri Valley, 1803-1993 , Robert Kelley Schneiders

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Dams across the wide Missouri examines the political origins of Missouri River development plans. Rather than describe only the actions of the human players in the political arena, this study argues that the Missouri River had a tremendous effect on the human formulation and implementation of development schemes. Dams across the wide Missouri details the environmental changes that resulted from the construction of the barge channel below Sioux City, and to a lesser degree the consequences of dam and reservoir construction in Montana and the Dakotas;In addition, this study argues that neither federal elites nor grassroots organizations dictated the ...


An Elusive Balance: The Small Community In Mass Society, 1940-1960 , Philip Jeffrey Nelson Jan 1996

An Elusive Balance: The Small Community In Mass Society, 1940-1960 , Philip Jeffrey Nelson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the 1920s and 1930s, leading commentators on American culture began to express deep concern over the rate and direction of social change. As the urban-industrial order came to dominate the cultural landscape, many schools of thought arose in opposition. Some groups constituting this cultural minority position focused on what they referred to as the "small community," as an alternative to the dominant cultural paradigm. The small community, usually in the form of the small town, had traditionally been the leading type of settlement in America. During the first third of the twentieth century, small communitarians tried to resist the ...


"A Green And Permanent Land": Agriculture In The Age Of Ecology, 1935-1985 , Randal Scott Beeman Jan 1995

"A Green And Permanent Land": Agriculture In The Age Of Ecology, 1935-1985 , Randal Scott Beeman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is an intellectual history that traces the influence of ecological thought on the theory, practice, and policy of agriculture in the United States since the 1930s. Ecology served as both a scientific and ethical guide for two broad social movements analyzed in this dissertation. The "permanent agriculture" movement of the 1930s through the 1950s emerged from concerns over the destruction of the soil, and the desire to harmonize human technological endeavors with the interconnected biological and social universes in which humans functioned. Champions of permanent agriculture effectively promoted an ideology devoted to long-term land use planning, comprehensive soil conservation ...


The Darker Side Of Dixie: Southern Music And The Seamier Side Of The Rural South , Cecil Kirk Hutson Jan 1995

The Darker Side Of Dixie: Southern Music And The Seamier Side Of The Rural South , Cecil Kirk Hutson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores an aspect of southern culture that has heretofore been ignored. Music is a major force in American life, and this mode of communication has reflected southern society as much as any social institution. In order for music to reflect southern culture it must speak the language of the region, exhibit regional cultural attributes, and accept the distinctive characteristics of the rural South. By so doing, music becomes culturally accepted and therefore, it reinforces the messages, the opinions, and the ideas of southern society. This dissertation examines the rural southern cultural themes utilized in southern music since the ...


"Enlightened Selfishness": Montana's Sun River Project , Judith Kay Fabry Jan 1993

"Enlightened Selfishness": Montana's Sun River Project , Judith Kay Fabry

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the economic and social development of the Fort Shaw division of the Sun River project, a federal reclamation project in central Montana. From 1910 through 1940, the period of this study, the settlers of the Fort Shaw division struggled to overcome such handicaps as poor markets, poor soil, and the constant need for cash to meet annual costs associated with the irrigation system. Unable to find a satisfactory high-return specialty crop to raise on their irrigated land, the farmers integrated their operations into the grain-growing and livestock-feeding economy that had existed prior to the establishment of the ...


"We Want Our Money Back!": The Story Of The National Farmers Process Tax Recovery Association , Jean Choate Jan 1992

"We Want Our Money Back!": The Story Of The National Farmers Process Tax Recovery Association , Jean Choate

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A small group of farmers met in Des Moines, Iowa, in March of 1936 to form the National Farmers Process Tax Recovery Association. They were attempting to recover for the farmers the hog processing tax of the Agricultural Adjustment Act which had just been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. The NFPTRA leaders claimed that the meat packers had passed the processing taxes on to the farmers through paying lower prices for their hogs. Milo Reno, a noted leader of the Iowa Farmers Union and president of the Farm Holiday movement, suggested the formation of the group and recruited some ...


Resisting The Wave: Rural Iowa's War Against Crime, 1920-1941 , Douglas Michael Wertsch Jan 1992

Resisting The Wave: Rural Iowa's War Against Crime, 1920-1941 , Douglas Michael Wertsch

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the years between the world wars Iowa's rural law enforcement officers shared the majority of their countrymen's belief that they faced the threat of an engulfing "crime wave" and recast themselves from sedate peace keepers into a kind of front line soldiers locked into a mortal "war against crime" to resist the wave. The wave was a myth. With the exception of the mass disregard of the nation's prohibition laws and the dramatic but very rare occurrence of bank holdups, crime, as jail records of the period show, was perpetrated by young, local men from the ...


Legislators And Politicians: Iowa's Women Lawmakers , Suzanne O'Dea Schenken Jan 1992

Legislators And Politicians: Iowa's Women Lawmakers , Suzanne O'Dea Schenken

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Seventy-seven women have served in the Iowa General Assembly since the election of the first woman in 1928. Iowa's women legislators represent a broad range of political beliefs, wealth, education, and personal backgrounds. The diversity among them extends to their political styles and the issues they supported and opposed.;Before their candidacies these lawmakers generally lived traditional women's lives and participated in their communities' activities and organizations. They often became candidates to fill their parties' tickets but some ran because they believed that they had specific contributions to make to the formulation of state policy.;Through the issues ...


The Emergence Of Federal Assistance Programs For Migrant And Seasonal Farmworkers In Post-World War Ii America , Anne B. W. Effland Jan 1991

The Emergence Of Federal Assistance Programs For Migrant And Seasonal Farmworkers In Post-World War Ii America , Anne B. W. Effland

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study traces the political developments out of which federal assistance programs for migrant and seasonal farmworkers emerged in post-World War II America. These programs arose slowly over a period of three decades, built on the experience of the depression and war years and sustained through the 1950s by persistent interest groups and sympathetic individuals within government. During those decades, the political strength of both opposing and supporting forces rose and fell with the rise and fall of public sympathy for the poverty of farmworkers. Yet throughout the period, particularly in the 1950s when assistance to farmworkers foundered in the ...


Black Farm Families In The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta: A Study Of The Brooks Farm Community, 1920-1970 , Valerie Grim Jan 1990

Black Farm Families In The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta: A Study Of The Brooks Farm Community, 1920-1970 , Valerie Grim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is a study of a black farm community called Brooks Farm. The research was designed to examine the total experience of Brooks Farm residents. The Brooks Farm community is located in Drew, Mississippi, a small rural town in the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta. This study covers a period of fifty years, 1920-1970, in order to show changes that occurred in the community. The Brooks Farm community was formerly established as a plantation during the 1920s. It became the only plantation in the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta that evolved into a community of black landowners during the 1940s. Brooks Farm was created by a ...